The Renaissance profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. It encompassed a resurgence of learning based on classical sources, a flowering of literature, science, art, politics, philosophy, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry, and a gradual but widespread educational reform as well. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.
Humanism was a cultural and educational reform engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders, known as Renaissance humanists. It developed during the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries, and was a response to the challenge of Mediaeval education, emphasizing practical and scientific studies. Humanists aspired to create a citizenry (sometimes including women) able to think, speak and write with eloquence and clarity. This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and philosophy.
Early humanists were great collectors of antique manuscripts. Many humanists were churchmen, (e.g. Pope Pius II -Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini-, Sixtus IV and Leo X), others were in holy orders, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops...With the Counter Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent, positions hardened and a strict Catholic orthodoxy was imposed, and some humanists, even moderate Catholics such as Erasmus, risked being declared heretics for their criticism of the church.
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Sábado, 14 Mayo 2011
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