The Mediterranean people are with no doubt the creators of civilization.
The Ancient MesopotamiansEgyptians, Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Indians, Persians, Greeks, Romans and other peoples of the Mediterranean race were responsible for creating culture, language, agriculture, sciences (including mathematics, astronomy, physics and medicine), democracy, and many other tangible things and ideologies that benefited and defined mankind forever.

The fact that the Mediterranean race is responsible for the most important of ancient civilizations was a problem for the promoters of Nordic superiority. Nazis did admit that the Mediterranean race in general and notably such geniuses of the Mediterranean race as Galileo Galilei, Leonardo da Vinci and Michaelangelo were more creative than Nordics.

Melville Jacobs noted: "To many physical anthropologists Nordic means a group with an especially high percentage of blondness, which represent a depigmentated Mediterranean".

Sonia Mary Cole, in her work Races of Man (1963, 2nd Ed. 1965) argued that the Nordic race belongs to the "brunette Mediterrenean" but that it differs only in its higher percentage of blonde hair and light eyes.

Claude Alvin Villee, Jr. also wrote: "The Nordic division, a partially depigmized branch of the Meditterranean group."

Carleton S. Coon and Earnest Hooton both agreed that the Nordic sub-race was the northern variety of Mediterraneans that lost pigmentation through natural selection due to the environment.

Giuseppe Sergi stated that the Mediterranean race was the "greatest race of the world" and was singularly responsible for the most accomplished civilizations of ancient times, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, Persia, Greece, Phoenicia, Carthage, and Rome. The Mediterranean race was also a major influence to the outside world in the modern era, the most significant being Spain and Portugal when they became global empires, influencing the Americas. Spain is also responsible for being one of the first nations in discovering and colonizing the Americas by its conquistadors.

Sergi argued that the Mediterranean race had in fact originated in Africa, probably in the Sahara region, and that it also included a number of dark-skinned peoples from the African continent, such as Ethiopians and Somalis.

Sergi states in his book The Mediterranean Race (1901) that there was a distinct Hamitic racial group which could be divided into two sub-groups: The Northern Hamites, which comprised Berbers, Toubou, Fulani and the Guanches; the Eastern branch, which comprised Egyptians, Nubians, Ethiopians, Oromo, Somali, and Tutsis. The Mediterraneans had expanded north and south from the Horn of Africa, creating superior civilizations. Sergi described the original European peoples as "Eurafricans". The ancient Greeks and Italians were born from "Afro-Mediterraneans" who migrated from Western Asia and had originally spoken a Hamitic language before the advent of Indo-European languages.

Sergi also asserted that the Semites were a branch of the Eurafricans who were closely related to the Mediterraneans.

Sergi maintained in summary that the Mediterranean race (excluding the Nordic) is: "a brown human variety, neither white nor Negroid, but pure in its elements, that is to say not a product of the mixture of Whites with Negroes or Negroid peoples."

Charles G. Seligman also stated that "It must be recognized that the Mediterranean race has actually more achievements to its credit than any other race, since it is responsible for by far the greater part of Mediterranean civilization, and so shaped not only the Aegean cultures, but those of Western as well as the greater part of Eastern Mediterranean lands, while the culture of their near relatives, the Hamitic pre-dynastic Egyptians, formed the basis of that of Egypt."

Seligman asserted that the Negro race was essentially static and agricultural and that all significant achievements in African history were the work of Hamites who migrated into central Africa as pastoralists, bringing technologies and civilizing skills with them and introduced most of the advanced features found in central African cultures, including metal working, irrigation and complex social structures.

Seligman stated that there were four major distinct races of the African continent: Bushmanoids (Bushmen), Pygmies, Negroids, and Hamites. The Hottentots, Seligman maintains are a mixture of Bushmanoid, Negroid and Hamitic.

Seligman asserts that North and East African Hamites were responsible for introducing non-Semitic Afro-Asiatic languages (Berber-Cushitic-Egyptian) into Africa, as well as civilization, technology and all significant cultural developments. In his book, Seligman states that:
"Apart from relatively late Semitic influence... The civilizations of Africa are the civilizations of the Hamites, its history is the record of these peoples and of their interaction with the two other African stocks, the Negro and the Bushmen, whether this influence was exerted by highly civilized Egyptians or by such wider pastoralists as are represented at the present day by the Beja and Somali... The incoming Hamites were pastoral 'Europeans' – arriving wave after wave – better armed as well as quicker witted than the dark agricultural Negroes."

Seligman, following Giuseppe Sergi's classification of the Hamites, divided the Hamites into two groups: (a) "Eastern Hamites" and (b) "Northern Hamites". The former include the "ancient and modern Egyptians... the Beja, the Berberines (Barbara and Nubians), the Galla, the Somali, the Danakil (Afar) and... Ethiopians". The latter branch includes the Berbers and the "Taureg and Tibu of the Sahara, the Fulbe of Western Sudan and the extinct Guanche of the Canary Islands."

Seligman acknowledged varying degrees of Negroid admixture amongst the Hamitic groups, but emphasized throughout his major works the essential racial and cultural unity of the various Hamitic peoples. In his Some Aspects of the Hamitic Problem in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1913), he writes that the Northern and Eastern Hamitic "groups shade into each other, and in many parts a Negro admixture has taken place, nevertheless, culturally if not always physically, either division stands apart from its fellow." The Hamites in general, and the Northern Hamites in particular, he asserted, have close "kinship with the European representatives of the Mediterranean race". Drawing from Coon, Seligman also discusses fairer features observed amongst a minority of Berbers or Northern Hamites, such as lighter skin, golden beards and blue eyes. 
In addition, Seligman laid stress on the common descent of Hamites with Semites, writing that "there is no doubt that the Hamites and Semites must be regarded as modifications of an original stock, and that their differentiation did not take place so very long ago, evidence for this statement being furnished by the persistence of common cultural traits and linguistic affinities. Physically their relationship is obvious."

Seligman and other early scholars also asserted that invading Hamites from North Africa and the Horn of Africa had mixed with local Negro women in East Africa and parts of Central Africa to produce several hybrid "Negro-Hamitic" populations such as the Tutsi and the Maasai:
"At first the Hamites, or at least their aristocracy, would endeavour to marry Hamitic women, but it cannot have been long before a series of peoples combining Negro and Hamitic blood arose; these, superior to the pure Negro, would be regarded as inferior to the next incoming wave of Hamites and be pushed further inland to play the part of an incoming aristocracy vis-a-vis the Negroes on whom they impinged... the end result of one series of such combinations is to be seen in the Masai, the other in the Baganda, while an even more striking result is offered by the symbiosis of the Bahima of Ankole and the Bahera ."

Seligman also discusses certain Negroid populations with notable Hamitic admixture and cultural influences, particularly within their ruling classes. He divided these communities into two groups on the basis of their degree of Hamitic influence or Hamiticization: (a) "Nilo-Hamites" or "Negro-Hamitic" (such as the Maasai, Bahima and Tutsi), who he thought to have considerable Hamitic admixture, and (b) Nilotes (such as the Dinka), who showed comparatively fewer Hamitic affinities. Besides the foregoing, Seligman also asserted varying degrees of Hamitic influence in select other Negroid groups, such as some Zulu.

Carleton S. Coon asserted in his book Caravan: The Story of the Middle East (1958)
 that the "homeland and cradle" of the Mediterranean race is in the Middle East, in the area from Morocco to Afghanistan. 
"The Mediterranean race, then, is indigenous to, and the principal element in, the Middle East, and the greatest concentration of a highly evolved Mediterranean type falls among two of the most ancient Semitic-speaking peoples, notably the Arabs and the Jews." 
While often characterized by dark brown hair, dark eyes and robust features, Coon stressed that Mediterraneans skin is, as a rule, some shade of white from pink to light brown, 
hair is usually black or dark brown but his whiskers may reveal a few strands of red or even blond, and blond hair is an exception but can be found, and a wide range of eye color can be found. He stressed the central role of the Mediterraneans in his works, claiming "The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them."

Coon also stated "
A Mediterranean is a man of variable stature; his bones are light, but strongly marked for muscle attachments if these muscles have been well developed through use. His legs are relatively long. His chest is relatively flat, his neck of medium length, his head of medium size, long-oval in shape; his face is small and delicate, with only slight bony ridges over the eyes. His teeth are small, and so are the muscles that operate his jaw. His face is narrow, and his nose consequently is often prominent when compared to the lower-bridged and flatter noses of wider or longer-jawed races in Europe and other parts of Africa and Asia. The Mediterranean man is a relatively hairy fellow. His head is covered with a heavy growth of straight, wavy, or ringleted hair, usually fine in texture; rarely does the true Mediterranean go bald. His eyebrows are full. His beard develops throughout adult life. While it is not the heaviest beard of all mankind, it is often a close runner-up. His body hair also increases throughout life and individually varies greatly in quantity. 
Of all human being the Mediterranean is the most human and is the most highly evolved."

Coon stated "The Mediterraneans occupy the center of the stage; their areas of greatest concentration are precisely those where civilization is the oldest. This is to be expected, since it was they who produced it and it, in a sense, that produced them"

Coon argued that smaller Mediterraneans traveled by land from the Mediterranean basin north into Europe in the Mesolithic era. Taller Mediterraneans (Atlanto-Mediterraneans) were Neolithic seafarers who sailed in reed-type boats and colonized the Mediterranean basin from a Near Eastern origin.

Coon stated that "T
he Sumerians were Mediterraneans. So were the ancient Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Children of Israel, and the Arabs of the early Islamic period whose skeletons I had the privilege of measuring at Nippur."

Coon claimed there was a connection between the Illyrians and the Dorians based on his anthropological analyses of the Albanian and Montenegrin population as well as the Sfakian population in Crete. Coon discovered that Montenegro and Albania is highly concentrated Illyrian racial zone and that the Sfakians are directly descended from Doric tribes that invaded Crete from the direction of Macedonia and Illyria. Moreover, he stated that Albanians, Montenegrins and Sfakians shared many similarities in stature, appearance, language, national costume, belligerent tendencies, tribal orders and vendettas.

John H. Speke believed that his explorations uncovered the link between civilized North Africa and barbaric central Africa. Describing the Ugandan Kingdom of Buganda, he argued its barbaric civilization had arisen from a nomadic pastoralist race which migrated from the north and was related to the Hamitic Oromo people of Ethiopia.
In a section of his book entitled "Theory of Conquest of Inferior by Superior Races", Speke wrote:
"It appears impossible to believe, judging from the physical appearance of the Tutsi, that they can be of any other race than the semi-Shem-Hamitic of Ethiopia... Most people appear to regard the Abyssinians as a different race from the Oromo, but, I believe, without foundation. Both alike are Christians of the greatest antiquity... They fought in the Somali country, subjugated that land, were defeated to a certain extent by the Arabs from the opposite continent, and tried their hands south as far as the Jub river, where they also left many of their numbers behind. Again they attacked Omwita (the present Mombas), were repulsed, were lost sight of in the interior of the continent, and, crossing the Nile close to its source, discovered the rich pasture-lands of Unyoro, and founded the great kingdom of Kittara, where they lost their religion, forgot their language, extracted their lower incisors like the natives, changed their national name to Wahuma, and no longer remembered the names of Hubshi or Oromo - though even the present reigning kings retain a singular traditional account of their having once been half white and half black, with hair on the white side straight, and on the black side frizzly."

Speke stated that having lived alongside the Negroes, he found a superior race of "men who were as unlike as they could be from the common order of the natives" due to their "fine oval faces, large eyes, and high noses, denoting the best blood of Abyssinia" - that is, Ethiopia. Speke described their physical appearances as having retained – despite the hair-curling and skin-darkening effects of intermarriage – "a high stamp of Asiatic feature, of which a marked characteristic is a bridged instead of bridgeless nose".