Lakoff, George
 
 
(Ph.D. linguistics, Indiana University, 1966). Since 1975, after giving up on formal logic as an adequate way to represent conceptual systems, he has been one of the major developers of cognitive linguistics, which integrates discoveries about conceptual systems from the cognitive sciences into the theory of language
 

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Lakoff taught at Harvard and the University of Michigan before his appointment as Professor of Linguistics at the University of California at Berkeley in 1972. In the early stages of his career, he was one of the developers of transformational grammar and one of the founders of the Generative Semantics movement of the 1960s. Since 1975, after giving up on formal logic as an adequate way to represent conceptual systems, he has been one of the major developers of cognitive linguistics, which integrates discoveries about conceptual systems from the cognitive sciences into the theory of language. In the late 1970s, Lakoff was heavily influenced by the work of Len Talmy and Ron Langacker, who argued that regularities in the semantics of natural language can only be accounted for in terms of image schemata or schematic mental imagery. This led Lakoff to reject the 'disembodied', formalist, neo-Chomskyan approach to semantics he had originally embraced, in favor of an 'embodied' approach, according to which the meanings of linguistic items are metaphorical extensions of 'basic level categories' which are determined by our embodied experience in the world. Among Lakoff's numerous publications, the following are particularly representative: Metaphors We Live By (with Mark Johnson, 1980), Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind (1987), and 'Cognitive Semantics' (1988).
 
 
Tadeusz Zawidzki