I am an Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. My work focuses on exploring the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of cultural differences in a variety of psychological processes.
Broadly speaking I am interested in how culture effects the way we view the self, how we experience emotions, and how we perceive and reason about the social and non-social worlds. I am also interested in the causes (both proximal and distal) of within-culture and between-culture variations in these processes. My research combines theoretical frameworks from cultural psychology, evolutionary psychology, and behavioral ecology.
Within-culture variations in Social Orientation and Cognitive Habits: In my research, I study variation in these dimensions by social class within the US and other countries. I have conducted work documenting social class differences in neural responses as well as differences in more traditional implicit and explicit social psychological measures. In addition, I study regional variation within the US in tendencies like conformity that may be linked to voluntary settlement. I am also interested in how factors like pathogen prevalence and other ecological features might underlie regional variations in a broad variety of psychological tendencies and behaviors.
Cultural Neuroscience: I am pursuing research using neuroscience techniques to explore how culture influences the brain and vice-versa. I have conducted research using fMRI and EEG and ERPs to explore the effects of culture (including both national culture and social class) on social cognitive processes including trait inference and empathy, and I have explored how manipulating views of the self (a key dimension of cultural difference) affects empathy and vicarious reward. I have shown that social class affects neural responses linked to empathy and mirroring. I am also using neuroscience to study cultural differences in emotion regulation, self-enhancement, and the process of acculturation.
Cultural Change: In this line of research I have documented cultural shifts in variables ranging from individualism/collectivism, to contempt, to gender equality. Together with my collaborators we have used an ecological framework to understand the causes of these shifts.
Some of my other research interests include wise reasoning and the effect of different types of uncertainty on achievement-related behavior.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (in press). Pathogen prevalence is associated with cultural changes in gender
equality. Nature Human Behaviour.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (in press). Socio-ecological changes are linked to changes in the prevalence of
contempt over time. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Krems, J. A., & Varnum, M. E. W. (in press). More than just climate: Income inequality and sex ratio explain unique
variance in qualitatively different types of aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Hampton, R. S. (in press). Cultures differ in the ability to enhance affective neural responses.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Hampton, R. S. (in press). Culture and self-other overlap in neural circuits. In N. Gonzales,
E. Tezler, & J. Causadias (Eds.), Handbook of Culture and Biology. New York, NY: Wiley. Forthcoming.
Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (in press). Culture, cognition, and cultural change in social
class. In W. H. Berkhaus, & G. Ignatow (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology. Oxford, UK:
The Oxford University Press.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2016). The emerging (social) neuroscience of SES. Social and Personality Psychology
Compass, 10, 428-430. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12258
Varnum, M. E. W., Blais, C., & Brewer, G. A. (2016). Social class affects Mu-suppression during action observation.
Social Neuroscience, 11, 449-454.
Cohen, A. B., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2016). Beyond east vs. west: Social class, region, and religion as forms of culture.
Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 5-9.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Kwon, J. Y. (2016). The ecology of withdrawal. Commentary: The NEET and Hikikomori spectrum:
Assessing the risks and consequences of becoming culturally marginalized. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 764. doi:
Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural
change in America. Psychological Science, 26, 311-324.
Varnum, M. E. W., Blais, C., Hampton, R. S., & Brewer, G. A. (2015). Social class affects neural empathic responses.
Culture and Brain, 3, 122-130.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Higher in status, (even) better-than-average. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 496.
Sevincer, A. T., Kitayama, S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Cosmopolitan cities: The frontier in the 21st century.
Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1459. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01459
Varnum, M. E. W., Shi, Z., Chen, A., Qiu, J., & Han, S. (2014). When "your" reward is the same as "my" reward:
Jiang, C., Varnum, M. E. W., Hou, Y., & Han, S. (2014). Distinct effects of self-construal priming on empathic neural
responses in Chinese and Westerners. Social Neuroscience, 9, 130-139.
Smith, G. E., James , L. E., Varnum, M. E. W., & Oyserman, D. (2014). Give up or get going? Productive uncertainty
in uncertain times. Self and Identity, 13, 681-700.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2014). Sources of regional variation in social capital in the United States. Evolutionary Behavioral
Sciences, 8, 77-85.
Kitayama, S., Varnum, M. E. W., & Sevincer, A. T. (2014). The frontier: Voluntary settlement and cultural change.
(pp 93-127). Washington, DC: APA.
Grossmann, I., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2013). A route to well-being: Intelligence
vs. wise reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 944-953.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). Frontiers, germs, and non-conformist voting. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44,
Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). What are lay theories of social class? PLOS ONE, 8, e70589.
Han S., Northoff, G., Vogeley, K., Wexler, B. E., Kitayama, S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). A cultural neuroscience
approach to the biosocial nature of the human brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 335-359.
Varnum, M. E. W., Na, J., Murata, A., & Kitayama, S. (2012). Social class differences in N400 indicate differences in
spontaneous trait inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 518-526.
Grossmann, I., Karasawa, M., Izumi, S., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2012). Aging and
wisdom: Culture matters. Psychological Science, 23, 1059-1066.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2012). Conformity effect sizes are smaller on the frontier. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 12,
Varnum, M. E. W., & Kitayama, S. (2011). What's in a name? Popular names are less common on frontiers.
Psychological Science, 22, 176-183.
Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2011). Social class, culture, and cognition. Social Psychological and Personality
Science, 2, 81-89.
Varnum, M. E. W., Grossmann, I., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). The origin of cultural differences in cognition:
The social orientation hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 9-13.
Grossmann, I., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Park, D. C., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). Reasoning about social
conflicts improves into old age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 7246-7250.
Na, J., Grossmann, I., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., Gonzalez, R., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). Cultural differences are
not always reducible to individual differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA,
2008 & 2007
Varnum, M. E. W., Grossmann, I., Katunar, D., Nisbett, R. E., & Kitayama, S. (2008). Holism in a European cultural
context: Differences in cognitive style between Central and East Europeans and Westerners. Journal of
Cognition and Culture, 8, 321-333.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2008). Rapid adaptation to social change in Central Europe: Changes in locus of control, attribution,
subjective well-being, self-direction, and trust. Slovak Sociological Review, 3, 215-235.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2008). The transition from communism and shifts toward independent values and theory of agency in
post-communist Central European societies. In K. A. Fanti (Ed.), Psychological Science: Research, Theory, and
Future Directions (pp. 335-347). Athens, Greece: ATINER.
Varnum, M. E. W., & Bushman, B. (2007). Reference group effect. In R.F. Baumeister, & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia
of Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Psychological Science Cultural Change Article:
Harper's Findings. April, 2015.
NeuroImage Self-Construal and Vicarious Reward Article:
JEP:G Wisdom and Well-Being Article:
Psychological Science Wisdom and Culture Article:
JEP:G Social Class ERP Article:
Psychological Science Baby Names Article:
http://www.livescience.com/12934-popular-baby-names-frontier-states.html (livescience.com interview)
http://www.montrealgazette.com/life/Frontier+spirit+lives+parents+choice+baby+names/4087137/story.html (Postmedia interview)
PNAS Wisdom Article:
CDPS Social Orientation Hypothesis Article:
Other Media Coverage:
PSY 350 Introduction to Social Psychology
PSY 394 Introduction to Cultural Psychology
PSY 498 Cultural Psychology
PSY 591 Culture and Neuroscience