introduction

 

I always  imagine how people lived without internet  between 80 and 90?or how they could 

reserved hotel.airplane ticket or how they control financial market such as Security? and from where internet idea came?

suddenly i found one name,it was  MINITEL .but what meaning of minitel?

The name Minitel is abbreviated from the French title of Médium interactif par numérisation d'information téléphonique (Interactive medium by digitalizing telephone information).

maybe you ask me what’s that?

the Minitel was a Videotex online  service accessible through telephone lines, and is considered one of the world's most successful pre-World Wide Web online services.

Rolled out experimentally in 1978 in Brittany and throughout France in 1982 by the PTT (Poste, Téléphone et Télécommunications; divided since 1991 between France Télécom and La poste)

Next step is important question  what was minitel  ability ?

big question,most ability we can de these days.

in 1982 minitel users able to buy online anything such as airplane,train, construct ticket ,reserve hotel and checking email,searching in telephone directory,check stock price,find  general information,make blog,text chat.

minitel organized by telecom france but how it was work?

Millions of terminals were lent for free to telephone subscribers, resulting in a high penetration rate among businesses and the public. In exchange for the terminal, the possessors of Minitel would not be given free "white page" printed directories (alphabetical list of residents and firms), but only the yellow pages (classified commercial listings, with advertisements); the white pages were accessible for free on Minitel, and they could be searched by a reasonably intelligent search engine; much faster than flipping through a paper directory

France Télécom estimates that almost 9 million terminals including web-enabled personal computers (Windows, Mac OS, and Linux)had access to the network at the end of 1999, and that it was used by 25 million people (of a total population of 60 million). Developed by 10,000 companies, in 1996, almost 26,000 different services were available.[4]

Minitel allowed access to various categories of services:

     phone directory (free)

     mail-order retail companies

     airline or train ticket purchases

     information services

     databases

     message boards

Finances

Payment methods

     Credit card for purchases

     Telephone bill for surfing time: rates depend on the sites visited

France Télécom charged Minitel users at rates of up to €1 a minute on their monthly telephone bill. The rates depend on the service called; most services are far cheaper than this maximum. It then pays back part of the sum to the companies that operate Minitel servers.

In the late 1990s, Minitel connections were stable at 100 million a month plus 150 million online directory inquiries, in spite of growing Internet use.

In 1998, Minitel generated € 832 million ($1,121 million) of revenue, of which € 521 million was channelled by France Télécom to service providers.

Minitel sales in the late 1990s accounted for almost 15% of sales at La Redoute and 3 Suisses, France's biggest mail order companies. In 2005, the most popular Minitel application was Teleroute, the online real-time freight exchange, which accounted for nearly 8% of Minitel usage.

In 2005, there were 351 million calls for 18.51 million hours of connection, generating € 206 million of revenue, of which € 145 million were redistributed to 2000 service providers (these numbers are declining at around 30% per year). There were still 6 million terminals owned by France Télécom, which had been left with their users in order to avoid recycling problems. The main uses were banking and financial services, which benefit from Mintel's security features, and access to professional databases. France Télécom mentions, as an example of usage, that 12 million updates to personal vital health-care cards were made through Minitel.In 2007, revenue was well over $100 million.

In 2010, 30 million euros in revenues with 85 per cent of those revenues going to service providers

the most popular service of the minitel was the phonebook.this service access user.to phone directory  In 1991, the "Minitel Website" for the Paris Sony Stores contained already over 100 pages. Today the 3611 Minitel Directory is widely replaced by the online white or yellow pages, available through the websites Pagesjaunes.fr/Pagesblanches.fr(Groupe Pages Jaunes SA) or in English Yellowpages.fr/Whitepages.fr (Groupe Phonebook of the World).


MINITEL  Technology

 

Minitel used terminals consisting of a text-based screen, keyboard and modem. Simple graphics could be displayed using a set of predefined graphical characters. Aftermarket printers were available.[8]

When connecting, the Minitel integrated modem generally dialed a special number connecting to a PAVI (Point d'Accès VIdéotexte, "videotext access point"). The PAVI transmitted information to the servers of the appropriate company or administration using the Transpac X.25 network.

In France the most common dial number was "36 15", while "36 17" was used by more expensive services. Minitel services names were often prefixed with this number to identify them as such. Billboard ads at the time often consisted of nothing more than an image, a company name, and a "36 15" number, the fact that a Minitel service was being advertised was then clear by implication.

Minitel used a half-duplex asymmetric data transmission via its modem. It downlinked at 1200 bit/s and uplinked at 75 bit/s. This allowed fast downloads, for the time. The system, which came to be known as "1275" was more correctly known as V.23. This system was developed solely for Minitel and its clones around the world.

Technically, Minitel refers to the terminals, while the network is known as Teletel.

Minitel terminals use the AZERTY keyboard most commonly used in French (as opposed to the QWERTY keyboard more common in the English-speaking world)