Member, Scientific Advisory Board, Salk Harnessing Plants Initiative, 2019-

Professor, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 1994- 2016.

Director, The Rutgers Initiative on Climate and Social Policy. 2007-2011.

Senior Scholar, The Van Leer Institute, Jerusalem, 2002-2003.

Vice-Chair, Undergraduate Program, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 1995-1999.

Vice-Chair, Graduate Program, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 1985-1989.

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 1982-1994.

Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 1976-1982.

Member, Graduate School, Rutgers University, 1984- .

Associate Member of Graduate School, Rutgers University, 1977-1984.

Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, University of Minnesota, 1974-1975.

Research Fellow, Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota, 1971-1973.



Ph.D. (Philosophy) University of Minnesota, 1977. B.A. (Economics) summa cum laude, University of Minnesota, 1970.



Uncertainty and the Philosophy of Climate Change, London: Routledge, forthcoming.

Real History ,London: Routledge, 1997.

The Context of Explanation, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, 1993.



Foundational Issues of Neuroimaging, edited with Stephen Hanson, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010.

Buying Freedom: The Ethics and Economics of Contemporary Slave Redemption, edited with Anthony Appiah, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007. 



"When truth is personally inconvenient, attitudes change: The impact of extreme weather on support for green politicians and climate change beliefs", Psychological Science, Vol. 24, 2013, 2290-2296 (with L.A.Rudman and M.C.Mclean).

"Geoengineering Harms and Compensation", Stanford Journal of Law, Science & Policy, Vol. 4, 2011, pp. 70-76.

“A Test for Geoengineering?”, Science, Vol. 237, 2010, pp. 530-531 (with Alan Robock, Ben Kravitz, and Georgiy L. Stenchikov).

“Geoengineering Research: Shouldn't or Couldn't?”, Environmental Research Letters, Vol. 4, 2009, pp. 1-3.

“The Tragedy of the Commons: A Reassessment”, Climatic Change, Vol. 97, 2009, pp. 59-65.

"The Next Best Thing" in Buying Freedom: The Ethics and Economics of Contemporary Slave Redemption,  Anthony Appiah and Martin Bunzl eds., Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007, pp. 235-248.

“Laws without Possibility”, Philosophia, Vol. 31, 2004, pp. 475-485.

“Counterfactual History: A User’s Guide”, American Historical Review,  Vol. 109, 2004, pp. 845-858.

“Real World Epistemic Under-determination”, Philosophia, Vol. 31, 2004, pp. 139-147. 

“Conventions Made too Simple?”,  Philosophy of the Social Sciences,  Vol. 33, 2003, pp. 417-426 (with Richard Kreuter).

 “Evolutionary Games without Rationality?”, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 32, 2002, pp. 365-378.

“Baseball and Biology”, Philosophia, Vol. 27, 1999, pp. 575-580.

"The Construction of History”, Journal of Women's History, Vol. 9, 1997, pp. 119-131.

“The Logic of Thought Experiments”, Synthese, Vol. 106, 1996, pp. 227-240.

“How to Change the Unchanging Past”, Clio, Vol. 25, 1996, pp. 181-194.

 "Non-cognitive Meaning Revisited”, Canberra Anthropology, Vol.19, 1996, pp. 1-14.

"Archaeology without Excess”, Philosophical Forum, Vol.27, 1995, pp. 27-36.

"Pragmatism to the Rescue?", Journal for the History of Ideas, Vol. 20, 1995, pp. 675-680.

"Meaning's Reach", Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, Vol. 24, 1994, pp. 267-280.

"Scientific Abstraction and the Realist Impulse", Philosophy of Science, Vol. 61, 1994, pp.449-456, reprinted in A.Zucker, ed., Science and Its Philosophies (New York: Prentice Hall, 1995).

"Reductionism & The Mental”, American Philosophical Quarterly, Vol. 24, 1987, pp. 181-190. 

"A Causal Model for Causal Priority”, Erkenntnis, Vol. 21, 1984, pp. 31-44.

"Causal Factuals”, Erkenntnis, Vol. 21, 1984, pp. 367-384.

"Humean Counterfactuals”, Journal for the History of Philosophy, Vol. 20, 1982, pp. 171-177.

"The Meaning of Meaningful Behavior”, Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, Vol. 12, 1982, pp. 21-27.

"A Note on Doing”, Dialogue, Vol. 19, 1980, pp. 629-631.

"Causal Preemption and Counterfactuals”, Philosophical Studies, Vol. 37, 1980, pp. 629-631.

"Comment on 'Health as a Theoretical Concept'", Philosophy of Science, Vol 49, 1980, pp. 116-118.

"Causal Overdetermination”, Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 76, 1979, pp. 134-150.

"Is Development Deviant?”, Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, Vol. 8, 1979, pp. 333-340.

"Logic, Language and Piaget:  A Comment on Johnson”, Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 8, 1978, pp. 63-65, (authored with my students).

"Enhancement of Maturity of Moral Judgment by Parent Education”, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Vol. 5, 1977, pp. 177-186, (with Wirt and Coder).

"The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers”, Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 7, 1977, pp. 3-8.

"A Note on Nursing Ethics”, Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 1, 1976, pp. 184-186.



"Is Flat Fair?", The Electricity Journal, Vol 23, 2010, pp. 8-12.

“Geoengineering and the Problem of Harm”, Earth MagazineSeptember 2009, p. 87.

“An Ethical Assessment of Geoengineering”, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May/June 2008, p. 18.

“Ulysses and the Hedge Trimmer”, Washington Post, January 1 2008.

"Bunzl On Sorenson's Thought Experiments", Informal Logic, Vol. 17, 1995, pp. 388-393.

"Social Kinds”, in O.Neumaier, ed., Mind, Language and Society (Vienna: VWGOE, 1984), pp. 138-144.



Truth and History, by Michael Murphy, and Fashioning History: Current Practices and Principles by Robert Berkhoffer, American Historical Reivew, Vol. 115, No. 1, 2010, pp. 185-186

A Climate of Injustice: Global Inequality , North-South Politics, and Climate Policy by J. Timmons Roberts and Bradley Parks, Ethics and International Affairs, Vol. 22, pp. 229-230.

Brains/Practices/Relativism by Stephen Turner, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 54, 2003, pp. 623-625.

Explanation, Causation and Deduction by Fred Wilson, International Studies in Philosophy, Vol. 22, 1990, pp. 148-149.

Knowledge, Value and Belief by H. T. Engelhardt, Jr. and D. Callahan, Man and Medicine, Vol. 4, 1979, pp. 301-303.



"Geoengineering and  the Challenges  of Risk Assessment", The Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies, Potsdam.

“Geoengineering: Shouldn't or Couldn't?”, NYU, 2009, AAAS, 2010, Lawrence Livermore Labs, 2010.

"Why Changing Attitudes Matter (More Than Changing Behavior), BEEC, 2009.

“Them and Us: Reflections on Carbon Output in the Developing World”, Princeton, NYU, 2009.

“Belief, Attitude and Behavior Change: An Empirical Approach”, Berkeley National Lab, 2009.

“Geoengineering and the Problem of Harm”, AGU, 2008.

“Is Ignorance an Excuse?”, Rutgers, 2008.

“Implementing New Jersey;s Greenhouse Gas Legislation”, TERI and IRADe, New Dehli, 2008.

“An Ethical Assessment of Geoengineering”, Rutgers, 2007.

“Things Past and The Remembrance of Things Past”, UCSD, 2005.

“Unintentional Emotions”, Hebrew University, 2004.

“The Ethics and Economics of Contemporary Slave Redemption”, UCSD, 2003.

“So What If!?: Counterfactual Reasoning in History”, Hebrew University, 2003.

“Blood on the Brain”, Tel-Aviv University, 2003.

“Evolutionary Games without Rationality?”, Hebrew University, 2002.

“Counterfactual History”, Society for Philosophy of History Annual Meeting, 1999.

"Real World Epistemic Underdetermination”, Ben Gurion University, 1995.

"Thought Experiments”, Haifa University, 1994 and Hebrew University, 1995.

"Pragmatism to the Rescue?", American Historical Association Meetings, 1995.

Invited discussion paper on R.Sorenson's Thought ExperimentsAmerican Philosophical Association, 90th. Annual Meeting, Eastern Division, 1993, AILACT Session.

"Realism without Reference”, SUNY, Binghamton, 1986.

Panelist,  Symposium on Human Subjects and Animal Welfare  Issues Relevant  to Research on Pain, Stress and  Analgesia,  New  York Academy of Sciences Conference on Stress Induced Analgesia,  May, 1985.

Invited comment on "Why Having a Mind Matters" by Mark  Johnston, at The Philosophy of Donald Davidson, Rutgers University, 1984.

"Social Kinds”, 7th. International Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, 1983 (Salzburg).

Invited  comment  on  "Causal Priority”, by  D.  Hausman  at  the American Philosophical Association, 79th. Annual Meeting, 1982.

"The Social and Biological”, Union College, 1980.Invited  member of panel on "Philosophy in the  Media”,  American Philosophical  Association,   75th.  Annual   Meeting,   Eastern Division, 1978.

Invited member of panel on "Philosophy in the  Media”,  American Philosophical  Association,   75th.  Annual   Meeting,   Eastern Division, 1978.

Invited comment on "Elegance in Scientific Theories”, by R. Munson and T. Ross, delivered at the annual meetings of the American Association of Aesthetics, 1978.



 “Geoengineering and Ethics”, Royal Society, 2009, National Academy of Science, 2009.

Chair, Roundtable on “How to Evaluate a Campaign before it is Over”, Behavior, Energy and Climate Change Conference, Sacramento, 2008.

Chair, Workshop on Geoengineering and Agricultural Economics, Rutgers, 2008.

Chair, Workshop on Geoengineering and Equity, Rutgers, 2008.

Discussant, Board of Public Utilities, New Jersey, 2008.

Participant, Workshop on Geoengineering, Council on Foreign Relations, Washington DC, 2008.



Contributing editor, China Dialogue (www.chinadialogue.net .)

Co-organizer (with Stephen Hanson): Conference on methodological issues in FMRI research to be held at Rutgers April 27th-28th 2006. (Funded by Rutgers. Co-Sponsored by the Philosophy Department, RUCCS and RUMBA.)

Organizer: Initiative on Voter Reform, at the Van Leer Institute, Jerusalem, 2003.

Organizer: The Ethics and Economics of Contemporary Slave Redemption Programs, a closed conference at Princeton University (with Anthony Appiah), 2003.

Organizer: International Conference on Foundational Issue in Biology, at the Van Leer Institute, Jerusalem (with Eva Jablonka), 2003.

Co-principal Investigator for research project on affirmative action in Israel.

Co-principal Investigator for research project into community funding the Israel’s Arab community,

Organizer: Working group on Unilateral Separation, at the Van Leer Institute, Jerusalem, 2002.

Chair, Rutgers-Soros Committee, 1989-1993.

Co-chair,  Rutgers  Faculty  Seminar on the  Use  of  Animals  in Experimental Research, 1984-1985.

Chairperson, Conference on Methods, 1982-1983.

Co-founder  of the Philosophy and Medicine Group of the New  York Society for Philosophy and Public Affairs.

Co-developer of Logos, an interactive computer program for first order deductive logic, for by Control Data Corporation.



U.S. GAO, 2010, Reviewer, Geoengineering scenarios.

BPU, 2008-2009, Co-Chair, Energy Master Plan Education Outreach committee.



PSEG, 2010 $410,000 for research on consumer attitudes toward conservation and climate change. (Co-applicant with Gretchen Chapman.)

BPU, 2009 $50,000 for research on consumer attitudes toward conservation and climate change.

PSEG, 2008, $50,000 for research on consumer attitudes toward energy conservation and climate change.

NSF, 2007, $35,000 for research on equity aspects of geoengineering. (Co-principal Investigator.)

The Ford Foundation, 2002, $75,000 for research on affirmative action in Israel. (Co-principal Investigator.)

The Ford Foundation, 2002, $75,000 for research into community funding the Israel’s Arab community, (Co-principal Investigator.)

Van Leer Institute of Jerusalem, 1999- 2002, Fellowship (half-time).

NJ  Department of Higher Education, 1985, $14,500 for  Foundation of Cognitive Science Speakers Series.

Council on Instructional Development, 1985, $5,500 for Cognitive Science Group.

NJ Council on the Humanities 1985, $1,300 for Philosophy in the State Program.

Exxon Foundation, 1984, $12,292 for membership development of the Conference on Methods in Philosophy and the Sciences.

Rutgers  University  Junior Fellowship, 1981,  full  relief  from teaching, for general research.

Control Data Corporation, 1978-1980, $20,000 for the  development of a computer program to teach logic.

N.E.H., 1976, $10,000 for research into the role of philosophy in radio and television.

L.E.A.A., 1973, $30,000 for research into the development of maturity of moral judgment.