DATE OF STUDY / DATE OF TEST / DATE OF EEG:
This is a 76-year-old right-handed white female with a history of sudden change in mental status, confusion, possible cerebrovascular accident or seizures.
Routine 21-channel digital EEG was obtained to rule out any seizure activity or focal abnormalities.
FINDINGS: Background rhythm during awake stage shows poorly organized, low voltage fast beta activity in the anterior regions. No spike-and-wave discharges or any lateralizing abnormalities are seen. Almost constant EMG artifacts and tremor artifacts are noted making the study suboptimal. Photic stimulation did not produce any abnormalities. Stage II sleep was not observed.
The patient was noted by the technician to be restless and moving all the time during the study and having tremors of the mouth and arms. Stage II sleep was not achieved.
IMPRESSION: Suboptimal study, no clear paroxysmal activities or epileptiform discharges were seen. Prominent beta activity in the anterior regions could be secondary to anxiety or medication effect.
DATE OF STUDY:
This is an outpatient 58-year-old right-handed white male with history of episodes of confusion and staring. He had an abnormal EEG in the past.
Routine 18-channel digital EEG was obtained to rule out any seizure activity or focal abnormalities.
FINDINGS: Background rhythm during awake stage shows well-organized, well-developed, average voltage 8 to 9 hertz alpha activity in the posterior regions. It blocks with eye opening and it is bilaterally synchronous and symmetrical. No spike-and-wave discharges or any lateralizing abnormalities are seen. Photic stimulation did not produce any abnormalities. Hyperventilation was performed for 3 minutes. No abnormalities were found during the procedure. Intermittent EMG artifacts were seen. Stage II sleep was not achieved.
IMPRESSION: Normal awake study. No epileptiform discharges or any other paroxysmal activities or focal abnormalities seen. Clinical correlation is recommended.
HISTORY: The patient is complaining of neck pain, previous lumbar surgeries.
The background consists of 9 hertz, symmetric, well-organized 34 microvolts posterior dominant rhythm. Photic stimulation was performed without a dramatic response. Hyperventilation was performed for about 3 minutes with good effort. The patient appears to be blinking with some eye movement artifacts and increased amplitude in the background slowing, but no paroxysmal epileptiform features. The patient becomes drowsy during the recording and does not achieve sleep. No focal sharp waves, spiking waves, or paroxysmal epileptiform features are seen. Heart rate is approximately 64 beats per minute and regular.
IMPRESSION: This is a normal awake and drowsy EEG. No focal new epileptiform features are seen. Clinical correlation is suggested.
DATE OF STUDY:
The patient has a history of seizures. This study is done to evaluate his seizures.
This is a multichannel digital EEG recording using the international 10-20 placement system. The resting record is fairly well organized and symmetric. A dominant posterior rhythm is seen. It consists of a 8 hertz 20-70 microvolt alpha rhythm. This attenuates with eye opening. During drowsiness, there is mild attenuation and slowing of the background rhythm. Stage II sleep was not achieved. Hyperventilation was not performed. Photic stimulation did not significantly alter the background rhythm. There was noted the presence of a rhythmic sharp discharge in the right frontocentral region. This was preceded by some poorly-formed sharpish discharges. This episode lasted for about 23 to 24 seconds. Postepisode, there was some attenuation but not much slowing. No clinical seizure activity was noted by the EEG technician.
IMPRESSION: This is an abnormal EEG recording because of the presence of right frontal maximal epileptiform discharges. This would signify some underlying frontal dysfunction of a nonspecific etiology. Clinical correlation is suggested as to the etiology of this. If indicated, repeat EEG and/or 24-hour ambulatory EEG monitoring might be useful in the future.