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Matthew D. Eisaman

Physicist, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Assistant Professor, Stony Brook University


Research

Brookhaven National Lab (2011 - present)

Visit the Brookhaven website.

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PARC (2008 - 2011)

CO2 Separation

The efficient separation of CO2 from mixed gas sources like power plant flue gas and even the atmosphere is potentially important tool in the attempt to limit the rising concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The separation of CO2 from any mixed-gas source typically involves two steps: (1) the selective capture of CO2, usually accomplished by contacting the CO2-containing mixed-gas source with a solid or liquid adsorber/absorber; and (2) the desorption of pure CO2 gas from the adsorber/absorber.  My work at PARC focused on the invention of novel, and potentially cost-effective and commercially scalable technolgies for the desorption of CO2 from aqueous post-absorption solutions.    The most recent publication from this work describes a novel method for desorbing CO2 from seawater - since atmospheric CO2 is in equilibrium with the dissolved CO2 in seawater, the world's oceans can be viewed as one large "capture solution" for atmospheric CO2.

Selected publications

3. Matthew D. Eisaman, Keshav Parajuly, Alexander Tuganov, Craig Eldershaw, Norine Chang, and Karl A. Littau, CO2 extraction from seawater using bipolar membrane electrodialysis, Energy & Environmental Science, 5, 7346-7352 (2012).

2. M. D. Eisaman, L. Alvarado, D. Larner, P. Wang,  and K. A. Littau, CO2 concentration using high-pressure bipolar membrane electrodialysis, Energy & Environmental Science, 4, 4031 - 4037 (2011).

1. M. D. Eisaman, L. Alvarado, D. Larner, P. Wang, B. Garg, and K. A. Littau, CO2 concentrationusing bipolar membrane electrodialysis, Energy & Environmental Science, 4, 1319 - 1328 (2011).

·        'Hot' Paper on the RSC's Energy & Environmental Science Blog, 09 Dec.,2010

·         Featured as the inside front cover image.

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Postdoctoral Research at NIST (2006 - 2008)

Solid-State, Ensemble-Based Quantum Repeater

Rare-earth ion-doped crystals are promising candidates for use as a quantum memory for photon states due to the long ground-state coherence times of the ionic ensembles.  Experiments using Pr3+ doped Y2SiO5 (Pr:Y2SiO5) have demonstrated decoherence times of tens of seconds [PRL 92, 077601 (2004), PRL 95, 030506 (2005)], and storage and retrieval of classical optical pulses using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with storage times up to 10 s [PRL 95, 063601 (2005)]. We are interested in the practical aspects of using Pr:Y2SiO5 as a quantum memory for photon states, with a special interest in optimization for use in specific quantum-repeater protocols, such as the Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller (DLCZ) scheme [Nature 414, 413 (2001)].

Selected publications

1. M. D. Eisaman, S. Polyakov, M. Hohensee, J. Fan, P. Hemmer, and A. Migdall, Optimizing the storage and retrieval efficiency of a solid-state quantum memory through tailored state preparation, Proc. of SPIE 6780, 67800K (2007).

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Microstructure-fiber-based source of entangled photons

Despite the rapid progress over the last decade toward practical applications of quantum communication, many challenges remain. In particular, for real-world quantum communication and cryptography applications to take advantage of entanglement, we need a robust source of entangled photon pairs with high spectral brightness, broad wavelength coverage, and a single-mode spatial output that is compatible with fiber networks or free-space operation. Until recently, polarization-entangled photon-pair sources for such applications have been implemented almost exclusively using spontaneous parametric down-conversion in materials exhibiting chi-2 optical nonlinearities. Because these conditions can be met over a wide range of parameters, photons are emitted into a large number of spatial and spectral modes, resulting in large collection losses when coupling into a single-mode optical fiber.

Recently, interest has shifted to materials exhibiting a third-order optical nonlinearity (chi-3) , which allows, for example, spontaneous four-wave mixing  (SFWM)  to occur in single-mode optical fibers. The advantage of a fiber-based source is obvious: polarization-entangled photon pairs can be created, selected, encoded, and delivered all within a single-mode fiber network with minimal losses.

My research in the laboratory of Dr. Alan Migdall at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, MD involved work on the development of a polarization-entangled photon-pair source, based on a polarization-configured fiber Sagnac interferometer.  Operating at room temperature and bi-directionally pumping this Sagnac interferometer with a total average pump power of 300 microwatts, we measured a two-photon coincidence rate of 7 kHz for 0.5 THz  (0.9 nm)  bandwidth.  Using this source, we created all four Bell states, and violated Bell’s inequality in the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt by more than 22 standard deviations for each of the four Bell states.

The wavelength of the polarization-entangled two-photon state produced by our source can be chosen anywhere in a 21 nm  range. To characterize the purity of the states produced by this source, we used quantum-state tomography to reconstruct the corresponding density matrices, with fidelities of 95% or more for each Bell state.  

Selected publications

6. M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, Invited ReviewArticle: Single-photon sources and detectors, Review of Scientific Instruments, 82, 071101 (2011).

·       Most downloaded article from Review of Scientific Instruments, September 2011

·       Featured as the front cover image.

·       Selected for Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology, 24, Issue 6 (2011).

             ·      Selected for Virtual Journal of Quantum Information, 11, Issue 8 (2011).

5. E. A. Goldschmidt, M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, S. V. Polyakov, and A. Migdall, Spectrally bright and broad fiber-based heralded single-photon source, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013844 (2008).

4.  J. Chen, J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, Generation of high-flux hyperentangled photon pairs using a microstructure-fiber Sagnac interferometer, Phys. Rev. A 77, 053812 (2008).

3.  M. D. Eisaman, E. A. Goldschmidt, J. Chen, J. Fan, and A. Migdall, Experimental test of nonlocal realism using a fiber-based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, Phys. Rev. A 77, 032339 (2008).

                ·         NIST Tech Beat article (link)

2.  J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, Quantum state tomography of a fiber-based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, Optics Express 15, 18339 - 18344 (2007).

1.  J. Fan, M. D. Eisaman, and A. Migdall, Bright phase-stable broadband fiber-based source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, Phys. Rev. A 76, 043836 (2007).

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Ph.D. Research at Harvard (2000-2006)

Generation, storage, and retrieval of nonclassical states of light using atomic ensembles

One of the most exciting challenges in quantum optics is the development of techniques to facilitate controlled, coherent interactions between single photons and matter. Beyond their fundamental importance in optical science, such techniques provide the key elements for the practical realization of a photonic quantum network- an interconnected web of stationary sites capable of storing and processing quantum information. Such networks are expected to play a major role in extending the range of quantum communication and quantum cryptography to long distances, and possibly for implementing scalable quantum-information processors.  A commonly envisioned realization of a quantum network involves single-photon transmission through optical fibers connecting a number of memory nodes that utilize atoms for the generation, storage and processing of quantum states. The realization of this vision requires: techniques for generating nonclassical states of light and atoms, techniques for coherent transfer of quantum states from photons to atoms and vice versa, and a quantum memory that is capable of storing, manipulating, and releasing quantum states at the level of individual quanta.

My Ph.D. work in the laboratory of Prof. Mikhail D. Lukin in the Physics Department at Harvard University used Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) in room-temperature rubidium-87 ensembles to realize a narrow-bandwidth source of nonclassical light, a memory that preserves the nonclassical statistics of this light, and a primitive quantum network comprised of two atomic-ensemble quantum memories connected by nonclassical light in an optical fiber.

Selected publications

4. M. D. Eisaman, Generation, storage, and Retrieval of Nonclassical States of Light using Atomic Ensembles, Department of Physics, Harvard University (2006).

3. M. D. Eisaman, A. André, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses, Nature 438, 837-841 (2005).

  News and Views

2. M. D. Eisaman, L. Childress, A. André, F. Massou, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Shaping Quantum Pulses of Light via Coherent Atomic Memory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233602 (2004).

1. C. H. van der Wal, M. D. Eisaman, A. André, R. L. Walsworth, D. F. Phillips, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, Atomic Memory for Correlated Photon States, Science 301, 196 (2003).

  - Supplementary Information

  Perspectives