What processes determine the direction and rate of range shift change in response to global change? To answer this question, I have focused on the role of abiotic and biotic limitation in determining range shifts.
Despite more rapid warming during winter months than summer months, relatively little is known on the effects of winter warming. Recent evidence suggests that winter warming may not be all good.
Species differ in their sensitivity and ability to respond to global changes. Variation in the timing and rate of range shift response to climate warming between species may, therefore, reflect differences in species traits. In addition, traits may indicate species potential responses to climate change.