This unit lasts three weeks. In the third week all you do is attend a webinar; no work required.
Week 9 - History of advertising
Week 10 - Neuro-marketing
Week 11 - Guest presentation by Carrie Perry about the past, present and future of
Essential questions: How do advertisers, product developers, and basically anyone who wants to sell us something see us? What are some of the psychological fundamentals of the human mind as seen through the lens of the advertising world?
Special guest presentation: Carrie Perry, who has been teaching about advertising for many years, will present a GoTo Meeting webinar about the history and psychology of advertising. Here are links to the documents she used the last time she presented to this class:
To prepare for Carrie Perry's here is some overview information. Let me begin this unit with some personal thoughts.
Every media psychologist has a theory (or two) about how advertising works. I’m no different. I will boil these down to a single point that is depicted in the graphic here: "The goal is to pierce the judgmental mind while simultaneously feeding it."
Pierce the judgmental mind, while simultaneously feeding it. The theory goes like this: we buy based on our feelings, but we also want to be provided enough information about something we buy so that we could justify our purchase to someone else. So, we buy an Escalade because we connect with the power and domination it presents, but we tell ourselves and others about its safety record and aesthetics, and maybe even its reasonable gas mileage, giving all the metal it hauls around.
From here, let's look at a belief that guides most media persuaders:
We are simple machines when it comes to being persuaded, largely because our emotions reduce us to gut reaction. Marketers tend to see us in very simple terms. To them we are simple machines. People would rather not think. They are
already overwhelmed with things to think about. So, they are ready to be told what to do. Besides, is it really possible to conduct a detailed analysis of every product you want to purchase? So, we relax, and let advertisers pierce our neo-cortex and tell us what to do. It is simply easier to do so.
How Jack Trout sees us. The book
The New Positioning
by Jack Trout makes this case very well. His book is widely considered to
be an influential consumer psychology reference manual for marketers.
In it, Trout says there are six rules about the consumer mind:
From a more technical point of view...
So, how does this happen? That is, regardless of how advertisers view us, how do they work their magic?
product.” I heard Dr. Isbouts use this to describe what media sponsors were
looking for when considering whether they wanted to finance a media project. I am sure if he were involved with a radio project, he would have said ears on product (or inner images, the kind we create when we listen to radio, on product). The goal here is clear:
audience members can’t buy something they don’t know about. Eyeballs on product
solves that problem. It is another way of saying “awareness.” From there, sellers hope audience members
develop curiosity that leads to identifying need fulfillment, which leads to
Some times there is another step involved: need identification. That is, sometimes consumers need to be told that something is a problem, like body odor, or the need for individualized cell phone plans within one family, or the need for continuous GPS connectivity in a car. Then, having convinced a purchasing public of this need, they step forward with a way to fulfill it.
The need for “eyeballs on product” has been true ever since humans have tried to sell things to each other. It is not unlike "location, location, location" as a mantra about where to locate a storefront. What has changed are the means and methods of putting eyeballs on product.
In the days of mass media v 1.0 (broadcast mass media), a
good deal of advertising was broadcast advertising. That is, you shoot a
scatter shot message into the crowd and hope you hit someone who cares. Gillette
would advertise during a football game because guys watch football, and guys
shave. Soap operas, so named because they were funded by detergent companies, advertised things they thought homemakers wanted, because they figured that's who was watching their show. These are best guesses, using the scatter shot approach.
The many kinds of marketing
However, as the technology changed, approaches to product awareness
changed. In all cases, the goal was to link producers and consumers more
intelligently and directly. Here are just a few ways that happens.
Whatever process you use, the goal is always the same: Eyeballs (or ears) on product. Again, it is not unlike “location, location, location,” except that it happens electronically by bringing the location to you.
"...Dr Aleks Krotoski continues her investigation of how the World Wide Web is transforming almost every aspect of our lives. She gives the lowdown on how, for better and for worse, commerce has colonised the web - and reveals how web users are paying for what appear to be 'free' sites and services in hidden ways.
Joined by some of the most influential business leaders of today's web, including Jeff Bezos (CEO of Amazon), Eric Schmidt (CEO of Google), Chad Hurley (CEO of YouTube), Bill Gates, Martha Lane Fox and Reed Hastings (CEO of Netflix), Aleks traces how business, with varying degrees of success, has attempted to make money on the web.
...Aleks explores how web advertising is evolving further to become more targeted and relevant to individual consumers. Recommendation engines, pioneered by retailers such as Amazon, are also breaking down the barriers between commerce and consumer by marketing future purchases to us based on our previous choices."
The way the Persuaders is presented on the PBS site, it is separated into chapters. You are going to watch parts of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. You only need to watch specific segments of this video, though you are certainly encouraged to watch the entire documentary:
If you are interested in the entire video, then click here to gain access to all the chapters. It is well worth the time to watch it. Also, the transcript is for the entire video is available.
Web resources to consider:
It is not required that you visit any of these resources. They are provided because they provide insight into particular topics in this area of inquiry:
Discuss: Please discuss the following questions in our Moodle forum:
If you subscribe to RSS feeds, consider this one:
Week 10 - Neilsen and Neuromarketing
More information as it becomes available.
Week 11- Neuro marketing
Essential question(s): What is neuro-marketing? What is its future?
Overview: Christophe Morin, a leader in neuromarketing and a Fielding student, will either speak to us directly, or we will watch a video of his previous presentation to this class.
Neuromarketing is exactly what it sounds like: using advanced neurological understanding to enhance marketing effectiveness.
The work of Christoph Morin
Christoph is a student in the Media Psychology program at Fielding, and a leader in the field of neuromarketing. He will be joining us on Webex on at a time to be determined.
Primary sites to visit:
We begin this week by scouring the Christoph's web materials, created by one of the leading neuromarketing firms: Salesb Go to the main page for Salesbrain. On the top horizontal menu select "View the Neuromap." Clicking on it will produce the menu that you see to the right. Read through all the options. Pay particular attention to the first one, "The Three Brains." Of particular interest is that ancient part of us that persists, despite our attempts to civilize it, and that responds to carefully crafted advertising. The other options - particularly 6 stimuli, The 4 Steps - will fill in some gaps about how a neuromarketing firm views us as potential consumers.
Next, please read Christoph's paper, Neuromarketing and ethics: a call for more attention and action to raise standards.
Watch Christoph Morin of Salesbrain. This recording does a good job of summarizing his work and the work of his company.
Got extra time?
Also visit, if you have time
Poke around Mindlab.org. From their website: "The M.I.N.D. Labs are a networked consortium of ten labs located in seven countries spanning universities in the United States and Europe. The labs conduct research in human-computer interaction, communication, and virtual environment design. For a summary of the activities at individual labs, choose from the drop-down menu in the top navigation bar."
Consider reading, if you have time
The Political Brain by Drew Westen, which focuses on a very specific application of what we learn from Rapaille, Luntz and Morin: How to get people to vote in particular ways.
Additional materials, if you have time
I have suggested some viewings on the topic of neuromarketing. These are basically ads, thus, I do not claim to vouch for their authenticity.
However, of this I am very certain: it is inevitable that we will marry neurobiology, neuropsychology and advertising. When we do, marketers will know exactly what we like, how we like it and when we like it. So, imagine playing the Technology Innovation Game and combining, for example, Facebook and Neuromarketing, with a goal of increasing sales of Facebook T-shirts (I'm not sure these exist) or column ads.
That is, what happens when biology intersects with buyology? It is a little staggering to think about.
Watch the following, if you have time:
Also read, if you have time
Week 11 - Special webinar on the future and psychology of advertising by Carrie Perry