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Kabel Listrik dari Wikipedia

posted Jan 12, 2009, 11:34 AM by PT Mega Kreasi Ekatama   [ updated Jan 12, 2009, 11:43 AM ]

Kabel listrik -

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Kabel listrik adalah media untuk menyalurkan energi listrik. Sebuah kabel listrik terdiri dari isolator dan konduktor.

Isolator disini adalah bahan pembungkus kabel yang biasanya terbuat dari karet atau plastik, sedangkan konduktornya terbuat dari serabut tembaga ataupun tembaga pejal.

Kemampuan hantar sebuah kabel listrik ditentukan oleh KHA (kemampuan hantar arus) yang dimilikinya, sebab parameter hantaran listrik ditentukan dalam satuan Ampere. Kemampuan hantar arus ditentukan oleh luas penampang konduktor yang berada dalam kabel listrik, adapun ketentuan mengenai KHA kabel listrik diatur dalam spesifikasi SPLN.

Sedangkan tegangan listrik dinyatakan dalam Volt, besar daya yang diterima dinyatakan dalam satuan Watt, yang merupakan perkalian dari Ampere x Volt = Watt. Pada tegangan 220 Volt dan KHA 10 Ampere, sebuah kabel listrik dapat menyalurkan daya sebesar 220V x 10A = 2200 Watt.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 

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For other uses, see Cable (disambiguation).
6" or 15cm outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. These cables are connected to powerful pumps that pump the oil through them while in operation. Safety switches turn off the oil flow in the event of a leak, in order to limit the effects of a hydrocarbon fire.
Fire test in Sweden, showing rapid fire spread through burning of cable jackets from one cable tray to another.
500MCM 1C Power Cable Marking

A cable is one or more strands bound together. Electrical cables may contain one or more metal conductors, which may be individually insulated or covered. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers. Mechanical cables such as wire rope may contain a large number of metal or fiber strands.



[edit] History

Ropes made of multiple strands of natural fibers such as hemp, sisal, manila, and cotton have been used for millenia for hoisting, hauling. By the 19th century, deepening of mines and construction of large ships increased demand for stronger cables. Invention of improved steelmaking techniques made high quality steel available at lower cost, and so wire ropes became common in mining and other industrial applications. By the middle of the 19th century, manfacture of large submarine telegraph cables was done using machiners similar to that used for manufacture of mechanical cables.

In the 19th century and early 20th century, electrical cable was often insulated using cloth, rubber and paper. Plastic materials are generally used today, except for high reliability power cables. So that is how it became cable.

[edit] Electrical cables

Electrical cables may be made flexible by stranding the wires. The technical issue is to reduce the skin effect voltage drop while using with alternating currents.In this process, smaller individual wires are twisted or braided together to produce larger wires that are more flexible than solid wires of similar size. Bunching small wires before concentric stranding adds the most flexibility. A thin coat of a specific material (usually tin-which improved striping of rubber, or for low friction of moving conductors, but it could be silver, gold and another materials and of course the wire can be bare - with no coating material) on the individual wires. Tight lays during stranding makes the cable extensible (CBA - as in telephone handset cords).

Bundling the conductors and eliminating multi-layers ensures a uniform bend radius across each conductor. Pulling and compressing forces balance one another around the high-tensile center cord that provides the necessary inner stability. As a result the cable core remains stable even under maximum bending stress.

Cables can be securely fastened and organized, such as using cable trees with the aid of cable ties or cable lacing. Continuous-flex or flexible cables used in moving applications within cable carriers can be secured using strain relief devices or cable ties. Copper corrodes easily and so should be layered with Lacquer.

[edit] Fire protection

In building construction, electrical cable jacket material is a potential source of fuel for a fire. To limit the spread of fire along cable jacketing, one may use cable coating materials or one may use cables with jacketing that is inherently fire retardant. The plastic covering on some metal clad cables may be stripped off at installation to reduce the fuel source for accidental fires. In Europe in particular, it is often customary to place inorganic wraps and boxes around cables in order to safeguard the adjacent areas from the potential fire threat associated with unprotected cable jacketing.

To provide fire protection to a cable, there are two methods:

a) Insulation material is deliberately added up with fire retardant materials

b) The copper conductor itself is covered with mineral insulations( MICC cables)

[edit] Interference protection

In applications powering sensitive electronics, keeping unwanted EMI/RFI from entering circuits is important. This can be accomplished passively with shielding along the length of the cable or by running the cable in an enclosure separate from any other wires which may induct noise. It can also be actively achieved by use of a choke designed to restrict the cables' ability to conduct certain frequencies.

[edit] Electrical cable types

Basic cable types are as follows:

[edit] Basic

[edit] Construction

Based on construction and cable properties it can be sorted into the following:

[edit] Special

[edit] Market Information

[edit] Application

  • Wire rope (wire cable)
  • Audiovisual cable
  • Bicycle cable
  • Communications cable
  • Computer cable
  • Mechanical cable
  • Sensing cable [1]
  • Submersible cable

[edit] Cable manufacturers

The leading global producers of electrical wire and cable include (in no particular order): Clynder Cables, Cords Cable, Canare, Draka, General Cable, Belden, Nexans, Igus, Irish Driver-Harris, Furukawa Electric, Hitachi Cable, Southwire, Marmon Group, LS Cable, Leoni, Fujikura, Pirelli, Sumitomo Electric Industries, Tyco, Prysmian, Lapp, Wonderful Hi-Tech, Walsin Lihwa and Wilms Group, and Jainson Cables - India.

[edit] Further reading

  • R. M. Black, The History of Electric Wires and Cables, Peter Pergrinus, London 1983 ISBN 0 86341 001 4

[edit] See also

Sister project Look up cable in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
A 250V-16A electrical wire on a reel

[edit] References

[edit] External links