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Washington Signing the Patent Act


Washington Signing the Patent Act

Apr 10 1940

Source: United States Patent Law Sesquicentennial Celebration. A record of the proceedings commemorating the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the first United States patent law, United States Government Printing Office (Washington, D. C., 1941)

Washington Signing the Patent Act

A Special Presentation of the National Broadcasting Co., Written by Richard

McDonagh and Presented at the Banquet of the United States Patent Law

Sesquicentennial Committee

Wednesday, April 10, 1940

10-10:30 p. m. E. S. T.

WJZ and Blue Network

STUDIO ANNOUNCER. What do these sounds mean to you?

(Work following with a zip on cross fades.)

1. Sewing machine--treadle type.

2. Telegraph key.

3. Riveting hammer.

4. Airplane motor.

5. Wireless signal.

Then, all five in rapid succession--almost a melange, and back of this build.

6. Railroad train--up to peak--die away on roar of whistle under--

STUDIO ANNOUNCER. (Zippy, virile delivery.) There you have a story in sound with chapters headed News--Industry--Communication--Building--Transportation!--the story of our modern world, breathless, and thrilling in its magnitude; new and exciting as tomorrow's dawn. Those sounds tell of dreams that came true; they represent patents in action!

VOICE: (echo chamber). In recognition of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the signing by George Washington of the first act of Congress authorizing and regulating the grant of patents, and because the American patent system inaugurated by this act of Congress has promoted countless applications of the arts and sciences to the needs and well-being of our people, and thereby contributed notably to a higher standard of living in our country, the day of April 10, 1940, has been set aside as Inventors' and Patent Day, in accordance with a proclamation by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President of the United States of America!

(NOTE TO PRODUCTION.--This may be bracketed with roll of Tympani.)

STUDIO ANNOUNCER. And on this evening of April 10th, the National Broadcasting Co., in cooperation with the United States Patent Law Sesquicentennial Committee, presents a special program dedicated to American inventors and the American patent system. At this moment, over 1,200 leaders of science and industry are gathered at a banquet in the great ballroom of the Mayflower Hotel, here in Washington, D. C.--from where the next portion of our program will come.

(Fade in Dr. Kettering talking off mike.)

MAYFLOWER ANNOUNCER (over shoulder). And here at the patent banquet in the Mayflower Hotel, ladies and gentlemen, Dr. Charles F. Kettering, the chairman and toastmaster, is addressing the gathering.

(Time so that Kettering comes on mike on cue below.)

KETTERING. It's my job to review briefly the history of the American patent system, from its inception in 1790 to the present day, picking out the highlights in the cavalcade of progress which in a large measure has been brought about by American inventors. [FOOTNOTE:] We are gathered here this evening to honor all American inventors of the past 150 years, but especially to pay honor to the 19 inventions chosen by our committee as those which have contributed most to the happiness and welfare of mankind. Those 19 inventions are: The cotton gin, the commercial steamboat, the reaper, the telegraph, vulcanization of rubber, sewing machine, typewriter, air brake, telephone, phonograph, incandescent lamp, induction motor, the production of aluminum, the linotype, motion picture projector, the airplane, the three-electrode vacuum tube, bakelite plastics, and oil cracking. These inventions have (he is interrupted).

VOICE OF PATENTS. Ah! I beg your pardon, Dr. Kettering, but you've forgotten me--the very first of the great inventions.

KETTERING. And who are you? I don't see you.

VOICE OF PATENTS. No, it is impossible to see me. I'm just a voice--a disembodied spirit, if you will. I speak for all inventors; I am the American Patent System.


VOICE OF PATENTS. Yes; I am the American Patent System, and I am in reality the first of all the great American inventions.

KETTERING. Yes; that's true--in a way, I suppose. Although I will admit that I've always felt the American patent system was a thought--an ideal that sprang from the minds of our forefathers.

VOICE OF PATENTS. You are not wholly wrong, but remember this--I, like other inventions, was mothered by necessity. Before my time men of inventive genius received little encouragement (fading), and in their search for protection they besieged the Congress from all sides with special bills and petitions.

(Following on slight echo.)


VOICE I. I petition this honorable House in the name of David Ramsay, of the State of South Carolina, who, at great personal expense of time and money, has published a book entitled The History of the Revolution of South Carolina from a British Province to an Independent State, and pray that a law may be passed (fading), securing to him and to his heirs for a certain term of years the sole and exclusive right of vending and disposing.

(Cross fade to--)

VOICE II. And we do petition the Congress to grant to John Churchman letters of patent upon several different methods by which the principles of magnetic (fading) variations are explained. These methods petitioned describes as follows:

(Cross fade to--)

VOICE III. A petition to this House sets forth that inasmuch as William Hoy has discovered an infallible cure for the bite of a mad dog, he (fading) prays that an adequate compensation be made him for his labor and assiduity.

(Cross fade to--)

VOICE IV. We ask that a special law be passed granting to Samuel Briggs the exclusive privilege to manufacture (fading) machines which he has invented.

VOICE I (following two on brief waves). An invention to facilitate the passage of steamboats up and down streams.

VOICE II. A machine to enable the easy transition of material through--

(Back with murmurs here and there--Peak them now--Fade away on gavel--Then gavel up again and--)

VOICE IV (projecting). Gentlemen of the Congress--General Washington--the President of the United States!

(Clearing of throats--Scrape of chairs--Then hush.)

WASHINGTON. Fellow citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives: The advancement of agriculture, commerce and manufactures, by all proper means, will not, I trust, need recommendation. But I cannot forbear intimating to you the expediency of giving effectual encouragement (fading) to the introduction of useful inventions and to the exertions of skill and genius in producing--

VOICE OF PATENTS. Thus, prodded by Washington, the House and Senate acted, and shortly afterward, while President Washington was in conference with his Secretary of State, a Congressional delegation was announced.

(Murmur of few men--approaching mike.)

WASHINGTON. Ah, gentlemen. Good evening--Senator Wingate--Congressman Gilman.

(Murmurs of "Good evening Mr. President" etc.)

You all know Mr. Thomas Jefferson, of course.

(Murmurs of greeting--"Welcome home from France, Sir"--"Delighted to see you again, Mr. Jefferson" etc.--Jefferson ad libs.)

WINGATE (formal). Mr. President, on behalf of the Joint Committee on Enrolled Bills of the Senate and House of Representatives, I beg to inform you that we have passed "an act to promote the progress of the useful arts" and we herewith present it to you for your approval.

WASHINGTON. Thank you, gentlemen. This bill is of the greatest importance, and I assure you it will have my immediate consideration.

WINGATE. Thank you, Mr. President. (All murmur ad libs as they withdraw.)

(Door closes after them.)

JEFFERSON. And this, Mr. President, is, I presume, the much talked of patent bill which Madison informed me had taken the attention of the Congress during my absence in Paris!

WASHINGTON. It is, Mr. Jefferson. Because, as it is drawn, its administration will be in your hands, I hoped that I might have had your help in bringing it into being. But, knowing your opposition to any such legislation, I realized that such a thing would be impossible.

JEFFERSON. Aye, Mr. President. I am against monopoly. Monopoly bred the political disease which afflicts the British Empire, and from which we suffered so lately. However, if it is the people's will that this bill be law, then you may count on me to administer it to the best of my ability.

WASHINGTON (a little sadness). Yes; Jefferson, but it would mean so much more if you, of all men, were heartily with me on this. You must know how much I rely on you. However, let us read the bill; it is rather lengthy. (Clears his throat--Reads.) Section one--Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled (fading), that upon the petition of any person or persons to the Secretary of State, the Secretary for the Department of War, and the--

(Fade in again.)

And now we come to the seventh and final section.

And be it further enacted, that if any person or persons shall be sued or prosecuted for any matter, act, or thing done under or by virtue of this act, he or they may plead the general issue and give the special matter in evidence.

JEFFERSON (two beats). It is well drawn, Mr. President.

WASHINGTON (quickly--pleased). Oh, then--then dare I hope that you favor it, Jefferson?

JEFFERSON. Indeed I do, sir. Most heartily!

WASHINGTON. Well! I must confess I'm nonplussed. Have you not expressed yourself emphatically--nay, bitterly against any such act as this?

JEFFERSON. I have so expressed myself, Mr. President, but my opposition was predicated upon an abhorrence of monopoly. When first this bill was mentioned, the intent was, I think, to grant perpetual rights to inventors. It is my

considered feeling that such perpetual monopoly would embarrass society, and, in time, breed chaos.

WASHINGTON. In that you have my hearty concurrence.

JEFFERSON. But it was never my intention that an inventor should have no reward for his labor. In fact, nobody wishes more than I do that ingenuity should receive liberal encouragement. And, by extending to the inventor absolute rights in his device for a period of 14 years, this bill offers that very encouragement--at the same time it guards against injurious monopolistic growth.

WASHINGTON. Well said. This patent system which we have created can very well turn out to be a model for the entire world--at least, that portion of the world that enjoys democratic government, for while it protects the interest of the people as a whole, it also encourages private enterprise.

JEFFERSON. Aye (one beat), By the bye, sir, I plan to visit our mutual friend, Ben Franklin, in the near future; I have many messages for him from his friends in France. (Chuckle) I think I shall jest him about his money-making possibilities under this new patent bill.

WASHINGTON. Yes, old Ben has invented many things that are likely. (Chuckle) You might inform him that these confounded wooden teeth of mine are not at all satisfactory, and that it might pay him well to evolve a really workable set of false bicuspids.

(Both laugh.)

Certainly there is more use for false teeth than for his scheme of harnessing lightning.

JEFFERSON. (Chuckle) Yes; I feel constrained to agree with you, sir. Even I, who so greatly admire everything about Franklin, will have to admit that there is little likelihood of his lightning scheme ever coming to any good or worthwhile use. As Poor Richard might say, paraphrasing Shakespeare, "the worth-while inventions men devise live after them; the lightning might best be interred with their bones."

(Both laugh heartily. Fade scene on laughter.)

VOICE OF PATENTS. And thus, Dr. Kettering, did I, the Spirit of the American Patent System, come into being. Tell me--remember, I am one who knows only of another day--have the hopes which Washington and Jefferson held for me come true? Has the patent system added to the growth and glory of America?

KETTERING. Yes, indeed; it has. Washington and Jefferson knew whereof they spoke. The patent system has been instrumental in making America a leader amongst the nations of the world and, domestically, it has proved conclusively that there is no wholly satisfactory substitute for private enterprise. But in one thing our illustrious forefathers lacked foresight--they were very, very wrong about old Ben Franklin's lightning.

VOICE OF PATENTS. Do you mean to signify that old Franklin's lightning scheme came to be of some practical use, sir?

KETTERING. Indeed, I do. An American named Samuel Morse invented the telegraph, by means of which he sent messages in code over wires, with little sparks of Ben Franklin's lightning. Would you like to see it in operation?

VOICE OF PATENTS. Most certainly, sir.

KETTERING. All right. Here before me on the table is the original instrument with which Samuel Morse received the first telegram 96 years ago. Tonight, we are taking the place of that great inventor. Mr. R. B. White, president of the Western Union Telegraph Co., is now sitting before a telegraph key in New York City, ready to reenact the sending of the original message; the message that signaled to an astounded world that thereafter a clock and not a calendar was to measure the speed of communication.

The impulses sent by Mr. White in New York will be repeated automatically from the spot in Baltimore from which Alfred Dail sent their counterpart nearly a century ago, and they will be relayed to this banquet table over the original telegraph route along the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad right-of-way. In a moment, this distinguished audience will hear just what Morse and a group of the Nation's leaders, assembled in the Supreme Court chamber, in the Capitol, heard on May 24, 1844. Listen! We are ready, Mr. White.

(Mr. White sends message--"What Hath God Wrought.")

KETTERING. And those impulses which you heard spelled out the first telegraphic message. The words were: "What--Hath--God--Wrought."

VOICE OF PATENTS (reverently). Appropriate and moving words, indeed.

KETTERING. Yes. But the spark fired by Benjamin Franklin was to burn even brighter yet. Some years later, an American inventor named Alexander Graham Bell patented a system by means of which it is possible to send the human voice over wires.

VOICE OF PATENTS. Come, come, Dr. Kettering!

KETTERING. Oh, I'm in earnest, but just to convince you, we've arranged a little demonstration to show you how it is done. Now in your time, certain gentlemen were commissioned to carry a message from Boston to Concord. Tonight, the great, great grandson of one of those illustrious gentlemen is seated beside a telephone in Boston. He, too, wants to deliver a message to Concord. Listen:

(Switch to Boston on cue "He, too, wants to deliver a message to Concord. Listen:")

(Switch will take 5 seconds.)

(NOTE.--A. T. and T.--This cue must be watched carefully, as a somewhat similar phrase immediately precedes it.)

Mr. REVERE. (Dials telephone in accordance with instructions.) (Telephone bell rings in Colonial Inn, Concord.) (Concord announcer lifts receiver. Let it ring two or three times.)

CONCORD ANNOUNCER. Good evening--this is the Colonial Inn, Concord.

Mr. REVERE. Hello! This is Paul Revere speaking.

CONCORD ANNOUNCER. Oh, yes? If you're Paul Revere, then I'm John Adams.

Mr. REVERE. No, really! My name is Paul Revere. I am the great, great grandson of the Paul Revere you're thinking of.

CONCORD ANNOUNCER. Oh, I'm sorry, sir. I thought it was a gag. What can we do for you?

Mr. REVERE. I should like to make reservations for this week end for three friends of mine. They're Britishers, and very good fellows. Will you please do all you can to assure them a good time?

CONCORD ANNOUNCER. By all means, Mr. Revere. And thank you for calling, sir.

(Both hang up.)

VOICE (in Colonial Inn). Who was that calling?

CONCORD ANNOUNCER. It was Paul Revere; he says the British are coming.

(Switch to Washington on cue: "He says the British are coming"--Switch will take 5 seconds.)

RETTERING (on cue--with chuckle). Thank you, Mr. Paul Revere, and our thanks also to the management of the Colonial Inn at Concord, Mass. There, Mr. Patent System, what do you think of that?

VOICE OF PATENTS. (Awe) What hath God wrought!--And to think that these miracles sprang from those early experiments of Ben Franklin!

KETTERING. Yes; and now I'd like to show you an application of an even more wondrous miracle. Seated on my right here in Washington is the board chairman of the American Chemical Society, which is having its annual dinner in Cincinnati this evening. Because of the work of another American inventor--Lee De Forrest--he is now able to address his society in Cincinnati and also the group gathered here tonight to celebrate the patent sesquicentennial, at the same time. I am happy to present Dr. Thomas Midgley, Jr.!


Mr. MIDGLEY. Friends of both meetings, it is my honor to inform you that the first patent ever granted by the United States Patent Office was a chemical patent, issued to Samuel Hopkins for the extraction of pot and pearl ashes. Thank you.


KETTERING. Thank you, Dr. Midgley. And now, Mr. Voice of the Patent System--are you still with us?

VOICE OF PATENTS. I am, sir--and if I only had eyes, instead of being merely a voice, I'm sure they'd be popping alarmingly. Pray continue with your astounding revelations.

KETTERING. Well, if you can't see our modern world, then I'll have to tell you of one of the greatest uses to which Ben Franklin's spark of lightning has been put. An American named Tom Edison ran that spark through a little wire inside of a glass bottle and made electric light.

VOICE OF PATENTS. What, pray, is an electric light, Dr. Kettering?

KETTERING. It is a light without flame. Now, please don't ask me to explain it further to you. Just take my word for it that it's wonderful. And yet, it is only one of 1,101 patents taken out by Tom Edison during his career. Edison certainly was a genius! Another of his inventions is on the table before me--a phonograph record. But this is no ordinary phonograph record! It is one recording the voice of the inventor himself, as he spoke on the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of the laying of the first ocean cable.

VOICE OF PATENTS. What is an ocean cable?

KETTERING. Heavens! More questions? (Chuckle.) A cable is a device for carrying that spark of Ben Franklin's under the ocean, as the telegraph carries it by land.

(The phonograph of Thomas Edison's speech is played.)

VOICE OF PATENTS. I shall have much to tell my contemporaries upon my return to whence I came.

KETTERING. Yes; my ghostly friend, I'm sure you will. I only regret that the limitations of time do not permit us to demonstrate for you all the other wonders of the modern world that have been born of the patent system. I should like to show you the many labor saving devices in homes and factories--and the farms! What would our farms be today without McCormick's reaper, and the other machines that came after it! It has been said that if kings and other privileged persons be excepted, the world had been hungry for 10,000 years before the invention of the reaper. Yes; I could go on and on for hours, listing the inventions that have made our daily lives healthier, more comfortable and enjoyable, and if I did, perhaps I should boast most of our modern streamlined trains; of the millions of automobiles that give our people economical transportation; of the mammoth ocean liners and of course, the newest and fastest of all transportation media--the airliners--those magnificent ships that fly through the air.

VOICE OF PATENTS. (Incredulous.) Ships that fly through the air? Who invented them?

KETTERING. Two Americans--Wilbur and Orville Wright. But the airplane they gave us has been improved. It took the genius of many men to make the present-day airliner possible. However, instead of my telling you about it, listen to one of America's most famous aviators--Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker. All right, Eddie--Contact!

(STUDIO. Start airplane motor on "Contact" cue. Rev up full and hold for a few beats, then down to fade out under Rickenbacker.)

(NOTE.--Rickenbacker will speak from Washington studio.)

RICKENBACKER. There is no need to identify that sound. It is the theme song of aviation. It is a good theme song, stirring and powerful, and, once heard, especially within the cabin of a plane, imprints indelibly on the mind of man a graphic picture of transportation in the modern manner. Yes, we airmen are proud of our ships, and we are eternally grateful to Wilbur and Orville Wright, who in Kitty Hawk, N. C., in 1903, gave us the forerunner of our modern craft. But, while too much honor can never be paid to the Wright Brothers for their work in aviation, we must remember that today's plane is the product of many minds, and possible only because of many great inventions. Without Charles F. Kettering's self-starter, for example, that powerful motor you heard a moment ago would be too dangerous to start, and its horsepower would be insufficient to lift the modern plane off the ground, had not William Burton discovered the process for cracking gasoline, and so set the pace for a long line of petroleum technologists, who gave us the modern aviation gasoline that makes possible the heavy pay-loads and long-distance ability of American aviation. 

The light strong wings and fuselage made of metal would be too expensive to use had not Charles Martin Hall invented the modern production process for aluminum, and without Sperry's gyroscope we wouldn't have the automatic pilot, the gyrocompass nor the gyrostabilizer. We airmen are thankful, too, for the light, strong plastics which followed Leo Baekeland's discovery of bakelite, as we are grateful for George Westinghouse's airbrakes and the tires that would not have been possible without Charles Goodyear's discovery of the vulcanization of rubber. So, the next time you ride an airliner, or pause to watch it wing its way across the sky, remember that there flies, in tangible form, the dreams of many men. Remember that that skyship would not be possible without the use of numerous inventions. Then you will appreciate why American airmen so revere those fellows who spend their lives puddling in laboratories.


KETTERING. Thank you, Eddie Rickenbacker. And now, ladies and gentlemen--and you, my archaic guest--it is my pleasant duty to present to you the guardian of America's patents--Hon. Conway P. Coe, United States Commissioner of Patents.


COMMISSIONER COE. I wish you who hear my voice in this broadcast had also the aid of television so that you might have a sight of this gathering of men important in the affairs of your Government and of the Nation's industry. I know you would be impressed and pleased by this worthy observance of a momentous event in our history.

We are commemorating President Washington's approval of our first patent law on April 10, 1790, just 150 years ago today. With that law began our patent system, which has done so much to further our economic advancement, to improve our social conditions, and to make ours a mighty democracy able to preserve our freedom in a world threatened by tyranny.

Our patent system is one of the democratic heritages bequeathed to us by the very founders of our Government. Its need and its value were foreseen by the authors of our Constitution, one of whom was Benjamin Franklin, a successful inventor. They made provision for that system when, in the first article of the Constitution, they empowered Congress to promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing to inventors the exclusive rights to their discoveries.

President Washington urged the First Congress of the United States to enact legislation carrying that provision into effect. And then, by a most benign decree of fortune, Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence and father of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, was chosen to administer the system during the first several years of its operation. He was then Secretary of State. Long before he was chosen for that office, Jefferson had at least two inventions to his credit.

In his address to the second session of the First Congress, President Washington counseled its members to grant "effectual encouragement to the exertion of skill and genius at home." President Roosevelt, in the proclamation in which he set aside this 10th of April 1940 as Inventors' and Patent Day and invited its general observance, recorded that our patent system by affording protection and encouragement to inventors, has contributed greatly to foster inventive genius.

For the fine fruits of the patent system, then, we are indebted to the wisdom of the creators of our government itself. They regarded it as a democratic means of assuring the country's future welfare. The present head of our nation, Franklin D. Roosevelt, bears eloquent witness to the success of the system in achieving the aims of the framers of our Constitution and the members of the First Congress.

This assemblage here in Washington, seat of the Federal Government, is manifesting its gratefulness for all that the patent system has done thus far and for what it promises for the future. Our American democracy gives opportunity for the humblest of our citizens to attain the highest office in our Government. Our patent system, equally democratic, gives the neediest of our people like opportunity to profit by his ingenuity. The protection and the recompense of patents are bestowed without regard to race, or sex, creed, caste, or age. This safeguard and this reward are open to any man, woman, or child who earns them by enriching the world with a desirable invention.

Many thousands of Americans have helped by their inventions to increase the convenience, the comfort, and the safety of us all. They are still adding to our wonderment and to our well-being. So long as the patent system continues to prompt them, to protect them, and to requite them we may confidently count on further benefits.

The marvels of invention we now possess should remind us of the debt we owe their makers, but still more they should make us deeply grateful to the men who established this Government, including the patent system. It is to them that this gathering here this evening is paying thankful and reverent tribute.

Most of you listening, wherever you are and whatever your calling may be, are every hour of the day beneficiaries of inventions which the patent system has brought into use. They serve you at home, in your shop or office; when you are engaged in your work and when you turn to your amusements. Perhaps you take them for granted, as so many commonplaces. But if we were suddenly deprived of them we should be returned to the conditions in which our ancestors existed as recently as 125 years ago. We should find ourselves without railways, the telephone, the telegraph, motion pictures, automobiles, airplanes, radio, and scores of other utilities we have come to regard as indispensable.

So, my friends, I invite you to join in spirit this evening's recognition of the American patent system--one of the best gifts of democracy.


KETTERING. Thank you, Commissioner Coe. And my thanks to you, also, Mr. Voice of the Past, for coming to help us pay tribute to the outstanding American inventions on this Inventor's and Patent Day.

VOICE OF PATENTS. The pleasure was mine, Dr. Kettering. I came, beset with curiosity; I leave, filled with wonder. These marvelous devices which you honor this evening are proof of the success of the American patent system.

KETTERING. Yes; that is so. But perhaps the greatest benefit accruing to us from our patent system is easily forgotten. In the early days of this country, our greatest necessity was manpower, and so labor-saving inventions and machinery were developed. These inventions made it possible to take our abundant natural resources, and out of them create all the wealth that has made this Nation the envy of the world, while at the same time making the necessities and luxuries of life available with increasing economy to the people. But now, our problem is to supply more new labor-creating industries, like the automobile and electrical industries, through industrial research. Now, we have an excess of manpower, money, and materials. We need more things to use up these abundant resources. We need to turn our research and development program to supplying projects so that the present excess of men will be put to productive work, thereby increasing the wealth, happiness, and well-being of the country. For that program, the patent system is one of our strongest bulwarks of democratic government.

It offers the same protection, the same opportunity, the same hope of reward to every individual. It plays no favorites. It is as truly democratic as the Constitution from which it sprang. And in this present-day world, no higher praise could possibly be bestowed on any work of man.

(Music--Medley of "Yankee Doodle and America.")

STUDIO ANNOUNCER: (on cue). We have presented a special program in celebration of Inventors' and Patents Day, from the ballroom of the Mayflower Hotel, in Washington, D. C., where the banquet of the United States Patent Law Sesquicentennial Committee is taking place. Amongst those who took part in the broadcast were: Hon. Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Dr. Thomas Midgley, Jr.; Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker; Mr. R. B. White; Mr. Paul Revere, and Dr. Charles F. Kettering. The Department of Commerce has prepared a booklet on the patent system which any of our listeners may have, merely for the asking. If you'd like to get a copy of it, just address a card to the Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C., and ask for "The Story of the American Patent System." This is the National Broadcasting Company.