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International Journal of Agriculture

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Parthenium hysterophorus L. is an Invasive Alien Species (IAS) that poses threat to agricultural production. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness of the effect of parthenium weed on agricultural production and ways through which parthenium is controlled in Nyando division. The research was carried by interviewing 120 farm household heads using purposive sampling technique. This study established that majority of the respondents were unaware that parthenium interfered with milk production (95.0 %), livestock health (78.4 %) and crop yield (53.3 %). On the other hand, 63.3 % respondents were aware that parthenium lowered pasture availability. Physical methods (98.3 %) were majorly used to control parthenium as compared to chemical (1.7 %). This study established that, the ill-effects of parthenium weed on agricultural production were not directly associated to parthenium invasion. Therefore this research recommends that awareness creation campaigns on the adverse effects of parthenium weed on agricultural production and its control should be undertaken urgently. Similarly, integrated control methods should be adopted for effective management of parthenium weed.

Exposure of Dry Seeds to Sunlight or Red light Abolish Dormancy of the Seeds of Salt Tolerant Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars and Regulation of Gene Expression

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Yasmin Begum, Sayantani Sihi, Dibyendu Narayan Sengupta*

Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute 93/1 Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009, West Bengal, India

Abbreviations: ABA: Abscisic acid, GA: Gibberellin, mRNAs: messenger RNA, SAPK5: Serine/threonine-protein kinase 5, SAMDC: S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, DREBP: dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) proteins, OSBZ8: Oryza sativa bZIP class of protein 8 

Keywords: Indica rice cultivars, salt sensitive, salt tolerant, dormancy, seeds, long lived transcripts, gene expression

Citation: Begum Y., Sihi S., Sengupta D.N.,  2014. Exposure of Dry Seeds to Sunlight or Red light Abolish Dormancy of the Seeds of Salt Tolerant Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars and Regulation of Gene Expression. International Journal of Agriculture. Photon 125, 311-331.

Photon Ignitor: ISJN77582463D679528042014

Graphical Abstract: Dormancy in rice seeds of salt-tolerant cultivars like Pokkali and Nonabokra and release from dormancy by sun-drying. Freshly harvested seeds of IR-29, IR-64 (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali, Nonabokra (salt-tolerant) rice cultivars, without (1A) or after sun-drying (1B) for 4 d (each day for 6 h), were tested for germination in 370 C incubator. Seeds were checked every day and recorded. Treatments were replicated three times with 100 seeds in each treatment. Germination percentage was calculated to prepare the graph. Data are means ± SE of three replicates



Freshly harvested seeds of four indica rice(Oryza sativa L.) cultivars IR-29, IR-64 (salt-sensitive) and Pokkali,Nonabokra (salt-tolerant), were sun-dried for four days (6 h light and 18 hdark). While the germination rate of the dark and sunlight treated seeds ofIR-29 and IR-64 was 100 % within four days in dark, it was only 10-20 %germination of the Pokkali and Nonabokra seeds. Exposure to sunlight enhancesseed germination of both Pokkali and Nonabokra to 100 %, thus abolish dormancy.Fresh seeds were exposed to blue or red or red followed by far-red light andgermination was tested. The red light promotes germination to 100 %, redfollowed by far-red light or blue light treatment showed 10-20 % germination,suggesting the role of phytochrome involvement in breaking dormancy of Pokkaliand Nonabokra. Using the total RNA prepared from dry seeds and sunlight treatedseeds of all four cultivars the presence of long-lived transcripts for thegenes of SAPK5, SAMDC1, SAMDC2, DREB1, DREBP2, OSBZ8 were detected in the seedsof all four cultivars by RT-PCR. Total RNA prepared from the plumules of4-d-old germinated seedlings and RTPCR was done. Expression of all the abovegenes and DREBP1 was detected but OSBZ8 and OSBZ45 genes were not expressed inplumule of any cultivars. Thus the results suggest that exposure to sunlight orred light abolishes the dormancy of the seeds for salt-tolerant rice cultivarsand seeds store the long-lived transcripts.

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