Properties of Organic Solvents

The values in the table below except as noted have been extracted from online and hardbound compilations . Values for relative polarity, eluant strength, threshold limits and vapor pressure have been extracted from: Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003 For Spectra of Solvents, jump to the bottom of this phttp://murov.info/webercises.htmage.  For an Organic Chemistry Directory, see:  http://murov.info/orgchem.htm .
For a Chemistry Directory, see:   http://murov.info/webercises.htm 
For much more complete information on physical and safety properties of solvents, please go to:
http://www.knovel.com/web/portal/browse/display?_EXT_KNOVEL_DISPLAY_bookid=761 
http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/chemidlite.jsp 
The tables below were posted (10/23/98) and revised (07/28/09) and updated (04/10/10) by Steve Murov, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry.

 Table 1 arranged alphabetically, Table 2 arranged according to increasing polarity

TABLE 1

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point (oC)  density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g) relative
polarity2
eluant strength3 threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
acetic acid C2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571      
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M 0.651   3 0.53
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.4 0.420   2 0.4
anisole C7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.10 0.198      
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.2 0.333   10 12
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.5 0.608      
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.3
2-butanol C4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808 18.1 0.506   100  
i-butanol C4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.5 0.552      
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.05 0.188 0.30 10 12
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259   10 210
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104
cyclohexanol C6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.2 0.509   50 1.2
cyclohexanone C6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5
di-n-butylphthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272      
1,1-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.5 0.269   100 240
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244      
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231      
N,N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.14 0.179      
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.43 0.309      
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 100 59
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.58 400 97
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577      
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.07 0.228      
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11    
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812      
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549      
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128
methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.9 -98.1  0.933 24.4 0.253    200 220
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537      
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.004  0.009 0.00 600 573
1-pentanol C5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.2 0.568      
2-pentanol C5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.5 0.488      
3-pentanol C5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.1 0.463      
2-pentanone C5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265   200  
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82    
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20
tetrahydrofuran(THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 0.207 0.57 200 200
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.29 50 29
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991    
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 15

1    M = miscible.
2    The values for relative polarity are normalized from measurements of solvent shifts of absorption spectra and were
      extracted from Christian Reichardt, Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry, Wiley-VCH Publishers, 3rd ed., 2003.
3     Snyder's empirical eluant strength parameter for alumina.  Extracted from Reichardt, page 495.
4   Threshold limits for exposure.  Extracted from Reichardt, pages 501-502.


TABLE 2

Solvent formula boiling point (oC) melting point (oC)  density 
(g/mL)
solubility in H2O1  (g/100g) relative
polarity2
eluant strength3 threshold limits4 (ppm) vapor pressure 20oC (hPa)
cyclohexane C6H12 80.7 6.6 0.779 0.005 0.006 0.04 100 104
pentane C5H12 36.1 -129.7 0.626 0.0039  0.009 0.00 600 573
hexane C6H14 69 -95 0.655 0.0014 0.009 0.01 50 160
heptane C7H16 98 -90.6 0.684 0.0003 0.012   400 48
carbon tetrachloride CCl4 76.7 -22.4 1.594 0.08  0.052 0.18 5 120
carbon disulfide CS2 46.3 -111.6 1.263 0.2 0.065 0.15  10 400
p-xylene C8H10 138.3 13.3 0.861 0.02 0.074 0.26 100 15
toluene C7H8 110.6 -93 0.867 0.05 0.099 0.24 50 29
benzene C6H6 80.1 5.5 0.879 0.18 0.111 0.32 0.5 101
ether C4H10O 34.6 -116.3 0.713 7.5 0.117 0.38 400 587
methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) C5H12O 55.2 -109 0.741 4.8 0.124 0.20    
diethylamine C4H11N 56.3 -48 0.706 M 0.145 0.63 5 260
dioxane  C4H8O2 101.1 11.8 1.033 M 0.164 0.56 20 41
N,N-dimethylaniline C8H11N 194.2 2.4 0.956 0.14 0.179      
chlorobenzene C6H5Cl 132 -45.6 1.106 0.05 0.188 0.30 10 12
anisole C7H8O 153.7 -37.5 0.996 0.10 0.198      
tetrahydrofuran  (THF) C4H8O 66 -108.4 0.886 30 0.207 0.57 200 200
ethyl acetate C4H8O2 77 -83.6 0.894 8.7 0.228 0.57 400 97
ethyl benzoate C9H10O2 213 -34.6 1.047 0.07 0.228      
dimethoxyethane (glyme) C4H10O2 85 -58 0.868 M 0.231      
diglyme C6H14O3 162 -64 0.945 M 0.244      
methyl acetate C3H6O2 56.9 -98.1 0.933 24.4 0.253    200 220
chloroform  CHCl3 61.2 -63.5 1.498 0.8 0.259 0.40 10 210
3-pentanone C5H12O 101.7 -39.8 0.814 3.4 0.265   200  
1,1-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 57.3 -97.0 1.176 0.5 0.269   100 240
di-n-butyl phthalate C16H22O4 340 -35 1.049 0.0011 0.272      
cyclohexanone C6H10O 155.6 -16.4 0.948 2.3 0.281   25 5
pyridine C5H5N 115.5 -42 0.982 M 0.302 0.71 5 20
dimethylphthalate C10H10O4 283.8 1 1.190 0.43 0.309      
methylene chloride CH2Cl2 39.8 -96.7 1.326 1.32 0.309 0.42 50 475
2-pentanone C5H10O 102.3 -76.9 0.809 4.3 0.321      
2-butanone C4H8O 79.6 -86.3 0.805 25.6 0.327 0.51 200 105
1,2-dichloroethane C2H4Cl2 83.5 -35.4 1.235 0.87 0.327      
benzonitrile C7H5N 205 -13 0.996 0.2 0.333   10 12
acetone C3H6O 56.2 -94.3 0.786 M 0.355 0.56 500 240
dimethylformamide (DMF) C3H7NO 153 -61 0.944 M 0.386   10 3.5
t-butyl alcohol  C4H10O 82.2 25.5 0.786 M 0.389   100 41
aniline C6H7N 184.4 -6.0 1.022 3.4 0.420   2 0.4
dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) C2H6OS 189 18.4 1.092 M 0.444 0.75    
acetonitrile C2H3N 81.6 -46 0.786 M 0.460 0.65 20 97
3-pentanol C5H12O 115.3 -8 0.821 5.1 0.463      
2-pentanol C5H12O 119.0 -50 0.810 4.5 0.488      
2-butanol C4H10O 99.5 -114.7 0.808  18.1 0.506   100  
cyclohexanol C6H12O 161.1 25.2 0.962 4.2 0.509   50 1.2
1-octanol C8H18O 194.4 -15 0.827 0.096 0.537      
2-propanol C3H8O 82.4 -88.5 0.785 M 0.546 0.82 400 44
1-heptanol C7H16O 176.4 -35 0.819 0.17 0.549      
i-butanol C4H10O 107.9 -108.2 0.803 8.5 0.552      
1-hexanol C6H14O 158 -46.7 0.814 0.59 0.559      
1-pentanol C5H12O 138.0 -78.2 0.814 2.2 0.568      
acetyl acetone C5H8O2 140.4 -23 0.975 16 0.571      
ethyl acetoacetate C6H10O3 180.4 -80 1.028 2.9 0.577      
1-butanol C4H10O 117.6 -89.5 0.81 7.7 0.586   20 6.3
benzyl alcohol C7H8O 205.4 -15.3 1.042 3.5 0.608      
1-propanol C3H8O 97 -126 0.803 M 0.617 0.82    
acetic acid C2H4O2 118 16.6 1.049 M 0.648 >1 10 15.3
2-aminoethanol C2H7NO 170.9 10.5 1.018 M 0.651   3 0.53
ethanol  C2H6O 78.5 -114.1 0.789 M 0.654 0.88 1000 59
diethylene glycol C4H10O3 245 -10 1.118 M 0.713     0.027
methanol CH4O 64.6 -98 0.791 M 0.762 0.95 200 128
ethylene glycol  C2H6O2 197 -13 1.115 M 0.790 1.11    
glycerin C3H8O3 290 17.8 1.261 M 0.812      
water, heavy  D2O 101.3 4 1.107 M 0.991      
water H2O 100.00 0.00 0.998 M 1.000 >>1    

Spectra (of solvents and other compounds) 

1. ir, nmr, mass spectra
   
Aldrich - http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/
    NIMC site - http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/cre_index.cgi?lang=eng 
    RSC - http://www.rsc.org/education/teachers/learnnet/spectra/index2.htm

2. ir, mass spectra, uv-vis
   
NIST site - http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/ 

3. ir
   
 Acros - http://www.acros.com/portal/alias__Rainbow/lang__en/tabID__21/DesktopDefault.aspx
     ChemExper Chem Directory -  http://www.chemexper.com/ 
          
4. nmr
       
human metabolites - http://hmdb.ca/  (also some mass spectra)
        bioorganics - http://mmcd.nmrfam.wisc.edu/mmcdbrowse.html

     Solvents - http://www.alsnotebook.com/chlorformtraces.html 
           
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