Köhler, Wolfgang
 
 
(b. 1887, Revel, Estonia, d. 1967, Enfield, NH. Ph.D. Psychology, University of Berlin, 1909). Along with Wertheimer and Koffka, Köhler was one of the founders of the Gestalt school of psychology. He argued that there is a correspondence in form between physical events in the brain and the subjective events caused by them.
 

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Köhler worked at the University of Frankfurt, 1910-1913, the University of Berlin, 1920-1921 & 1922-1935, and Swarthmore College, 1935-1955. He was president of the American Psychological Association in 1959. Along with Wertheimer and Koffka, Köhler was one of the founders of the Gestalt school of psychology. He also founded the Gestalt journal Psychologische Forschung with Wertheimer and Koffka. Köhler subsequently wrote several books presenting aspects of the Gestalt school of psychology: Gestalt Psychology (1929), The Place of Value in a World of Facts (1938), and Dynamics in Psychology (1940). A major contribution of Köhler’s was his work with chicks and chimpanzees in the Canary Islands during World War I, in which he demonstrated the perception of and response to relationships (rather than absolute stimulus values) in chicks (later known as transposition) and insight learning (closure over psychological gaps) in chimpanzees. The Mentality of Apes (1924) was an outcome of his studies. In a classic monograph, Die physischen Gestalten in Ruhe und im stationären Zustand (1920), Köhler first expanded Wertheimer’s idea that to perceive actual and apparent movement as the same, brain processes in themselves must show properties of patterning or be Gestalten (configurations, structures). He argued that there is a correspondence in form between physical events in the brain and the subjective events caused by them.
 
 
Tadeusz Zawidzki