I am an Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. My work focuses on exploring the sources, mechanisms, and consequences of cultural differences in a variety of psychological processes.


Current Research
Broadly speaking I am interested in how culture effects the way we view the self, how we experience emotions, and how we perceive and reason about the social and non-social worlds. I am also interested in the causes (both proximal and distal) of cultural variations and cultural changes in these processes. My research combines theoretical frameworks from cultural psychology, evolutionary psychology, and behavioral ecology.

Cultural Change: In this line of research I have documented cultural shifts in variables ranging from individualism/collectivism, to contempt, to gender equality. Together with my collaborators we have used an ecological framework to understand the causes of these shifts. The hope is to create a predictive science that will enable us to forecast how cultures will change based on changes in ecological threats and affordances.

Ecological Causes of Cultural Variation: In this line of work I have explored how features of the ecology may shape culture patterns. This work has explored ecological explanations for cultural variations in a wide range of phenomena from individualism, to life history strategy, to the propensity to engage in violence.

Cultural Neuroscience: I am also pursuing research using neuroscience techniques to explore how culture influences the brain and vice-versa. I have conducted research using fMRI and EEG and ERPs to explore the effects of culture (including both national culture and social class) on social cognitive processes including trait inference, empathy, mirroring, emotion regulation, and self-positivity. I have also explored how manipulating views of the self (a key dimension of cultural difference) affects empathy and vicarious reward.  I am also using neuroscience to study cross-cultural differences in emotion regulation, self-enhancement, and the process of acculturation.
Some of my other research interests include wise reasoning, the wisdom of crowds, biculturalism, acculturation


In press

Sng, O., Neuberg, S. L., Varnum, M. E. W., Kenrick, D. T. (in press). The behavioral ecology of cultural psychological

            variation. Psychological Review.

Hampton, R. S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (in press). Do cultures vary in self-enhancement? ERP, behavioral, and 

            self-report evidence. Social Neuroscience.

Hampton, R. S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (in press). The cultural neuroscience of emotion regulation. Culture and Brain.

Hampton, R. S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (in press). Individualism-collectivism. In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.),

            Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. Forthcoming.

Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (in press). Culture, cognition, and cultural change in social 

            class. In W. H. Berkhaus, & G. Ignatow (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Sociology. Oxford, UK: 

            The Oxford University Press. Forthcoming

Kitayama, S., Varnum, M. E. W., Salvador, C. (in press). Cultural neuroscience. In D. Cohen & S. Kitayama (Eds.), 

            Handbook of Cultural Psychology, 2nd Edition. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Forthcoming.


Herrmann, S. D., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2018). The consequences of social class biculturalism for well-being, academic 

            performance, and workplace adjustment. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49, 635-663.

Kwon, J. Y., Bercovici, H., Cunningham, K., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2018). How will we react to the discovery of 

            extraterrestrial life? Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2308doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02308

Herrmann, S. D., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2018). Utilizing social class bicultural identity integration to improve outcomes

            for first-generation college students. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 4, 165-175.


Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (2017). Cultural change: The how and the why. Perspectives on Psychological 

            Science, 12, 956-972.

Santos, H. C., Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (2017). Global increases in individualism. Psychological Science

            28, 1228-1239.

Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (2017). Socio-ecological changes are linked to changes in the prevalence of 

            contempt over time. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e250.

Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2017). Divergent life histories and other ecological adaptations: Examples of 

            social class differences in attention, cognition, and attunement to others. Behavioral and Brain Sciences

            40, e327.

Varnum, M. E. W., & Kitayama, S. (2017). The neuroscience of social class. Current Opinion in Psychology, 18,


Varnum, M. E. W., & Hampton, R. S. (2017). Cultures differ in the ability to enhance affective neural responses.

            Social Neuroscience, 12, 594-603.

Krems, J. A., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2017). More than just climate: Income inequality and sex ratio explain unique 

            variance in qualitatively different types of aggressionBehavioral and Brain Sciences, 40, e89.

Sng, O., Neuberg, S. L., Varnum, M. E. W., & Kenrick, D. T. (2017). The crowded life is a slow life: Population density 

            life history strategyJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111, 736-754.

Sevincer, T. A., Varnum, M. E. W., & Kitayama, S. (2017). The culture of cities: Measuring perceived cosmopolitanism.

            Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48, 1052-1072.

Varnum, M. E. W., & Hampton, R. S. (2017). Culture and self-other overlap in neural circuits. In N. Gonzales, 

            E. Tezler, & J. Causadias (Eds.), The Handbook of Culture and Biology pp. 443-464). New York, NY: Wiley.

Kwon, J. Y, Hampton, R. S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2017). The cultural neuroscience of socioeconomic status. 

            In A. Ibanez, L. Sedeno, & A. Garcia (Eds.), Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link (pp. 383-395).

            Cham, Switzerland: Springer.


Varnum, M. E. W., & Grossmann, I. (2016). Pathogen prevalence is associated with cultural changes in gender 

            equality. Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 0003doi: 10.1038/s41562-016-0003

Varnum, M. E. W. (2016). The emerging (social) neuroscience of SES. Social and Personality Psychology 

            Compass, 10, 428-430. doi: 10.1111/spc3.12258

Varnum, M. E. W., Blais, C., & Brewer, G. A. (2016). Social class affects Mu-suppression during action observation.

            Social Neuroscience, 11, 449-454.

Cohen, A. B., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2016). Beyond east vs. west: Social class, region, and religion as forms of culture.

            Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 5-9.

Varnum, M. E. W., & Kwon, J. Y. (2016). The ecology of withdrawal. Commentary: The NEET and Hikikomori spectrum: 

            Assessing the risks and consequences of becoming culturally marginalized. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 764. doi:             



Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Social structure, infectious diseases, disasters, secularism, and cultural 

            change in America. Psychological Science26, 311-324.

Varnum, M. E. W., Blais, C., Hampton, R. S., & Brewer, G. A. (2015). Social class affects neural empathic responses.

            Culture and Brain, 3, 122-130.

Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Higher in status, (even) better-than-average. Frontiers in Psychology6, 496. 

            doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00496

Sevincer, A. T., Kitayama, S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2015). Cosmopolitan cities: The frontier in the 21st century. 

            Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1459. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01459


Varnum, M. E. W., Shi, Z., Chen, A., Qiu, J., & Han, S. (2014). When "your" reward is the same as "my" reward:

            Self-construal priming shifts neural responses to own vs. friend's rewards. NeuroImage, 87, 164-169.
Jiang, C., Varnum, M. E. W., Hou, Y., & Han, S. (2014). Distinct effects of self-construal priming on empathic neural
            responses in Chinese and Westerners. Social Neuroscience, 9, 130-139.
Smith, G. E., James , L. E., Varnum, M. E. W., & Oyserman, D. (2014). Give up or get going? Productive uncertainty
            in uncertain times. Self and Identity, 13, 681-700.
Varnum, M. E. W. (2014). Sources of regional variation in social capital in the United States. Evolutionary Behavioral
            Sciences, 8,

Kitayama, S., Varnum, M. E. W.,  & Sevincer, A. T. (2014). The frontier: Voluntary settlement and cultural change.

            In A. Cohen (Ed.). Culture Reexamined: Broadening our Understanding of Social and Evolutionary Influences
            (pp 93-127)
. Washington, DC: APA.


Grossmann, I., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2013). A route to well-being: Intelligence 

            vs. wise reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 944-953.

Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). Frontiers, germs, and non-conformist voting. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 


Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). What are lay theories of social class? PLOS ONE, 8, e70589. 

            doi: 109371/journal.pone.0070589.

Han S., Northoff, G., Vogeley, K., Wexler, B. E., Kitayama, S., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2013). A cultural neuroscience

            approach to the biosocial nature of the human brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 335-359.


Varnum, M. E. W., Na, J., Murata, A., & Kitayama, S. (2012). Social class differences in N400 indicate differences in 

            spontaneous trait inference. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141, 518-526.

Grossmann, I., Karasawa, M., Izumi, S., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2012). Aging and 

            wisdom: Culture matters. Psychological Science, 23, 1059-1066.                              

Varnum, M. E. W. (2012). Conformity effect sizes are smaller on the frontier. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 12, 



Varnum, M. E. W., & Kitayama, S. (2011). What's in a name? Popular names are less common on frontiers.

            Psychological Science, 22, 176-183.

Grossmann, I., & Varnum, M. E. W. (2011). Social class, culture, and cognition. Social Psychological and Personality

            Science, 2, 81-89.


Varnum, M. E. W., Grossmann, I., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). The origin of cultural differences in cognition:

            The social orientation hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 9-13.

Grossmann, I., Na, J., Varnum, M. E. W., Park, D. C., Kitayama, S., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). Reasoning about social 

            conflicts improves into old age. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 7246-7250.

Na, J., Grossmann, I., Varnum, M. E. W., Kitayama, S., Gonzalez, R., & Nisbett, R. E. (2010). Cultural differences are 

            not always reducible to individual differences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 

            107, 6192-6197.

2008 & 2007

Varnum, M. E. W., Grossmann, I., Katunar, D., Nisbett, R. E., &  Kitayama, S. (2008). Holism in a European cultural 

            context: Differences in cognitive style between Central and East Europeans and Westerners. Journal of 

            Cognition and Culture, 8, 321-333.

Varnum, M. E. W. (2008). Rapid adaptation to social change in Central Europe: Changes in locus of control, attribution, 

            subjective well-being, self-direction, and trust. Slovak Sociological Review, 3, 215-235.

Varnum, M. E. W. (2008). The transition from communism and shifts toward independent values and theory of agency in

            post-communist Central European societies. In K. A. Fanti (Ed.), Psychological Science: Research, Theory, and 

            Future Directions (pp. 335-347). Athens, Greece: ATINER.

Varnum, M. E. W., & Bushman, B. (2007). Reference group effect. In R.F. Baumeister, & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia 

            of Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 

Media Coverage

Reactions to ET Life Article & AAAS Presentation:
South Africa Sunday Times, 2/25/18

Psych Science Global Rise in Individualism Article:

JPSP Density and Life History Strategies Article:

Social Class research:

Nature Human Behaviour Cultural Change in Gender Equality Article:

Psychological Science Cultural Change Article:
Harper's Magazine. Findings. April, 2015.

NeuroImage Self-Construal and Vicarious Reward Article:

JEP:G Wisdom and Well-Being Article:
PNAS Wisdom Article:

PSY 350 Introduction to Social Psychology 
PSY 394 Introduction to Cultural Psychology
PSY 498 Cultural Psychology
PSY 591 Culture and Neuroscience

Contact Info