Quick study tricks

jmcmurtryatmis-munichdotde 

-A- 

 -ASE = enzymes (lactase acts on lactose, lipase acts on lipids)

Axons carry impulse Away from the cell body. 

Arteries carry blood Away from the heart.

Active TransPort needs ATP, 

Active transport goes  Against the grAdient

Alpha cells in pancreas produce glucAgon to increAse blood sugar levels

"Animals are made of cells" said T Schwann (swans are animals)

Anion is A Negative Ion

-B-

B lymphocytes clone to make plasma cells which make antiBodies against specific antigens

-C-

Cations - Ca is a + ion

Constriction by Circular muscles Contracting - in the arteries when in the Cold, in the iris when in the dark

C and G always have 3 (cytosine and guanine pair up with 3 H bonds in DNA and RNA) 

-D-

Diffusion is always Down a concentration graDient 

-G-

GA for Gene HbA, GAG in DNA sense strand, GAG in mRNA,             Glutamic Acid in Haemoglobin - for Sickle Cell anaemia.  (see STUV)

-Gen = creation of  (glycogen, fibrinongen, oestrogen

GlucagON turns sugar ON (increase blood sugar levels by breaking down glycogen to glucose)

-H-

sHort day plants are inHibited by active Pfar-red

-I-

 

I D-  Insulin Dependent is Diabetes type I

I I- Insulin Immune causes Diabetes type II

-In = proteins (insulin, haemoglobin, pepsin)

INsulin makes glucose go IN to cells (liver and muscles to be stored as glycogen or to be used in respiration)- 

Insulin made by Beta cells- (think IB!)


-L-

Ligaments hold bones to bones in joints- think about knee injuries

Lagging strand has 3 G's, is 3 prime to 5 prime strand,  has 3 DNA enzymes (DNA polymerase I and  III,  DNA ligase + RNA primase) and replicates DNA in fragments

-M-

Matrix in the Mitochondrion- (see S for stroma)

-O- 

-ONE = steroid hormones (progesterone, oestrogen, testosterone)

-OSE = sugars (glucose, sucrose, amylose or starch, cellulose) 

Oval window in ear is shaped like a stirrup

Oxygen is made early in phOtosynthesis- photolysis of water in early in LDR and is used late in respiratiOn- electron acceptor at end of electron transport chain

 -P-

Photosynthate in the Phloem

Photosynthesis uses NADP/ NAPH+H         (not NAD / NADH+H)

Progesterone : Pro = in favour of , gester = pregnancy, -one = steroid hormone 

-R-

Ringer - characteristics of living things (Reproduction, Irritibilty, Nutrition, Growth, Excretion, Respiration)

BohR shift- low pH curves shifts to the Right

-S-

SenSe strand is like the meSSage used to make the  the rubber stamp which is like the antisense strand that is replicated to make the SenSe strand which is the meSSage used to make the rubber stamp to make the meSSage......

STUV- for Sickle Cell anaemia

    Gene Hb S, GTG in DNA sense strand, GUG in mRNA, Valine in         Haemoglobin S  (see GA)

STroma in a chloroplaST- (see M for matrix)

-T- 

Tendons hold muscles to bone- think Achilles tendon in ankle.

Transcripition of the anTisense strand of DNA

anTicodon is on t- RNA- same order as anTisense strand of DNA

-V- 

Veins have Valves

-W-

 WXYZ- 

    Water in the XYlem (sounds like Zylem)

-Y-

thYmine and cYtosine are pYrimidines (so is uracil)

-2-

2  genetically identical cells made by Mitosis (mi two  sis)   

-3-

3 H bonds between cytosine and guanine (3 rhymes with C and G)

3 g's in LAGGING strand, 3 DNA enzymes work on the 3 prime to 5 prime of lagging strand in  DNA replication making Okazaki fragments

-5-

5 prime to 3 prime direction for replication of new DNA strand and transcription of RNA and translation of mRNA to polypeptideThis is because the 5 prime carbon ( 5 like fingers on your hand) of nucleotides has  phosphates  which bond to the 3 prime carbon of next nucleotide (3 like the 3 bumps on your elbow)

-23-

23 is haploid number of HUMAN gametes (sperm and ovum have one set of chromosomes)

-46-

46 is diploid number of HUMAN cells (somatic cells have two sets of chromsomes)- other organisms have different numbers of chromosomes

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