P


parallel distributed processing (PDP):
 
 

parallelism:
 
The view that mental and physical phenomena occur in parallel but that these simultaneities never involve causal interactions. See dualism, preestablished harmony, occasionalism.
 
Chris Eliasmith
 

perception:
 
The 'how it is' to cognitive systems in the world. A means of distinguishing how things are from how a cognizer thinks they are.
 
Chris Eliasmith
 

phenomenalism:
 
The monistic view that all empirical statements (such as the laws of physics) can be placed in a one to one correspondence with statements about only the phenomenal (i.e. mental appearances). (See idealism, neutral monism, monism).  
 
<Details & References> Chris Eliasmith
 

phenomenological critique of representationalism:
 
Rejection of the notion that representational states define and explain the most basic kind of human interaction with the environment. See also representation, phenomenology, intention-in-action, Background, Hubert Dreyfus. 
 
<Details & References> Daniel Barbiero
 

phenomenology:
 
(1) subjective or phenomenal experience (2) a systematic study of consciousness from a first-person perspective originated by Husserl.
 
<Details & References> S. Gallagher
 

philosophy, experimental:
 
Philosophers often make claims about people’s intuitions regarding particular cases. Experimental philosophy aims to put these claims to the test using standard empirical methods.
 
<Details & References> Joshua M. Knobe
 

philosophy of mind:
 
 

philosophy of psychology:
 
 

physical stance:
 
 

physicalism:
 
The view that everything that is real is, in some sense, really physical. See also materialism.
 
<Details & References> Pete Mandik & Peter Zachar
 

physicalism, non-reductive:
 
The claim that functional properties cannot be reduced to physical properties, but that nevertheless all causality is physical. See physicalism, multiple realizability, functionalism.
 
<Details & References> Teed Rockwell
 

plans:
 
A stable, often incomplete formulation of a program of action.
 
Chris Eliasmith
 

practical reasoning:
 
 

preestablished harmony, doctrine of:
 
A view originated by G. W. leibniz whereby: (1) the mental and the material comprise two different kinds of substance; (2) neither has any direct causal effect on the other and; (3) the coincidence between mental and material events is due to both substances being created to act in concert even though there is no post-creation interaction between the two. See dualism, occasionalism, parallelism.
 
<References> Pete Mandik
 

prior intention:
 
 

productivity (of thought):
 
Thought is said to be productive, since, in a sense, normal cognitive agents are capable of having denumerably many distinct thoughts. In other words, to say that thought is productive means that normal cognitive agents have the competence to entertain denumerably many distinct thoughts.
 
<Details & References> Ken Aizawa
 

property dualism:
 
 

psychology, philosophy of:
 
The branch of the philosophy of science concerned specifically with psychology. It is concerned with the sorts of models, theories and explanations used in psychology to address psychological phenomena. See also: mind, philosophy of.
 
Chris Eliasmith