2a. Ancient Greece-Day One


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FUN HERE

WHERE GREEKS CAME FROM....ENTRY ONE

A BRIEF VIEW OF THE ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATIONS BEFORE ATHENS AND SPARTA

 THE GEOGRAPHY OF ANCIENT GREECE- THIS TINY SLIVER OF LAND

   Greece today is a very small country in southeastern Europe. It is made up of not only mountainous mainland, but a multitude of rocky volcanic islands.     

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  The indigenous Greeks or people native to Greece are mysterious in their origins. Where and when they came to area has never been discovered. Other groups came to the islands and the mainland and gave Greece their language and culture and also have mysterious origins. What scientists do know from frescoes (painting was done in wet plaster) and shards of pottery after analyzing language spoken and written is that this group probably came from the Russian steppes speaking a 

hodge-podge of Indo- European languages. Soon these immigrants settled on islands dotting the Aegean Sea off the coast of Greece or on the rocky almost barren mountain-laden land of the Greek mainland. Soon they began to blend with the native population.

 

    Inland, there were few rivers to fish, use as transportation, or to irrigate crops. Only coastal settlements had plenty of fish, and the use of water for transportation. The Greek soil was often rocky and only grew few things; the olive tree wild at first, some vegetables, and the land, like parts of California, were good for grape vines. Where there were sources of freshwater and rich soil, settlements often arose. The settlements used materials they had to survive, trade or control others. Each city-state because of their isolation, developed separate customs. What they had in common was the religion and language. These early people were forced to trade and with trade came new ideas and their civilization grew.


 THE FIRST KNOWN GREEK "LOST" CIVILIZATION- THE MINOANS
(2800 BCE-1400 BCE)
TO SEE THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE MINOANS, CLICK HERE.

  The first Gminoangirl.GIFreek civilization was on the island of Crete. This island was south-east of the Hellenic (Greek- Greeks call themselves Hellenes) mainland. The island inhabitants were part of a lost civilization. For a long time, historians did not know that this civilization existed. The “Minoan” civilization was discovered by a Turkish archaeologist who gave up the project.

    In 1900 AD, Sir Arthur Evans, an English scholar, curator of the Oxford University Museum, was fascinated with the Greek culture and brought a crew to excavate on the island of Crete, a site he heard had once held a palace. What he found was beyond his wildest dreams. His team found a huge elaborate temple which was part of a large settlement called Knossos. He could see several rebuilds of this temple, Why had the other temples been destroyed? There was evidence that there were great geological disasters as well as man-made. Evans, to his amazement, and the amazement of the world had found a group of people that time had forgotten.

     As Evans uncovered the palace, he was amazed at what he found. From paintings done in wet plaster (frescoes), Evans found a world of color. This was not the whitewashed world that he had imagined, but a world of color and from what he could see fun and joy in the lives of the people that had once lived there. The Minoans, from the pictures,  were a short muscular group of people with long dark curly hair. They had small waists and women often wore colorful skirts (such as the one above) and men wore trousers (one of the few ancient male populations to do so) that accented their waists. They worshiped Mother Earth or Gaea, the giver of all life. The evidence disclosed that this could have been a matriarchal society (where women ruled). Many frescoes showed athletic events in which men and women are both active participants (bull jumping). Other sports events painted on the walls showed boxing and wrestling.        

     The excavated palace at Knossos was somewhat intact. It had been built to withstand anything including earthquakes. Underneath the palace, there was a complicated underground sewer system known as a Labyrinth, and the main palace was known as the HOUSE OF THE DOUBLE AXE. The Greek word for double ax is labrys. The double ax was rarely used because working with metal was a new skill, A double-sided ax was rare and was only used for both clearing forests, and sacrifices, by rulers or priests and priestesses. This made the ax sacred. The Knossos frescoes always show the labrys in the hands of a priestess which reinforces the idea that women probably had power.

     What Evans also found was a peaceful civilization. There were no high walls to keep out invaders, and few

weapons. When peace prevailed in a civilization, then progress and learning often take place and women sometimes hold more power. The technology in the palace was shockingly modern. They had flush toilets and running water. The Minoans also invented the first practical sword from iron, truly a weapon of mass destruction, and made its owner very powerful.

     Some of the other accomplishments of the Minoans were an ability to read the stars and use them as a navigation tool. Minoans learned to sail the "wine-dark sea", the Mediterranean, and trade with many groups. They were the first group to feel at ease leaving the shoreline and sailing in the open sea.
     This civilization  DID NOT NEED to have a navy or army. The island of Crete was totally surrounded by ocean and some of the civilizations of the day such as ones in the Middle East felt that salt water was demonic. Few groups sailed beyond their own shorelines so invaders at first were rare. Minoans were the best sailors in the world so when pirates threatened their trade, they redesigned their ships to sail much faster and with a PROW. A prow is a plank or metal that is attached to the bow (front of the ship) and was used for ramming other ships. Minoans show the true Greek spirit. They did not give up or give in but found out a way to excel and succeed.

   And then Evans found a written language, Linear A. Scientists still cannot decode the writing not even with the most sophisticated codebreaking computers.

    So Evans called the group Minoans after a legendary King Minos of mythology. Evans died in 1941 showing the world the first hints of the greatness of the Greeks. 

 

      How the civilization was disappeared is only a guess. There have been stories ....mythological stories about the end of the Minoan civilization. The story says that the palace of Knossos was plagued by a great labyrintha series of twists and turns under the palace. 
 In these passageways lived a monster known as the Minotaur. This monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man was a punishment from the god Poseidon. To appease the Minotaur, the Minoan king demanded that Athens (a defeated rival) send 7 young men and 7 young women every year to feed to the Minotaur. Theseus, the Athenian prince, was to be sacrificed to the minotaur.  He had convinced a Minoan princess to tell him the secret of how to find his way out of the maze. Theseus carried a Minoan sword and soon slaughtered the minotaur. Legend says that if this were to happen, then Knossos and all of the Minoan kingdoms would fall. And it did.

     What probably happened was a catastrophe of epic proportions. Sometime around 17th century BCE, a massive volcanic explosion sent more than half of the island of Thera (today known as the island of Santorini) into the sky. Poisonous ash fell for days, there was a serious change in the weather putting remaining crops in danger, and a giant tsunami that devastated ports and farmland. The tsunami hit Crete's mainland and traveled 30 miles inland, carrying all away in its path. Port villages and cities were totally destroyed, farmland flattened. What was left was a landscape of devastation and disease. The ruler lost power and people began to hide or were more willing to surrender to invaders. Soon the invaders came and the once great Minoan civilization ceased to exist.

YouTube Video


   
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FUN IN GOOGLE MAPS
1. FIRST OLYMPIC STADIUM, OLYMPIA 37°38'19.96"N 21°37'54.21"E
2. HEPHAESTUS, ATHENS 37°58'31.94"N 23°43'17.22"E
3. CHURCH OF PANAGIA-RIGHT THESSALONIKI 40°37'54.55"N 22°57'9.20"E
4. LYKAVITOS THEATRE, ATHENS 37°59'2.07"N 23°44'49.65"E
5. FORTRESS MALVASIA, MONEMVASIA 36°41'15.33"N 23° 3'21.71"E
6. TREASURY OF ATREUS, AGROS MIKINES 37°43'36.43"N 22°45'13.69"E
7. FORTRESS VENETIAN, HERAKLION 35°20'40.40"N 25° 8'13.04"E
8. AGIA SOFIA, THESSALONIKI 40°37'58.43"N 22°56'48.22"E
9. PARTHENON-ACROPOLIS, ATHENS 37°58'17.17"N 23°43'36.03"E
10. ATHENIAN TREASURY, DELPHI 38°28'54.65"N 22°30'5.38"E
11. FORT WALL ONE, THESSALONIKI 40°38'33.66"N 22°57'44.35"E
12. SOLDIERS MAUSOLEUM, CORFU 39°38'24.66"N 19°55'27.93"E
13. PANAGIA HALCON CHURCH, THESSALONIKI 40°38'12.16"N 22°56'37.33"E
14. PALAESTRA, OLYMPIA 37°38'18.36"N 21°37'42.31"E
15. GRAMOUSA FORTRESS, KISSAMOS 35°36'31.78"N 23°34'31.60"E
16. PLATAMON CASTLE, OLIMPOS 40° 0'20.52"N 22°35'53.97"E

    
ENTRY TWO A
THE PEOPLES OF GREECE 
The Mycenaeans
     Around 2000 BCE, a bellicose (warlike) tribe descended on horseback from the steppes of Southern Russia to conquer all lands and villagers in their path. The small villages of fishermen and farmers had never seen anything like it. These men seemed united with the animals that they rode, and brought death and destruction to anyone who stood in their way. One can only guess if this is where the stories of centaurs (half man and half horse) came from…. ???. 

    The Mycenaeans ruled with a brutal, iron fist (much as warlords rule in tribal societies do today), built fortresses on hilltops, and enslaved the indigenous Greeks. The farmers became tenants, having to pay the Mycenaean kings back with part of whatever they raised on the very land that they once owned. 

  The fortresses soon became palaces that were buzzing with activity. Artisans tanned leather, sewed clothes,
and made jars for wine and olive oil. Others made bronze swords and leather shields. Government officials kept track of every person's wealth (using a written language called Linear B), and then taxed the people in wheat, livestock, or honey. These were stored in the palace warehouses. The small kingdoms also shared culture, poetry, and stories of heroes and gods. 

      But the Mycenaeans had a problem. The quality of the soil was poor, not fit to raise much except sheep, cattle, goats, grapes, olive trees and grain. To remain powerful, rulers had to find ways of getting other things that they needed or wanted. Sometimes they traded with the  Minoans, Southern Italy, or Egypt and sometimes they took over farmland or a city-state to get what they wanted or needed. In other words, if they could take what they wanted by force, they did. They also learned from traders especially from the Minoans how to do many things such as built ships, and navigate using the sun and stars. 

     The Mycenaeans were known for their valiant and headstrong nature (as the stories of Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey illustrate). They were not shy to go after something they wanted or needed and would fight each other to the death to prove their point, settling matters of dishonor, or to show their heroic spirit. A good example of Mycenaean conquest and struggle is the Trojan War described in Homer’s epic poems. What were these wars really over is a point of conjecture and theory? One theory is that Mycenaean kings began to open trade routes intruding on those already established by the Hittite Empire (Hittites controlled Turkey and were the first ever to use chariots in warfare). Intruding on existing trade routes was usually accomplished by sinking the ships of one's opponent and taking the cargo. One trade center Mycenaeans tried to capture was a strongly fortified city the Hittites called in their texts Wilusa. This city was on the coast of Turkey and was strong and capable of raising armies in a very short time to protect the shipping lanes. Homer in his epics calls this city Ilios, and the Hittites would have pronounced this same word Wilios. In English today, it is translated into the word Troy. Could the Trojans have carried the Spartan queen, Helen, off, and started a “world” war that pitted the Mycenaean warlords against Troy? According to Homer in his famous stories, it did. According to primary and secondary sources, probably not. The war immortalized by Homer was possibly a war of greed. The events in Homer's tales were considered history by the ancient Greeks, but Homer was writing about an event that happened 500 years before his time; about 800 BCE. The Trojan war supposedly took place in the 13th century BCE. 

     What happened next to the Mycenaeans (when they were no longer united against a common enemy) was constant warfare amongst themselves for power, and bragging rights as to who was the strongest, the best, the most beautiful, and most loved by the gods. And with this constant warfare came disease, and poverty and apathy. Those who had so willingly served for the warlord fled or gave up, hoping to survive another day. Civil wars broke out against the rulers, and wars between the city-states weakened what was left of the ancient Greek civilization. Soon a new invader took what was left.

THE DORIANS     

     Then came the Dorians (between 1150-700 BCE) also known in some history books as the "sea people". Like a devastating plague, they swept through Southern Greece and island kingdoms (from north/ northwestern Greece, Macedonia and Epirus) killing and enslaving all before them. This group of people was primitive at best. They were the ancient world equivalent of terrorists and terrorism. There was no warning that they were coming, and they spared no one in front of their offensive. They did not write, read, or practice poetry like the Mycenaeans or Minoans. They did not have time to build temples to the gods. They could not create beautiful pieces of bronze work as the Mycenaeans had in their statues, armor, spears, and swords. But bronze was weak, bent and broke. Tin, one of the two ingredients used to make bronze, was scarce.     The Dorians had one thing that made them superior….a working knowledge of how to use iron. Iron, unlike the copper and tin in bronze was plentiful, and the swords that it produced were strong, sharp and plentiful. Iron arrowheads and iron rims for wheels on chariots could also be easily replaced or reinforced.


     The Mycenaeans were tired of the death and fighting among themselves and almost willingly gave in to the Dorians, fled before them, or died. Some fled, created new settlements, or colonized different parts of the Mediterranean. No longer was knowledge important. Survival was. And so the Greek Dark Ages began. Writing, reading and record keeping disappeared. All trade to the outside world was cut off. Cruelty and starvation were part of everyday life. Daily survival was the most important.

     In some settlements, Dorians blended into the native population. In others, in order to maintain order and control, and to keep wealth and power in the hands of a few, Dorians created a warrior class of only the strongest.  Sparta became their capital. It was perfect for a number of reasons, one being that iron was everywhere in the ground around Sparta. Sparta was also northwest of Athens and was totally landlocked.

     The Dorians had little use for reading and education in the traditional sense as did their descendants, the Spartans. They left those deeds to their slaves or helots. So during this time in Greek history, reading and writing disappeared. Toward the end of this time period, Homer (whoever he really was) wrote his famous Iliad and the Odyssey

The only group untouched by the Dorians was the Athenians. At the time that Dorians were capturing and sacking settlements, the Athenians were farmers in a small community. Athenians traded and lived pleasantly unaware that their lives would soon change.

 

 1. See a quick movie about Mycenaean Architecture here!

   2. VIEW THE STORY IN CARTOONS HERE...


    WHO SAID LEARNING CANNOT BE FUN?   FLING THE TEACHER REVIEW1   

 ENTRY 2B-DARK AGES TO EARLY GREECE

       The Mycenaean capitals pre-Dorian age were located on hilltop fortresses so the inhabitants could keep a watchful eye for invaders.  Taxes and wages were paid in the form of crops or local goods. Money in the coin form was unheard of, and bards or singing storytellers told of heroes and times in which men were men, and the gods played with these human life forms for their own pleasure. During these times, this was the only way knowledge passed from one place to another. These tales also told701zeus.gif the Greeks of values of a time long ago,  when every man could be a hero and of the gods who influenced every aspect of their lives. People found that they also had to trade more and more for the essentials that would help them create a strong civilization, one that could live in peace and flourish. All people in the Greek isles and mainland shared this dream, spoke Greek (the language that allowed for trade), believed in the Olympic gods, and called themselves the  HellenesAcropolis (meaning high city or temple built on top of a hill) was usually in the middle of each city-state with the city built around it. 


     Some Greek polis had natural harbors. So citizens through trade learned about new developments throughout the world. The exception to this rule was Sparta that was totally landlocked. Each city-state became more and more competitive for the rights to trade and compete against each other in many other ways (such as sporting events). 


     Every aspect of the Greek life was competitive and the Greeks even made this competitive nature part of their 

religious worship of the Olympian gods and goddesses. They called it Arête or excellence in every pursuit (a passion for 

perfection). Greeks looked for ways to be the best in everything. For years, they had listened to the bards (traveling 

singing storytellers) tell of heroic men in the Trojan War. And how one man, Odysseus, reasoned his way back 

home despite the odds..


     Then the Dorians attacked and life as the Hellenes had known in the past ceased to exist. For years, the people living on the Greek islands and mainland lived a day-to-day existence. The most pressing question of all was would one survive the day or the hour? Many Greeks had scattered to different parts of the Mediterranean area so they would not be slaughtered by the Dorians.  The ones that remained forgot the knowledge of the past including how to read and write. This time period was known as the Dark Ages.


     Around 800-700 BCE, the Greek city-states began to come out from the “darkness”. Dorians became part of the native people and in many places, their violent past was forgotten. Trade once again became important, especially with the Greek colonies that started along the shores of the Mediterranean.


     The Greeks called a city-state a polis. The modern English words police, politics, policy. Many Greeks wanted to have these tales written down so all could read and remember the stories forever. There was one small problem. The art of reading and writing had long been lost. As trade picked up, rich and poor alike needed to record their trades and possessions.
 

    Trade and exposure to the outside world helped many Greek poleis to come up with a solution. Phoenicians had developed a simple alphabet, one that almost anyone could use because it only had a few symbols. The Greeks (especially Athenians) adopted the alphabet, added vowels, and began to write down many of the myths. The Lydians (close neighbors) invented coins. Now Greeks had a way of accurately keeping track of what they owned, and who owed it. This gave them proof that they were the best…..
 

    With the increase in trade came an increase in wealth. People needed a place to sell their goods and so an agora or central marketplace (usually built around an acropolis) was the center of Greek everyday life and the polis. Here one would see booths filled with goods, some every day, some exotic. The booths were called stoas. Like today’s mall, citizens (and their slaves) would walk past each stoa (separate booths that sold separate items from everyday to luxury goods) looking for things that they needed. Here, citizens would stop and discuss the important issues of the day, as well as make business deals or just buy household goods. 


     As these centers grew, many of these centers (polis) began to change. With this growth, the population needed more workers. So quite often, wars were waged to get more slave labor. Many of the humans living in the polis were slaves. Each city-state used this property (slaves) to expand their wealth. Eventually, the city-state would eventually hold 5,000-10,000 citizens, their families, slaves and non-citizen artisans.
  

    In 776 BCE, a monumental four years otherwise known as Olympiad. At this time, all wars and feuds would stop, and athletes would participate proudly to show how fit they were and how their performance and bodies praised the gods. This event brought all the polis of Greece together. All participants had to lay down their weapons and this was to be the ultimate competition as to see which polis was the best. The event was the first Olympics. Dedicated to Zeus, king of the Olympian gods, events tested the strength and speed of the participants. All events were fashioned to mimic battle situations and there was even a lengthy foot race in which all men were dressed completely in battle gear. This one event would occur every four years otherwise known as an OLYMPIAD.


   

TO SEE AN INTERACTIVE EXPLANATION OF THE OLYMPICS, CLICK HERE


As time passed, more and more city states wanted more and more power. So armies were formed, people conquered, and 

empires built. Two of the mightiest, most famous and arch-rivals in all things Greek were Sparta and Athens.  Watch out, 

reader, for the unexpected. 

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ENTRY 3- CREATION OF THE CITY-STATE Read about it here. 


ENTRY 4-THE MAKING OF SPARTA



Iliad by HOMER (Ilios)

The story of the Trojan War

Greek gods and goddesses

Heroes

Eros (god of discord)

HERA(queen of all gods and goddesses)

Athena (goddess of wisdom) is on the side of Odysseus

Aphrodite (goddess of love and beauty) is on the side of the Trojans

Paris (asked to judge "fairest of them all contest) and Hector (princes of Troy) go to Sparta on trade

Helen is the queen of the Spartans- falls in love with Paris and runs back to Troy

Achilles (hero of Trojan war)

Menelaus (king of Sparta)

Agamemnon (king of kingdom on Greek mainland)

ODYSSEY BY HOMER

HUBRIS- pride that tempts the fates (such as in the Titanic)

Odysseus wants to go home to his wife and family- Poseidon will not let him

Penelope- Odysseus's wife

Telemechus - his son

Ithica- home and kingdom that he wishes to return to 

Poseidon is god of the sea and earthquakes and horses/bulls


MYTHOLOGY 






QUIZ ON GREEK GODS AND HEROES
The story of Greek Mythology 
       In the beginning, according to the Greeks, only Chaos existed. Then Love appeared and became 

light. Mother Earth (Gaea) and Father Heaven (Uranus) came into being. These two gods had two 

different types of children. First came Titans, large, beautiful and strong, and Monster children 

who were ugly and terrifying. 

     Uranus locked away his monster children in the darkest part of the earth.  Gaea asked her 

the youngest son, Cronus, to rescue her children. He agreed. To reward him, Gaea gave her son and 

Rhea (another Titan) the rule of heaven and earth.  The two Titans married and had six children. 

Cronus swallowed every child as it was presented to him. Rhea tricked him by wrapping a rock in a 

blanket.  Zeus, the youngest child, was sent away to be raised. When grown, he returned and he 

and mother Rhea forced Cronus to vomit the children now grown. The group of children was known 

as the Olympians. Zeus then divided the rule of heaven and earth among his sisters and brothers.  

They also imprisoned the Titans and monster children.


Here is what they did:

 

NAME OF MAJOR OLYMPIC GODS, CHILDREN OF THE TITANS

WHAT THEY RULED

Symbols of the gods

ZEUS

King of the gods, god of heaven and earth, ruler of weather, justice, lightening, thunderbolts.

Sharp-eyed eagle, oak tree

HADES

God of the underworld, gems, minerals and wealth of the underworld

Bident (2 pronged spear), and the cypress tree

POSEIDON

God of sea and earthquakes

Trident (3 pronged spear), dolphins, and horses

HESTIA

Goddess of hearth and home and the pure and simple life

Plain wooden throne, hearth fire

DEMETER

Goddess of all living things

Sheaths of wheat, and cornucopia

HERA

Queen of gods, married to Zeus, goddess of marriage and married women

Cow, peacock

 

 

CHILDREN OF ZEUS AND HERA

WHAT THEY RULED

Symbols of the gods

ARES

God of war and violence

Vulture, dog

HEPHESTUS

God of the forge (blacksmiths)

Maker of armor and weapons, married to Aphrodites

 

 

 

 

CHILDREN OF ZEUS AND OTHERS

WHAT THEY RULED

Symbols of the gods

ATHENA

Goddess of wisdom, war, arts, and crafts, sprang from the head of Zeus, said to create an olive tree, ship, plow

Owl, olive branch

APOLLO

God of light and truth, healing, archery, music-said to ride his chariot of light across the sky

Crow, dolphin, laurel trees, and lyre

ARTEMIS

Goddess of hunt and moon, protector of children and young animals

Stag, moon, cypress tree

APHRODITE

Goddess of Love and Beauty, born out of the foam of the sea, and son Eros (Cupid) made people fall in love

Dove, sparrow, swan, Myrtle (evergreen)

HERMES

God of sleep and dreams, the messenger of Zeus, protector of travelers, led dead to underworld

Winged helmet and sandals

DIONYSUS

God of Wine and fertility, born to a mortal, worshipped with drama festivals

Grapes, wine, theater masks




What makes a story a myth?
 Myths have 9 common characteristics. They are as follows:

  1. Myths explain natural phenomena. Winter comes because Hades has stolen Demeter’s daughter and Demeter is sad. So nothing grows.
  2. Myths have many gods. For example, when an earthquake or tsunami happens, some human has angered Poseidon.
  3. Gods and humans have superhuman powers. Hercules changed the course of a river to clean out a barn.
  4. Gods have emotions. Hera, queen of the gods, was always jealous.
  5. Myth contains magic. Pegasus was a winged horse that could fly. Medusa had a head full of snakes and anyone who looked at her turned to stone.
  6. Gods often appear in disguise. Zeus often changed into an animal to seduce young beautiful women.
  7. Good is rewarded and evil is punished. Aphrodite rewarded Paris for choosing her as the most beautiful Olympian. Aphrodite often exiled or turned vain women who believed they were more beautiful to a terrible life.
  8. Myths contain violence. Prometheus had his liver ripped out by vultures because he felt sorry for humans and gave them fire without the permission of the gods.
  9. Myths quite often reveal secrets about the people who tell them. For example, ancient Greeks believed that if they used their minds, they could defeat anything, even the gods. This is the story told in the Odyssey.   

3 places that one will see myths….

Nature

 Where did the earth come from?

· Heavens-sun, moon, stars, etc.

·    Seasons- climate, rain, fertility

·    Geography-oceans, mountains, forests

Man

Where did man come from and who is he really?

·    His life- birth, growth, reproduction, death

·    His victories-glories in battle

·    His defeats-misfortunes

·    His end-rewards and punishments

Gods

Where did the gods come from?

·    Number of gods- how many?

·    Role of gods- their power and weaknesses




HERO'S JOURNEY

Joseph Campbell’s Monomyth (Hero With A Thousand Faces)

The standard path of the mythological adventure of the hero is a magnification of the formula represented in the rites of 

passage: separation--initiation--return: which might be named the nuclear unit of the monomyth.


Stages of the hero’s journey:

1. Birth: Fabulous circumstances surrounding conception, birth, and childhood establish the hero’s pedigree, and often 

constitute their own monomyth cycle.

2. Call to Adventure: The hero is called to adventure by some external event or messenger. The Hero may accept the call 

willingly or reluctantly.

3. Helpers/Amulet: During the early stages of the journey, the hero will often receive aid from a protective figure. This 

supernatural helper can take a wide variety of forms, such as a wizard, and old man, a dwarf, a crone, or a fairy godmother.

 The helper commonly gives the hero a protective amulet or weapon for the journey.

4. Crossing the Threshold: Upon reaching the threshold of adventure, the hero must undergo some sort 

of ordeal in order to pass from the everyday world into the world of adventure. This trial may be as 

painless as entering a dark cave or as violent as being swallowed up by a whale. The important feature is 

the contrast between the familiar world of light and the dark, unknown world of adventure.

5. Tests: The hero travels through the dream-like world of adventure where he must undergo a series of 

tests. These trials are often violent encounters with monsters, sorcerers, warriors, or forces of nature. 

Each successful test further proves the hero's ability and advances the journey toward its climax.

6. Helpers: The hero is often accompanied on the journey by a helper who assists in the series of tests 

and generally serves as a loyal companion. Alternately, the hero may encounter a supernatural helper in 

the world of adventure who fulfills this function.

7. Climax/The Final Battle: This is the critical moment in the hero's journey in which there is often a 

final battle with a monster, wizard, or warrior which facilitates the particular resolution of the adventure.

8. Flight: After accomplishing the mission, the hero must return to the threshold of adventure and prepare for a return 

to the everyday world. If the hero has angered the opposing forces by stealing thelixir or killing a powerful monster, the return may take the form of a hasty flight. If the hero has been 

given the elixir freely, the flight may be a benign stage of the journey.

9. Return: The hero again crosses the threshold of adventure and returns to the everyday world of daylight

. The return usually takes the form of an awakening, rebirth, resurrection, or a simple emergence 

from a cave or forest. Sometimes the hero is pulled out of the adventure world by a force from the 

daylight world.

10. Elixir: The object, knowledge, or blessing that the hero acquired during the adventure is now put to use in the everyday world. Often it has a restorative or healing function, but it also serves to define the hero's role in the society.

11. Home: The hero comes back from this mysterious adventure with the power to bestow boons on hisfellow man.



OTHER PARTS OF READING 1

*GREEK ALPHABET

***GREEK ETYMOLOGY 

****STRANGE BUT TRUE AND SOME MODERN DAY  

 ****IT’S ALL GREEK TO ME- PLAY

 FLING THE TEACHER REVIEW 2



FUN HERE
 
 
                 3.  ASK APOLLO'S ORACLE
 

 5.  SPEAK LIKE A GREEK

6. Story of Odysseus.....
 

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Jan Menzie,
Dec 28, 2017, 12:05 PM
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