Brentano, Franz
 
 
(b. 1838, Germany, d. 1917, Zürich, Switzerland, Ph.D. Philosophy, University of Tübingen, 1862). He is known especially for his distinction between psychological and physical phenomena on the basis of intentionality or internal object-directedness of thought, and his revival of Aristotelianism and empirical methods in philosophy and psychology.
 

Details:
 
Brentano was one of the most intellectually influential and personally charismatic German philosophers of his time. He taught first in the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Würzburg (1866-74), and then accepted a professorship at the University of Vienna. In 1895 he moved to Italy, and finally to Zürich shortly before Italy entered World War I. He is known especially for his distinction between psychological and physical phenomena on the basis of intentionality or internal object-directedness of thought, and his revival of Aristotelianism and empirical methods in philosophy and psychology. His teaching made a profound impact on his students in Würzburg and Vienna, many of whom became internationally respected thinkers in their fields, including Freud. Two of his most important works are Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt ("Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint," 1874), where he first distinguishes the psychological from the physical on the basis of intentionality, and Von der Klassifikation der psychischen Phänomene (1911).
 
 
Tadeusz Zawidzki