Gall, Franz Joseph
 
 
(b. 1759, Tiefenbrunn, Baden, d. 1828, Paris, France, M.D., University of Vienna, 1785). Gall lectured on phrenology and believed that mind could be divided into separate faculties which were discretely localized in the brain, and that the exercise of or innate prominence of a faculty would enlarge the appropriate brain area that, in turn, would show up as a cranial prominence.
 

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Beginning in 1796, Gall lectured on phrenology, and he practiced medicine in Vienna from 1785 to 1807, and in Paris from 1807 to 1828. Between 1810 and 1819 Gall published Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général in four volumes (the first two written with Spurzheim), of which the last three presented the phrenological doctrine. Gall believed that mind could be divided into separate faculties which were discretely localized in the brain, and that the exercise of or innate prominence of a faculty would enlarge the appropriate brain area that, in turn, would show up as a cranial prominence. The correlations between ‘bumps’ on the skull and personality characteristics were obtained from persons with well-known and pronounced mental traits. Between 1823 and 1825 Gall published his definitive statement on phrenology, a six-volume work entitled Sur les fonctions du cerveau. Aided by Spurzheim’s propaganda efforts, phrenology flourished for a century, with numerous societies and journals to further its work, although it was never accepted by orthodox science. The followers of Gall made phrenology into a folly, and the stigma of a quack became attached to him. However Gall was correct in assigning the brain the role of the seat of mental activities, and although he was wrong in detail due to a faulty methodology, the possibility of the localization of brain functions is widely accepted today.
 
 
Tadeusz Zawidzki