Group-level Concepts

posted Feb 18, 2012, 7:34 AM by Steve Borgatti   [ updated Apr 15, 2015, 6:55 AM ]

Theory and Method

  • Krackhardt, D. 1994. "Graph Theoretical Dimensions of Informal Organizations." Computational Organizational Theory, Editor Kathleen Carley and Michael Prietula. Hillsdale, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Barnes, J. A. (1969). Graph Theory and Social Networks: A Technical Comment on Connectedness and Connectivity. Sociology, 3(2), 215-232
  • Chen, Y., Paul, G., Cohen, R., Havlin, S., Borgatti, S. Liljeros, F., Stanley, H.E. 2007. Percolation theory applied to measures of fragmentation in social networks. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2007 Apr ;75 (4 Pt 2):046107 17500961 [pdf]
  • Carley, K. M. (1991). A theory of group stability. American Sociological Review, 56, 331-354.
  • Chase, Ivan. "Social process and hierarchy formation in small groups: A comparative perspective." American Sociological Review 45:905-924 [^pdf]
  • Gould, Rodger (2002). "The Origins of Status Hierarchies: A formal Theory and Empirical Test" American Journal of Sociology. 107:1143-1178
  • Markovsky, B., & Chaffee, M. (1995). Social identification and solidarity: A reformulation.Advances in Group Processes, 12, 249-270.
  • Markovsky, B.,& Lawler, E. J. (1994).A new theory of group solidarity. In B. Markovsky, K. Heimer,&J. O’Brien (Eds.), Advances in group processes (Vol. 11, pp. 113-137). Greenwich,CT: JAI.


  • Barsky, N. A core/periphery structure in a corporate budgeting process. Connections 22(2): 1-29. [html]
  • Bearman, Faris, & Moody, "Blocking the FutureSocial Science History 23:501-533
  • Klovdahl, A. S. 1985. "Social Networks and the Spread of Infectious Diseases: The AIDS Example." Social Science Medicine 21:1203-16

QAP Applications

posted Feb 11, 2012, 10:52 AM by Steve Borgatti   [ updated Feb 11, 2012, 10:53 AM ]

  • Barley, S. 1990. The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks. Administrative Science Quarterly 35: 61-103.
  • Boster, J. 1986. Exchange of Varieties and Information between Aguaruna manioc cultivators. American Anthropologist 88:428-436. [^pdf]
  • Borgatti, S.P. and Cross, R. 2003. A Relational View of Information Seeking and Learning in Social Networks. Management Science. 49(4): 432-445.[pdf]
  • Burkhardt, M. 1994. Social interaction effects following a technological change: A longitudinal investigation. Academy of Management Journal 37(4): 869-898.
  • Val Burris, “Interlocking Directorates and Political Cohesion among Corporate Elites.” American Journal of Sociology 111 (2005): 249-283.

QAP Theory & Method

posted Feb 11, 2012, 10:48 AM by Steve Borgatti

  • Baker, F. and Hubert, L. 1981. The analysis of social interaction data. Sociological Methods & Research 9(3): 339-361.
  • Dekker, David, David Krackhardt, and Tom A. B. Snijders. In Press. "Sensitivity of MRQAP Tests to Collinearity and Autocorrelation Conditions." Psychometrika. [pdf]

  • Faust, Katherine and A. Kimball Romney.  1985.  The effect of Skewed Distributions on matrix permutation tests.  British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38:152-160.

  • Hubert, L. & Schultz, L. 1976. Quadratic assignment as a general data analysis strategy. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology 29:190-241.
  • Krackhardt, D. 1987. “QAP Partialling as a test of spuriousness”. Social Networks 9: 171-186. [pdf]

  • Smouse, Peter E., Jeffery C. Long, and Robert R. Sokal (1986), "Multiple Regression and Correlation Extensions of the Mantel Test of Matrix Correspondence," Systematic Zoology, 35 (4), 627-32.

  • N. Mantel, “The Detection of Disease Clustering and a Generalized Regression Approach.” Cancer Research 27 (1967): 209-220.

Graph Theory

posted Jan 28, 2012, 11:39 AM by Steve Borgatti

  • Harary, Frank & R. Z. Norman (1953) Graph Theory as a Mathematical Model in Social Science. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.

  • Harary, Frank, R.Z. Norman & D. Cartwright (1965) Structural Models: An Introduction to the Theory of Directed Graphs. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Harary, Frank (1969) Graph Theory. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

  • Hage, Per (1979) Graph theory as a structural model in cultural anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 8 : 115-136.

  • Hage, Per & Frank Harary (1983) Structural Models in Anthropology.Cambridge: Cambridge University.

Reviews of network concepts in the mgmt lit

posted Jan 28, 2012, 11:38 AM by Steve Borgatti

  • Lincoln, J.R. 1982. Intra (and inter-) organizational networks. Research in the sociology of organizations 1:1-38.

  • Tichy, N. M., M. L. Tushman, and C. Fombrun, "Social Network Analysis for Organizations", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 4, No. 4, 1979, pp. 507-519 [^pdf]


posted Jan 28, 2012, 11:31 AM by Steve Borgatti   [ updated Jan 28, 2012, 11:32 AM ]

Bolded items are highly recommended

  • Berkowitz, Stephen D. (1982) An Introduction to Structural Analysis: The Network Approach to Social Research. Toronto : Butterworths.
  • Boissevain, Jeremy. & J.C. Mitchell, (1973) Network Analysis: Studies in Human Interaction. The Hague : Mouton.
  • Degenne, Alain & Michel Forsé (1995) Les réseaux sociaux: une analyse structurale en sociologie. Paris: Broché.
  • Freeman, Linton C., Douglas. R. White & A. Kimball Romney (1989) Research Methods in Social Network Analysis. Fairfax, VA : George Mason University Press.
  • Leinhardt, S. (ed) (1977) Social Networks: A Developing Paradigm. New York: Academic Press.
  • Marsden, Peter V., & Nan Lin (eds) (1982) Social Structure and Network Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
  • Mitchell, J. Clyde (ed) (1969) Social Networks in Urban Settings. Manchester: University of Manchester.
  • Scott, John (1992) Social Network Analysis. London: Sage.
  • Scott, J. and Carrington, P. (eds). 2011. The Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Sage Publications [amazon]
  • Wasserman, Stanley & Katherine Faust (1994) Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
  • Wellman B. & Stephen D. Berkowitz (1988) Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: University of Cambridge

Comments, Criticisms and Reviews

posted Jan 28, 2012, 11:25 AM by Steve Borgatti

Comments, Criticisms and Reviews

  • Alba, R. (1982). Taking Stock of Network Analysis: A Decade's Results. In Research in the Sociology of Organizations: A Research Annual, Volume 1, (ed. S. Bacharach), pp. 39-74, JAI Press: Connecticut.
  • Borgatti, S.P. and Foster, P. 2003. The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology.Journal of Management. 29(6): 991-1013 [pdf]
  • Richard D. AlbaThe American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 87, No. 3. (Nov., 1981), pp. 762-764. Review of Perspectives on Social Network Research. Paul W. Holland; Samuel Leinhardt [^pdf]
  • Krackhardt, D. & D.J. Brass. Intra-organizational networks:The micro side. In S. Wasserman & J. Galaskiewicz (Eds.), Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioral sciences, 207-229. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 1994
  • Emirbayer, M. 1997. "Manifesto for Relational Sociology." American Journal of Sociology 103:281-317 [^pdf]
  • Emirbayer, M. & Goodwin, J. 1994. Network analysis, culture, and the problem of agency. American Journal of Sociology 6: 1411-54. [^pdf]
  • Granovetter, M. 1979. The theory-gap in social network analysis.  In P. Holland and S. Leinhardt, eds., Perspectives on Social Network Research, pp. 501-518.  New York:  Academic Press.
  • Granovetter, M. (1992). Problems of explanation in economic sociology. In N. Nohria & R.G. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and organizations: Structure, form, and action, 25-56. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
  • Hummon & Carley 1993. Social networks as normal science. Social Networks 15: 71-106. [^pdf]
  • Hays, S. 1994. Structure and agency and the sticky problem of culture. Sociological Theory, 12(1): 57-72. [^pdf]
  • Krackhardt, D. and D.J. Brass 1994 "Intra organizational Networks: The Micro Side." In S. Wasserman & J. Galaskiewicz (eds.), Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
  • Mayhew, B. 1980. Structuralism vs. individualism part 1: Shadow boxing in the dark. Social Forces :335-375. [^pdf]
  • Raider, Holly, and David Krackhardt. 2001  "Intraorganizational Networks." In Joel A. C. Baum (Ed.) Companion to Organizations pp. 58-74. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. [pdf]
  • Salancik, G. 1995. Wanted: A good network theory of organization. Administrative Science Quarterly 40:345-349. [^pdf]

Histories of the field

posted Jan 28, 2012, 11:23 AM by Steve Borgatti

  • Linton C. Freeman, The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Vancouver: BC Press, 2004. Esp. Ch. 1.

  • Freeman, L.C. 1996. Some Antecedents of Social Network Analysis'' Connections 19: 39-42 [pdf]

  • Wellman, B. "Networking Network Analysts: How INSNA (the International Network for Social Network Analysis) Came to Be" Connections 23, 1, Summer 2000: 20-31.[pdf]

  • van Meter, K. The development of social network analysis in the French-speaking world. Social Networks Volume 27, Issue 3, July 2005, Pages 275-282 [^pdf]

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