Frege, Gottlob
 
 
(b. 1848,Wismar, Germany, d. 1925, Bad Kleinen, Germany, Ph.D. mathematics - geometry, University of Göttingen, 1873). Frege constructed the first predicate calculus, developed a new analysis of basic propositions and quantification, formalized the notion of a proof in terms that are still accepted today, and demonstrated that one could resolve theoretical mathematical statements in terms of simpler logical and mathematical notions.
 

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Frege taught at the University of Jena his entire career, first as Privatdozent (1874), then as Professor Extraordinarius (1879), and finally as Honorarprofessor (1896). He retired in 1917. Frege constructed the first predicate calculus, developed a new analysis of basic propositions and quantification, formalized the notion of a proof in terms that are still accepted today, and demonstrated that one could resolve theoretical mathematical statements in terms of simpler logical and mathematical notions. To ground his views about the nature of logic, Frege conceived a comprehensive philosophy of language that many philosophers still find insightful. It is in his philosophy of language that Frege’s famous distinction between the sense and reference of linguistic terms makes its appearance. This distinction has had a profound influence on the philosophy of mind and cognitive science. It grounds the intuition that there are two senses of ‘meaning’: the object that a term refers to, and the concept it expresses. Frege's main psychologically relevant writings are Funktion und Begriff (`Function and Concept', 1891); `Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (`On Sense and Denotation', 1892); `Über Begriff und Gegenstand' (`On Concept and Object', 1892); `Der Gedanke. Eine logische Untersuchung' (`The Thought: A Logical Enquiry', 1918). (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/frege)
 

Tadeusz Zawidzki