The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the origins of modern thought and modern political life. Although changes began with the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth
century and the Enlightenment of the eighteenth century, two late
eighteenth-century events, the American and French Revolutions, mark the
beginning of modern ideas about politics and society.
The period is noted for the change in government from absolutist monarchies to constitutionalist states and republics. The Age of Revolution includes the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, the revolt of the slaves in Latin America, and the independence movements of nations in Latin America. But the 19th century also experienced a transformation of society from another source: The Industrial Revolution that established within society a poorer working class that stood in opposition to the merchant and trading middle class.
the revolutionary transformation of the ruling systems and state
structures began with a bang: In 1789 the French Revolution broke out in
Paris. The battle cry "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite"—Liberty, Equality, Brotherhood— became an unstoppable force.
fundamental reorganization of society followed the French Revolution.
Drawing on ideals of Enlightenment thinkers,
revolutionaries attempted to institute new governments which would meet
needs of the people they governed. They argued for popular sovereignty,
that ultimate authority lies with the people, not the ruler. The ideas
behind the revolution were manifest in Napoleon's Code Civil, which he
imposed on many European nations.
Revolutions had broken out in France and America; however the French Revolution failed to establish a stable alternative to the monarchy....at this moment.
Here you have the resources for the following topics American and French Revolutions and Napoleonic Europe
(click on titles to link the associated timeline):