O


objective:
 
Something is objective insofar as it is independent of either a particular mind or minds altogether.
 
<Details & References> Pete Mandik
 

objectivity:
 
The property of being objective. See: objective.
 
Pete Mandik
 

occasionalism:
 
A view popularized by Nicholas Malbranche whereby: (1) the mental and the material comprise two different kinds of substance; (2) neither has any direct causal effect on the other and; (3) all seeming interactions between the two are due to the continual intervention by God who brings about a change in one on the occasion of a change in the other. See dualism, doctrine of preestablished harmony, parallelism.
 
<References> Pete Mandik
 

ontology:
 
Ontology is the study of what there is, an inventory of what exists. An ontological commitment is a commitment to an existence claim.
 
<Details & References> Gene Witmer
 

organicism:
 
Organicists hold that a proper understanding of living organisms, broadly construed, differs fundamentally from the understanding of non-living things.  Organicists typically oppose mechanistic or reductionist views of living things.  See: emergence, holism.
 
<Details & References> Richard McDonough