Newell, Allen
 
 
(b. San Francisco, d. 1992, Pittsburgh. Ph.D. Industrial Administration, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1957). With Herbert Simon, he proposed the Physical Symbol System hypothesis in 1957. His work has centered on SOAR, an architecture for intelligent problem solving and learning. See computational models, symbolicism.
 

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After doing graduate work in mathematics at Princeton, Newell became a scientific staff member at Rand Corporation, where he did research on artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology, with a focus on problem-solving and cognitive architectures that supports intelligent action. With Herbert Simon, he proposed the Physical Symbol System hypothesis, according to which the mind is defined as a physical symbol system, in 1957. Newell joined the Carnegie Institute of Technology faculty in 1961. He played a pivotal role in creating Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science and elevating the school to world-class status. At the time of his death, Newell was the U.A. and Helen Whitaker University Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. His work centered on SOAR, an architecture for intelligent problem solving and learning. Soar provides a basis for continued research on knowledge acquisition systems, a unified theory of human cognition, human-computer interaction, and the efficiency of production systems. Newell wrote and co-authored more than 250 publications, and ten books. Among his better known publications are ‘Elements of Human Problem Solving’ (1958), ‘GPS: A Program That Simulates Human Thought’ (1963), ‘Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry’ (with Herbert Simon, 1976), and ‘Physical Symbols Systems’ (1980).
 
 
Tadeusz Zawidzki