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    Medical Negligence

     
                     

    Medical Negligence Legal Action  Claiming Compensation

    Seamus Monaghan & Co, Solicitors explain your legal rights if you have been injured as a result of medical treatment and steps involved in seeking compensation through a legal ‘Clinical Negligence’ action.

    What is ‘clinical negligence’?

    If you have suffered an injury as a result of medical treatment, this may be referred to as a ‘medical accident’, ‘adverse incident’, or ‘patient safety incident’. This does not mean that the treatment was necessarily ‘negligent’. Whilst better quality of care or safety measures could have prevented your injury, it may be that the incident itself could not have been avoided. The law only provides for you to recover compensation if it can be shown ‘on the balance of probability’ that your treatment was carried out negligently and that this directly caused your injury. In legal jargon these tests are called ‘liability’ and ‘causation’. They are difficult criteria to fulfill and require expert opinion from relevant health professionals to establish whether your claim will succeed.

    Some examples of clinical negligence may include:

    • Failing to diagnose your condition or making the wrong diagnosis.
    • Making a mistake during a procedure or operation.
    • Giving the wrong drug.
    • Failing to obtain consent to treatment.
    • Failing to warn about the risks of a particular treatment.

    What action can I take if I suspect I have been injured by negligent treatment?

    The very least you should be able to expect is a full explanation of what has gone on, an apology where appropriate, and assurances that any problems that might effect other patients have been addressed. Sometimes this is achieved informally. The use of formal complaints procedures provide a useful way of eliciting further information which may also inform any decision as to what to do next. It may be that you are able to seek compensation by taking legal action if it appears there is clinical negligence involved. However, the legal process is only concerned with establishing what compensation, if any, you should be entitled to. We can explain the compalints process with you in further detail.

    The decision to take legal action should not be taken lightly. It can be costly, lengthy and very stressful to the individual. You will be required to go over what happened to you many times which you may find traumatic and upsetting. As a clinical negligence claim is nearly always complicated, it is advisable for you to engage the services of a specialist clinical negligence solicitor. Seamus Monaghan & Co, Solicitors have extensive experience deailing with clinical negligence claims and we have a panel of medical experts and we can help choose the right medical experts for your case and monitor progress.

    Limitation (Time Limits)

    You must commence your legal claim within two years from when the incident occurred or when you first realised you had suffered an injury. It is advisable to take specialist advice as soon as possible. Do not leave it to within a year of limitation applying if at all possible.

    In the case of children, the two year limit does not apply until their eighteenth birthday, in other words they have until they are twenty before commencing a legal claim.

    If the claim involves a patient who is not running their own affairs because of a mental disability, the two year does not apply until (and unless) they get over their disability.

    In both of these cases a parent or other person close to them can make a claim on their behalf (acting as their ‘litigation friend’)

    Instructing a Solicitor

    Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors will need to make an assessment of your case to decide if you have a strong enough case for us to take on. We will need as much information as possible to do this, you can provide this by keeping a record of everything that is relevant to your treatment and any correspondence you may have if you have been through the complaints procedure. Also, keep a record of any costs or loss of earnings you may have incurred. We will decide if your case has a reasonable chance of success and should be able to give you an idea how much your case may be worth.

    How do I prove that I have grounds for a legal claim?

    Clinical negligence claims are often complex cases, for you to be successful in your legal claim there are two strands of the case, negligence and causation, and you must succeed in both:

    • Negligence: that the care you received fell below medically acceptable standards (note: care which is less than best practice may still be ‘acceptable’ in the legal definition and not ‘negligent’), and
    • Causation: The breach of duty or negligence of the clinician directly resulted in an injury to you.

    As stated you must succeed on both, it is not enough that you succeed in proving that someone did something wrong when treating you, you must also prove you suffered an injury as a result of that incident.

    As part of the initial investigations, Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors will require a supportive opinion from an independent medical expert on your case. They will base their opinion on:

    • your medical records
    • your statement about what has happened to you
    • any other documents supporting your case

    If Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors cannot obtain a supportive report from an independent expert, then your case will not succeed.

    Following an assessment of your case Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors will be able to give you a rough idea about the level of compensation you might expect if your case is successful.  We will take into account certain social security benefits you get because of your injury (such as Income Support) because this could affect how much compensation you will get.

    You can claim compensation for any injuries or losses suffered which were a direct result of the negligent treatment you received. This compensation can include:

    • Pain and suffering
    • Ongoing treatment
    • If you cannot carry out certain activities or hobbies
    • Loss of earnings
    • The cost of any extra care or equipment you may require
    • The cost of adapting your home
    • Psychiatric or psychological injury

    What if I am pursuing a claim in relation to my loved one who has died as a result of clinical negligence?

    If the case relates to someone who has died because of clinical negligence, you can claim:

    ‘Bereavement damages’ of €30,000 if your husband or wife, or your child if they were under 18, died;

    Loss of dependency if you were financially dependent on the person who died; or

    A claim on behalf of a deceased patient’s estate.

    Do clinical negligence cases always end up in court?

    Clinical negligence claims rarely end up with a trial in court. Many cases are settled after all the investigations are completed and before legal proceedings are issued, and the majority before a trial commences.

    Dunne -v- National Maternity Hospital and Jackson (1989 IRP90)

    The Supreme Court’s Judgment summarised and clarified the legal principles which the Courts should adopt in all cases of medical malpractice and since then they have become known as the “six Dunne principles” and are as follows:


    1.       The true test for establishing negligence in diagnosis or treatment on the part of a medical practitioner is whether he has been proved to be guilty of such failure as no medical practitioner of equal specialist or general status and skill would be guilty of if acting with ordinary care.

     

    2.       If the allegation of negligence against the medical practitioner is based on proof that he has deviated from a general and approved practice, that will not establish negligence unless it is also proved that the course he did take was one which no medical practitioner of like specialisation and skill would have followed had he been taking the ordinary care required from a person of his qualification.

     

    3.       If a medical practitioner charged with negligence defends his conduct by establishing that he followed a practice which was general, and which was approved of by his colleagues of similar specialisation and skill, he cannot escape liability if in reply the Plaintiff establishes that such practice has inherent defects which ought to be obvious to any person given the matter due consideration.

     

    4.       An honest difference of opinion between doctors as to which is the better of the two ways of treating a patient does not provide any ground for leaving a question to the jury as to whether a person who has followed one course rather than the other has been negligent.

     

    5.       It is not for a jury (or for a Judge) to decide which of two alternative courses of treatment is in their (or his) opinion preferable. But their (or his) function is merely to decide whether the course of treatment followed, on the evidence, complied with the carful conduct of a medical practitioner of like specialisation and skill that professed by the Defendant.

     

    6.       If there is an issue of fact, the determination of which is necessary for the decision as to whether a particular medical practice is or is not general or approved within the meaning of these principles, that issue must in a trial held with a jury be left to the determination of the jury.

    a.     “General and approved practice” need not be universal, but must be approved of and adhered to by a substantial number of reputable practitioners holding the relevant specialist or general qualifications,

     

    b.    Though treatment only is referred in some of these statements of principle, they must apply in identical fashion to questions of diagnosis.

    Disclosure and informed consent

    1. There is a clear obligation on a medical practitioner carrying out or arranging for the carrying out of an operation, to inform the patient of any possible harmful consequence arising from the operation, so as to permit the patient to give an informed consent to subject himself to the operation concerned. The extent of this obligation must as a matter of common sense vary with what might be described as the elective nature of the surgery concerned.

    2. The standard of care to be exercised by a medical practitioner in the giving of the warning of the consequences of proposed surgical procedures is not, in principle any different from the standard of care to be exercised by medical practitioners in the giving of treatment or advice.

    3. Where there is a question of elective surgery which is not essential to health or bodily well being, if there is a risk - however exceptional or remote - of grave consequences involving severe pain stretching for an appreciable time into the future and involving the possibility of further operative procedures, the exercise of the duty of care are owed by the medical practitioner requires that such possible consequences should be explained in the clearest language to the Plaintiff.

    What are my options for funding my legal claim?

    Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors will discuss the best way to fund your legal claim. There are a number of options which may be available to you:

    • Private Funding You may be able to fund the legal claim yourself; your solicitor will be able to advise you about the cost of bringing a claim.
    • Public Funding (‘Legal Aid’) You may be eligible for public funding if you are on a low income. You will be assessed for public funding by the Community Legal Service on a number of criteria. This involves having your assets and income assessed and it will have to be shown that you are experiencing severe financial hardship in order to qualify for public funding. The merits of your case will also be assessed, you must show that your case will have a reasonable chance of success and finally if the compensation you are likely to receive is less than €10,000 you may not be able to justify the cost of pursuing a legal claim. A clinical negligence case can be very expensive to investigate.
    • Trade Union Help If you are a member of a trade union you may be eligible for help with the costs of a legal claim from them.
    • Legal Expenses Insurance Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors might ask you about insurance policies you have, as it is possible that they might include legal expenses cover which could be used to finance a clinical negligence claim. Often there is a set limit on the legal costs and you may be expected to instruct Seamus Monaghan & Co on the insurers’ own list. However, you should always ask to be referred to a clinical negligence specialist solicitor.
    • Conditional Fee Agreements (’No-Win-No-Fee’) These agreements are often referred to as ‘no-win no-fee’ agreements and mean that you won’t have to pay Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitor’s fees if you don’t win the case. Because of the complexity of a clinical negligence case your Seamus Monaghan & Co may require you to pay for some initial investigations to assess how strong your case is before entering into an agreement. This may cost several thousand euros, although different firms have different arrangements. Some have arrangements which mean you do not have to pay anything provided they have assessed your case as being likely to succeed. You may also be advised to take out insurance (‘after-the-event’ insurance) to protect you from the possibility of having to pay the other sides costs if you should lose the case. These are complex agreements and Seamus Monaghan & Co, solicitors will advise you on this.

     

    EXAMPLES of 

    medical malpractice cases:

    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of breast cancer)
    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer)
    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of colon cancer)
    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of lung cancer)
    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of oral cancer)
    • Cancer (regarding the delayed diagnosis of prostate cancer)
    • Critical Care negligence (regarding cerebral edema and brain injury)
    • Dentistry (regarding delayed diagnosis of tongue cancer)
    • Emergency Room (regarding signs of evolving stroke with resulting brain injury and disability)
    • Emergency Room (regarding signs of evolving heart attack with resulting death)
    • Emergency Room (regarding delayed diagnosis of appendicitis with resulting ruptured appendix and peritonitis)
    • Emergency Room and Hospital Physicians (regarding failure to timely recognize and urgently treat compartment syndrome with resulting significant leg muscle death and permanent injury)
    • General Surgeon negligence (regarding gall bladder surgery with resulting bile duct injury)
    • General Surgeon negligence (regarding colon resection with resulting permanent colostomy)
    • General Surgeon negligence (regarding flesh eating bacterial wound infection with resulting extensive hospitalization and scarring)
    • Gynecology Surgeon negligence (regarding laparoscopy surgery for ovarian cyst removal with resulting bowel injury and peritonitis)
    • General Surgeon negligence (regarding laparoscopy hernia repair with femoral nerve damage)
    • Hospital negligence (causing and negligent treatment of pressure sores)
    • Hospital negligence (delayed diagnosis of evolving brain stem stroke and cerebral edema)
    • Internal Medicine negligence (regarding prostate screening with resulting shortened life expectancy)
    • Internal Medicine negligence (regarding signs of evolving stroke with resulting brain injury and disability)
    • Internal Medicine negligence (regarding general physicals with resulting delayed treatment of sarcoma)
    • Labor and Delivery Nurse negligence (regarding fetal monitor strips with resulting infant birth asphyxia and cerebral palsy)
    • Laboratory negligence (regarding pap smears with resulting delayed diagnosis of cervical cancer)
    • Neurology (regarding failure to diagnose pseudo tumor cerebri)
    • Neurosurgeon negligence (regarding brain tumor with resulting crippling brain injury and death)
    • Neurosurgery negligence (regarding deep brain stimulation surgery and brain injury)
    • Neurosurgery negligence (regarding cervical discotomy and spinal cord injury)
    • Neurosurgery negligence (regarding spinal meningitis infection from ventricular catheter)
    • Nursing negligence (regarding pressure sores with resulting multiple surgeries and permanent disability or death)
    • Nursing Home Negligence (regarding delayed diagnosis of c-diff infection and dehydration leading to death)
    • Obstetrician negligence (regarding post due date pregnancy and fetal well being with resulting still birth)
    • Obstetrician negligence (regarding fetal distress and delayed c-section with resulting infant birth asphyxia cerebral palsy)
    • Obstetrician negligence (regarding shoulder dystocia with resulting brachial plexus/Erbs palsy injury)
    • Obstetrician negligence (regarding placenta accreta & uncontrolled bleeding at delivery with resulting neurological injury to mother)
    • Obstetrician negligence (regarding prolonged labor with resulting ruptured uterus and hypoxic ischemic brain injury to baby and cerebral palsy)
    • Obstetrical negligence (regarding the negligent use of cytotec)
    • Obstetrician / pediatric negligence (regarding Group B Strep infections intrauterine and at birth or developing shortly after birth and resulting in either infant death or permanent brain injury)
    • Pediatric negligence (regarding sickle cell crisis with resulting death)
    • Pediatric neurology negligence (regarding infant hydrocephalus with resulting hypoxic ischemic brain injury and cerebral palsy)
    • Plastic Surgeon negligence (regarding abdominoplasty (tummy tuck) surgery with resulting multiple corrective surgeries and permanent scarring)
    • Podiatry negligence (regarding podiatry surgery with resulting reflex sympathetic dystrophy)
    • Podiatry negligence (regarding podiatry surgery with resulting osteomyelitis (bone infection), extended hospitalizations and permanent disability)
    • Podiatry negligence (regarding podiatry surgery with resulting permanent crippling foot pain)
    • Radiology negligence (regarding chest films with resulting delayed treatment of lung cancer and death)
    • Radiology negligence (regarding gastrointestinal films with resulting delayed treatment of colon cancer/stomach cancer and death)
    • Radiology negligence (regarding chest films with resulting delayed treatment of malignant thymus cancer and shortened life expectancy)

    Clinical negligence glossary:

    A&E: Accident and Emergency, the department in UK hospitals that deals with emergency medical cases.

    Abortion: Most commonly, the purposeful removal or expulsion of a foetus from the uterus.

    Accidental nerve damage: The accidental damage of essential nerves during a medical procedure. Examples of situations that may result in accidental damage include: accidental injection of certain drugs, bleeding from a punctured artery or traction during manipulation of the back or neck.

    Action Against Medical Accidents (AvMA):  The independent charity responsible for promoting improvements in patient safety and justice for people who have been adversely affected by a medical accident.

    Allergies: A hypersensitivity to certain drugs, foods or any other environmental substance. Failure to confirm whether a patient has any allergies to commonly prescribed drugs may result in a medical accident.

    Amenorrhoea: The lack of a menstrual period in women of reproductive age.

    Antenatal: Antenatal literally means ‘before birth’, and is used to refer to the care a pregnant mother receives in the run up to birth.

    Anterior Cruciate Ligament: One of the four major ligaments in the human knee. The ACL is integral to full and proper movement of the knee; injuries can therefore be extremely debilitating.

    Basal cell carcinoma (or rodent ulcer):  A slow-growing, skin based tumour. The consequences of a missed or a misdiagnosis can be grave.

    Benign: In a clinical negligence context, benign refers to a tumour which lacks the ability to metastasize. This means the tumour cannot spread to new sites in the body.  

    Birth injury: Can relate to an injury caused to the baby or mother during the birthing process. Injuries suffered at birth can have long term consequences for both the child and the mother.

    Brain injury: damage to the brain caused by the negligence of a medical professional.

    Caesarean section: The surgical delivery of a baby. Surgeons make one or more incisions through a mother's abdomen and uterus in order to deliver the baby.

    Carpal tunnel syndrome: The result of nerve entrapment in the wrist; symptoms include intermittent numbness of the thumb, index, long and radial half of the ring finger, and if not treated can lead to permanent numbness and muscular atrophy.

    Cauda Equina: A bundle of nerves located in the spinal column. Damage to the Cauda Equina nerves can result in Cauda Equina Syndrome.

    Cauda Equina Syndrome: a serious neurologic condition; sufferers experience acute loss of function of the lumbar plexus. Patients suffering from Cauda Equina Syndrome may require treatment for lower limb dysfunction and obesity.

    Cerebral Artery Aneurysm: A weakness in the wall of an artery that causes the dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel. Cerebral aneurysms can be extremely difficult to diagnose and, in the most severe cases, can cause coma when they rupture.

    Cerebral Palsy: Cerebral Palsy is an umbrella term for a range of conditions which affect movement, posture and coordination. It is caused by damage to the brain during or immediately after childbirth.  

    Cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF): A clear bodily fluid, the primary function of which is to act as protection for the brain inside the skull. 

    Coroner: A government-appointed official responsible for confirming and certifying deaths and, in some instances, conducting investigations into the circumstances surrounding a death.

    Coroner’s inquest: When a coroner is tasked with investigating the circumstances surrounding a death, a coroner’s inquest is launched. The inquest will look into who has died, and how, when and where the death occurred.

    Deep vein thrombosis: A blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs. The consequences of misdiagnosis can be severe, with the worst possible outcome a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism.

    Diagnosis: The process of observing symptoms and identifying the nature of an illness.

    Diagnostic blood tests: Blood tests, carried out during the diagnostic process.

    Dispensing errors: Providing a patient with the incorrect medication.

    Drug interactions: A situation in which more than one drug has been administered and the two medications affect each other in a positive or negative way. Sometimes, such interactions are the aim of the medical professional however, when they occur by accident, they can have devastating repercussions for the patient.

    Drug Side Effects:  The unpleasant and debilitating results of taking a particular medication which occur in addition to the drug’s desired effect.

    Ectopic pregnancy: a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo implants outside the uterine cavity.  As a rule, ectopic pregnancies are not viable and can have very serious repercussions for the mother if not identified and treated immediately.

    Epilepsy: The name for a diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterised by seizures

    Erb’s Palsy: Damage to the upper group of nerves in the arm, resulting in paralysis.

    Foetal abnormalities: A catch-all term for any unusual aspects of a foetus’s development; for example, severe brain damage.

    Foetal Abnormality Screening: The process of screening unborn foetuses for any warning signs of future physical or mental defects.

    Gallstones: The build up of bile components in the gall bladder, forming a small ‘stone’. Once formed, gallstones may pass into other areas of the body or remain in the gall bladder, causing medical complications.  

    Gastric band surgery: An operation which reduces the size of the stomach, meaning the patient can only eat small meals. The aim of the surgery is weight loss.

    General Practice: GPs are on the front line of medicine in the UK, providing a complete spectrum of care within the local community and dealing with problems that often combine physical, psychological and social components.

    Gentamicin toxicity: A severe reaction to Gentamicin, an antibiotic used to treat many types of bacterial infections. Symptoms can include difficulty balancing and ringing in the ears.

    Glaucoma: An eye disease which involves damage to the optic nerve. If left untreated, Glaucoma can permanently damage a patient’s vision.

    Gynaecology: the medical practice that deals with the health of the female reproductive system.

    Hiatus hernia: The protrusion of the upper part of the stomach into the chest cavity, caused by a tear in the diaphragm. Hiatus hernias are notoriously hard to diagnose.

    Hip dysplasia: A misalignment of the hip joint; hip dysplasia may be a birth defect, or can be caused by outside influences such as overly restrictive baby seats.

    Hip-Slipped Upper Femoral Epiphysis (SUFE):  A separation of the ball of the hip joint from the thigh bone (femur) at the upper growing end (growth plate) of the bone. A relatively rare condition, more common in obese children.

    Intra-uterine contraceptive (IUCD): Any female contraceptive device that is placed in the uterus; such devices are typically long-lasting, yet reversible.

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A common disorder of the gut, characterised by abdominal pain, a bloated feeling, diarrhoea or constipation. There is currently no cure however treatments are available to ease the symptoms. 

    IVF: In Vitro Fertilisation is the process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside of the body.

    IVF mix ups: An administrative mix up during the In Vitro Fertilisation process, which often leads to the wrong sperm and egg being combined, leaving the parents with children fathered or mothered by a parent outside their relationship.

    Kernicterus Bilirubinaemia: A form of brain damage caused by excessive jaundice in babies.

    Laparoscope: An instrument which allows surgeons to see inside the abdomen and pelvis, without having to perform invasive surgery.

    Lasik Eye Surgery: Commonly referred to as Laser Eye Surgery, Lasik Eye Surgery is a type of refractive surgery performed to correct sight problems, such as long and short sightedness.

    Liposuction: A type of cosmetic surgery, the aim of which is to remove fat from many different sites on the human body, such as the abdomen, thighs and buttocks.

    Lumbar laminectomy: A surgical procedure to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves.

    Malignant: In medicine, typically refers to a tumour which demonstrates uncontrolled growth, is cancerous, invasive, or metastatic.

    Medical / Clinical Negligence: A lack of appropriate care on the part of a medical, nursing or midwifery professional, which leads to an injury or illness in a patient.

    Meningitis: Inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Untreated, bacterial meningitis is almost always fatal.

    Metastatic: the spread of a disease from one organ or area of the body to another non-adjacent organ or area.

    Midwife: The branch of the healthcare profession responsible for caring for women during childbirth and immediately after.

    Misdiagnosis: The incorrect identification of a disease, injury or illness by a doctor or healthcare professional.

    Monitoring errors: Any error in the monitoring of a patient that leads to a worsening of their condition.

    MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium responsible for several infections in humans which are notoriously difficult to treat. Especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, schools, and nursing homes.

    Neonatal nursing: The provision of nursing care for newborn infants up to 28 days after birth.

    Neonatal Hypoglycaemia: A condition that occurs in children when blood sugar (glucose) is too low.

    No Win No Fee: An agreement between a solicitor and their client that, in the event that the case is lost, no legal fees will be taken.

    Obstetrics: The branch of medicine which specialises in caring for women’s reproductive systems and their children during pregnancy, childbirth and immediately after.

    Obstetric Cholestasis: A rare complication of pregnancy, which manifests itself as a persistent itch during the last third of pregnancy.

    Opthalmology: The branch of medicine which handles the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. 

    Orthopaedic: Specialists in Orthopaedics perform surgery to correct conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system.

    Overdose:  The application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than recommended by medical professionals. Drug overdoses can often lead to severe illness and death.

    Perineal Tear: A tear in the region of the perineum, which generally includes the areas surrounding the genitals and anus. Perineal tears can occur as a complication during childbirth.

    Pressure sores: Also known as pressure ulcers, pressure sores are injuries to the skin and underlying tissue which are the direct result of the affected area being put under too much pressure. Such injuries are often the result of neglect combined with a lack of mobility.

    Preventive care: Steps taken to prevent a disease or injury from developing, rather than treating and/or curing the after-effects.

    Prognosis: A doctor’s prediction as to the likely outcome of a medical procedure, illness or injury.

    Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot in the pulmonary artery, the blood vessel that transports blood from the heart to the lungs.

    Retinal detachment: An emergency medical problem in which the retina detaches from its supporting tissue; failure to treat the problem can lead to blindness.

    Scaphoid Fracture: The scaphoid is one of the smallest bones in the wrist, and is also the most likely to break.

    Sciatic Nerve Damage: The sciatic nerve originates in the spinal cord and runs between the bones of the lower back and the muscles of the buttocks. Damage to the nerve can cause leg pain, tingling, numbness or weakness in the affected area.

    Secondary care services: The service tasked with providing and maintaining all in-patient hospital facilities for those over the age of 65.

    Spastic Quadriplegia: A form of cerebral palsy which affects all four limbs (arms and legs); sufferers experience extreme tightness and stiffness in their limbs and must work extremely hard in order to use their limbs successfully.

    Spondylolisthesis: A condition in which a bone in the spine slips out of its proper position and rests on the bone below it. Symptoms can range from almost non-existent to severe back pain and stiffness.

    Stillbirth: The result of a foetus dying in the uterus. The mother may still experience contractions and go through the childbirth process.

    Sub-Arachnoid Haemorrhage: A stroke caused by bleeding in, or immediately surrounding, the brain.

    Suturing: A medical device used to hold tissue together following surgery or an injury.

    Temporal Arteritis: Inflammation and damage to blood vessels that supply the head area and can lead to visual loss if not treated promptly.

    Testicular Torsion: When the spermatic cord is twisted, blood supply to the testicle and surrounding structures within the scrotum is cut off.  Symptoms include the sudden onset of severe pain in one testicle. The condition is more common in adolescence and during infancy.

    Vasectomy: A permanent birth control procedure performed on men, effectively preventing them from having any further children.

    Vesico-vaginal Fistula: An abnormal fistulous tract extending between the bladder and the vagina that allows the continuous and involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault. Vesico-vaginal Fistula may occur as a complication of childbirth.


    Please contact us at Seamus Monaghan, Solicitors to arrange an initial appointment to discuss your case.

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