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General Biochemistry & Enzymology

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Mitochondrial DNA (mt DNA) properties

 "mt DNA".

mt stands for: maternal transfer Mutates Tremendously (ie.,high mutation rate)


Enzymes: classification

"Over The HILL":







· Enzymes take  the reaction over the hill.


Enzyme kinetics: competitive vs. non-competitive inhibition

With Kompetitive inhibition: Km increases(no change in Vmax. )

With Non-kompetitive inhibition: No change in Km(Vmax decreases.)


Enzymes: competitive inhibitors

"Competition is hard because we have to travel more kilometers (Kms) with the same velocity":

With competitive inhibitors, velocity remains same but Km increases.


Na+/K+ pump: movement of ions and quantity

K+ and in each consist of 2 characters, so so 2 K+ are pumped in. Na+ and out each consist of 3 characters, so 3 Na+ are pumped out


Hemoglobin binding curve: causes of shift to right

"CADET, face right!":



2,3-DPG (aka 2,3 BPG)




Dicarboxylic acids (alpha, omega) C2 through C10: common names

"Oh    My,     Such      Good     Apple    Pie,      Sweet    As     Sugar!":

Oxalic Malonic Succinic Glutaric Adipic Pimelic Suberic Azelaic Sebacic


Golgi complex: functions

"Google Distributes A SPAM":

Distributes proteins and lipids from ER

Add mannose onto specific lysosome proteins

Sulfation of sugars and slected tyrosine

Proteoglycan assembly

Add O-oligosugars to serine and threnonine

          Modify N-ologosugars on asparagine