a priori:
(from “what is before”) is a Latin term which denotes an epistemological distinction regarding independence from sense experiences when determining how a proposition may be known.
This is contrasted with a posteriori (from “what is after”) propositions which do require justification by sense experiences. An a posteriori proposition is justified by empirical observations from which certain conclusions may subsequently be drawn. “It is raining outside my office.” is a statement known only a posteriori.

a posteriori:

A method of reasoning by which one infers to the best explanation. See induction, deduction.

<Details & References>  Chris Eliasmith

That which we do, in contrast to that which merely happens to us or our parts.

Chris Eliasmith

action, intentional:
See intentional action.

A systematic comparison between structures that uses properties of and relations between objects of a source structure to infer properties of and relations between objects of a target structure. 

 <Details & References>  Paul Thagard

anomalous monism: 
The view put forward by Donald Davidson that all mental events are identical to physical events, and that the only laws that govern the relations between events are physical, not psychological, laws. See monism, supervenience, token identity thesis, physicalism.
Pete Mandik

artificial intelligence:
The science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by [people] (Minsky, 1968). See connectionism, symbolicism.

 <Details & References>  Chris Eliasmith

 aspectual shape:

Similar to the notion of sense. Introduced by Searle (1992).

Chris Eliasmith