The Industrial Revolution, as it is called by historians, changed the ways by how the world produced its goods. It also changed our societies from a mainly agricultural society to one that in which industry and manufacturing was in control.
In brief, the Industrial Revolution was a period from 1750 to 1850 where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times. The Industrial Revolution marks a turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way.
It began in the United Kingdom, and spread throughout Western Europe, North America, Japan, and eventually the rest of the world.
In Great Britian, the industrial revolution started with the mechanisation of the textile industries, the development of iron-making techniques and the increased use of refined coal.Trade expansion was enabled by the introduction of canals, improved roads and railways. With the transition away from an agricultural-based economy and towards machine-based manufacturing came a great influx of population from the countryside and into the towns and cities, which swelled in population.
During this time there were also many new technological advancements, socioeconomic
and cultural problems that arised.
Growth of cities were one of the major consequences of the Industrial Revolution. Many people were driven to the cities to look for work, in turn the ended living in the cities that could not support them. Average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth.
On the technology front, the biggest advancements were in steam power. New fuels such as coal and petroleum revolutionized many industries including textiles and manufacturing. Also, a new communication medium was invented called the telegraph. This made communicating across the ocean much faster.
Also, during this time much international changes was occuring at this time. The American Revolution was occuring in the beginning part of the Industrial Revolution. The French Revolution was in the process at the turn of the 19th century. This was a great time, but resulted in newly found democratic rights that spread through Europe and North America.
The First Industrial Revolution, in the 18th century, merged into the Second Industrial Revolution around 1850, when technological and economic progress increased with the development of steam-powered ships, railways, and later in the 19th century with the internal combustion engine and electrical power generation.
The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.
On the other hand, the Industrial Revolution brought severe consequences to society. Factory owners, needing cheap, unskilled labor, profited greatly by using children and women to run the machines. By the age of 6, many children were already working 14 hours a day in factories! These kids had no free time to do anything else and earned low wages. Some got sick and died because of the toxic fumes, while others were severely injured and sometimes killed working at the dangerous machines in factories. Obviously, the Industrial Revolution had both good and bad sides.