Preparatory Studies: Methodologies

Preparatory Study for Future National Survey in Japan:
Tool Development of the "Mothers' Voices Japan" Questionnaire: A Japanese version of the U.S. "Listening to MothersR" questionnaires
2008-2011
  1. Literature Review
  2. Translations of questionnaires: Parallel committee approach by three translators (Ms. Kumie Endo, Dr. Izumi Chihara, and PI) and a translation reviewer (Dr. Daisuke Onuki).
  3. Evaluation by expert panels:A total number of 20 experts reviewed the translated questionnaire and evaluated it for content validity. The developers of the original LtM (Dr. Sakala and Dr. DeClercq) were consulted. 
  4. Pretesting:Using a c
    ognitive interviewing technique, the translated questionnaires were refined.
 Information About Preparatory Studies:
          Kishi R, McElmurry BJ, Vonderheid S, Altfeld S, McFarlin B, Tashiro J. Japanese Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Listening to Mothers II Questionnaire. J Perinat Educ. 2011 Winter;20(1): 14-27.
Kishi R, McElmurry BJ, Vonderheid S, Altfeld S, McFarlin B, Tashiro J. Japanese Women's Experiences from Pregnancy Through Early Postpartum Period. Health Care Women Int. 2010 Dec;32(1): 57-71.
Kishi R. Japanese Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the U.S. Listening to Mothers II Questionnaire. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Illinois at Chicago. 2009.
Kishi R. Listening to women's childbirth experiences. Child Research Net. 2009.


Pretesting Study
April 2009 to March 2011

Methods

I. Research Design
  1. Methodological design (tool development)
  2. Two independent surveys (not longitudinal but cross-sectional)
  3. Descriptive design (no intervention, retrospective, mixed method)

II. Inclusion Criteria
Pretest Survey A: Mothers' Voices From Pregnancy, Childbirth, Through 1 Month Postpartum
 Women who gave birth in medical institutions (clinics/hospital) in Japan within the past one year
 Inclusion criteria: Within one year after birth, 20-45 years old, singleton baby, live birth, fluency in the Japanese language, without diagnosis of psychiatric disease within past five years, willingness to participate in the study.
Pretest Survey B: Mothers' Voices After Birth, Child Care, and Employment
 Women who gave birth in medical institutions (clinics/hospitals) in Japan within the past two years
  
Inclusion criteria: Within two years after birth, 20-45 years old, singleton baby, live birth, fluency in the Japanese language, without diagnosis of psychiatric disease within past five years, willingness to participate in the study.

III. Data Collection
  1. Recruitment of participants at postpartum visit (one month after birth for Pretest Survey A, various classes for new mothers for Pretest Survey B)
  2. Screening of possible participants
  3. Written informed consent
  4. Self-report questionnaire with both open and closed questions
  5. Phone interviews with some of the participants
  6. Incentives given as a token of appreciation

IV. Ethical Considerations
   The research protocol was reviewed and approved by IRBs in Konan Women's University and the data collection sites.
  • Maximizing confidentiality
  • Ensuring voluntary participation

V. Data Analysis
  • Tool development (cognitive psychology)
  • Quantitative analysis (SPSS 18.0. Descriptive and inferential analyses)
  • Qualitative analysis (NVivo 8. Content analysis)

VI. Dissemination


Results (Methodology)

VII. Sample Size & Response Rates
  • Pretest Survey A: Mothers' Voices From Pregnancy, Childbirth, Through 1 Month Postpartum
Sample size: 220 women 
Response rate: 58.6% (Excluding 15 women with convenience sampling*)
  • Pretest Survey B: Mothers' Voices After Birth, Child Care, and Employment
Sample size: 130 women
Response rate:
69% (Excluding 19 women with convenience sampling*)

Note*: In the convenience sampling, it was emphasized that all accessible and possibly eligible women were contacted by the recruiters at all data collection sites. 


VIII. Data Collection Periods
  • Pretest Survey A: Mothers' Voices From Pregnancy, Childbirth, Through 1 Month Postpartum
October 2010 - March 2011
  • Pretest Survey B: Mothers' Voices Regarding Postpartum, Childcare, and Employment
January 2011 - March 2011


IX. Data Collection Sites
  • Pretest Survey A: Mothers' Voices From Pregnancy, Childbirth, Through 1 Month Postpartum
  • Pretest Survey B: Mothers' Voices Regarding Postpartum, Childcare, and Employment


X. Women's Postpartum Months at Time of Study Participation

Pretest Survey A: Mothers' Voices From Pregnancy, Childbirth, Through 1 Month Postpartum

Pretest Survey B: Mothers' Voices Regarding Postpartum, Childcare, and Employment