Finance and Economics related

All terms, jargons and concepts related to the field of Finance and Economic will be posted here.

Accounting Terms:

Get your basics of Accounting clear by reading this document. It covers all the fundas , terms of Accounting.



Finance Terms:

A good way to start the Finance journey and keep revisiting it to brush up the basics. It covers all the basic fundas and terms in Finance.



Economics Terms:

The article covers the basics of Economics, which will help any MBA through out his life.



Managerial Accounting Terms:

Accounting terms, fundas and concepts from the perspective of Management. Must for an MBA.



Budget Planner:

Planning is a hallmark of an MBA. Moreso when it comes to Finance. This attached planner will help you to plan your budget.



Budget Special 2007:

Union Budget 2007 - 2008 India Highlights

Union Budget for 2007 - 2008 presented by Finance Minister P. Chidambaram lays strong emphasis on social sector, agriculture, and infrastructure. Finance Minister has tried to spread the fruits of economic reforms to the neglected sections of India.

Indian Budget 2007 - 2008 Highlights

  • GDP growth rate estimated at 9.2% in 2006-07.
  • Manufacturing growth rate estimated at 11.3%.
  • Saving rate of 32.4%, investment rate of 33.8% will continue.
  • Tax as % of GDP at 11.4%
  • Gross domestic capital formation up 23%.
  • Fiscal deficit to be 3.7% in the current year and revenue deficit 2%.
  • Fiscal deficit for 2007-08 pegged at 3.3% of GDP and Revenue deficit at 1.5%.
  • Bank credit rate grew by 29% during first ten months of 2006-07.
  • E-Governance expenditure hiked to Rs.719 crore
  • Inflation during 2006-07 estimated at between 5.2 and 5.4% against 4.4% during the previous year.
  • Total expenditure during 2006-07 estimated at Rs.6,80,521 crore
  • Defence Budget hiked to Rs.96000 crore.
  • Overseas investment to be allowed by individuals via Mutual Funds.
  • Government to allow short selling by institutions.
  • Mutual Funds to be allowed to launch infrastructure funds.
  • PAN to be made sole identity for participants in the security markets to strengthen capital market.
  • Foreign exchange reserves stand at 180 billion dollars.
  • Tourism infrastructure to get an allocation of Rs 520 crore as against Rs 423 crore last year.
  • Northeastern region to get Rs 405 crore for highway development. Road-cum-rail project over Brahmaputra in Bogibil, Assam.
  • New industrial policy for the Northeast.
  • Technology Upgration Fund to be continued during the 11th Plan. Rs 911 crore to be provided for this
Direct Taxes
  • Personal income tax exemption limit raised to Rs 1,10000
  • Income Tax exemption limit to women hiked to Rs 1,45,000
  • Personal Tax exemption for senior citizens hiked to Rs 1,95,000
  • Deduction in respect of medical insurance under Section 80 (D) increased to Rs 15,000 for common person and Rs 20,000 for senior citizens.
  • No change in slab rates for income tax.
  • No change in corporate income tax.
  • Surcharge on Corporate income tax on companies below Rs 1 crore removed.
  • Scope of MAT widened to I-T companies.
  • 1% cess hiked to fund higher education.
  • ESOPs to be brought under FBT.
  • No change in Service Tax rate.
  • Service tax extended to commercial renters.
  • Service tax on Residents Welfare Associations whose members contribute more than Rs 3,000.
  • Technology biz incubators exempt from service tax.
  • Dividend distribution tax raised from 12.5 to 15 per cent.
  • Benefits of investment in venture capital funds confined to IT, bio-technology, nano-technology, seed research, dairy among some others.
  • Withdrawals by central and state governments exempted from Banking Cash Transaction Tax. The limit for individuals and HUF raised from Rs 25,000 to Rs 50,000.
  • Five year tax holiday for 2, 3, 4 star hotels and convention centres with a seating capacity of 3,000 in NCT of Delhi, Gurgaon, Ghaziabad, Faridabad and Noida for Commonwealth Games.
  • R&D tax concessions extended to private research bodies.
Indirect Taxes
  • Small scale industries excise duty exemption raised from Rs 1 crore to Rs 1.5 crore.
  • No change in general CENVAT rate.
  • National level Goods & services tax to be introduced from next fiscal year.
  • Central Sales Tax rate to be reduced from 4% to 3%.
  • Peak customs duty rate on non-agricultural items reduced from 12.5% to 10%.
  • All coking coal fully exempted from duty
  • Duties on seconds and defective reduced from 20% to 10%.
  • Customs duty on polyster to be reduced from 10% to 7.5 %.
  • Duty on lift irrigation, agricultural sprinklers and food processing equipment reduced from 7.5% to 5%.
  • Duty on sunflower oil to be reduced by 15%.
  • Duty on pet food reduced from 30% to 20%.
  • Duty reduced on watch dials and movements and umbrella parts from 12.5% to 5%.
  • Import duty of 15 specified machinery to be reduced from 7.5% to 5%.
  • 3% import duty to be levied on private importers of aircraft including helicopters.
  • Ad valorem duty on petrol and diesel to be brought down from 8% to 6%.
  • Export duty on iron ore and concentrate at the rate of Rs.300 per tonne.
    Export duty on Chromium proposed at Rs.2000 tonne.
  • Excise duty for plywood reduced from 16% to 8%.
  • Food mixes to be fully exempted from excise duty.
  • Bio-diesel to be fully exempted from excise duty.
  • Water purification devices, small and big, fully exempted from excise.
  • Specific rates of excise duty on cigarettes increased.
  • Excise duty on pan masala without tobacco as mouth freshners reduced from 66% to 45%.
  • Excise duty on cement reduced from Rs.400 per tonne to Rs.350 per tonne for cement bags sold at Rs.190 per bag at retail market. Those sold above Rs.190 to attract excise duty of Rs.600 per tonne.
Social Sector
  • Allocation on Healthcare to increase by 21.9 per cent.
  • Allocation for education to be enhanced by 34.2 per cent.
  • Allocation under Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Mission stepped up from Rs 4680 crore to Rs 5850 crore.
  • Annual target of 15 lakh houses under Bharat Nirman Programme to be exceeded.
  • Allocation for National Rural Health Mission stepped up from Rs 8207 crore to Rs 9947 crore.
  • Allocation for Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) to be increased from Rs 4087 crore to Rs 4761 crore.
  • 130 more districts under National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA). Additional allocation of Rs.12,000 crore for it.
  • Rs 800 crore for Sampoorna Gram Rozgar Yojana in districts not covered by NREGA.
  • Swarna Jayanti Swarozgar Yojana allocation increased from Rs 250 crore to Rs 344 crore.
  • Allocation for schemes only for SCs and STs to be increased to Rs 3271 crore.
  • Allocation for SC/ST scholarships enhanced from Rs.440 crore to Rs.611 crore.
  • Rs 63 crore for share capital for National Minorities Development Finance Corporation following Sachar Committee recommendations.
  • To prevent high rate of school dropout, a National Means-cum-Merit scholarship to be implemented, with an allocation of Rs 6,000 per child.
  • Rs 1290 crore to be provided for elimination of polio.
  • Allocation for AIDS control programme to be raised to Rs 969 crore.
  • Computerisation of PDS and integrated computerisation programme for FCI.
  • Rs.22,282 crore allocated for women development.
  • Death and disability cover for rural landless families to be introduced, known as 'Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana'.
  • Health insurance cover for weavers to be enlarged to ancillary industries. Allocation increased from Rs 241 crore to Rs 321 crore.
  • The ceiling of loans for weaker sections under differential rate of interest scheme will be raised from Rs 6500 to Rs 15,000 and in housing loan from Rs 5000 to Rs 20,000.
  • Reverse mortgage scheme for senior citizens announced.
  • Rs. 73.24 billion allocated for mid-day meal scheme.
  • Two lakh more teachers to be employed and five lakh more classrooms to be constructed.
  • Government to provide 1 lakh jobs for physically disabled with a salary limit of Rs 25,000 a month
  • Backward Regions Grant Fund to be raised to Rs 5800 crore.
  • Growth of 4% to be achieved in agriculture sector.
  • No new forward contract to be launched on wheat and rice from 28 February 2007
  • Additional irrigation potential of 24 lakh hectares to be implemented, including nine lakh hectares under Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme.
  • Rs 2,25,000 crore farm credit proposed in the new budget. A target of additional 50 lakh farmers to be brought under farm credit.
  • Special Purpose Tea Fund to rejuvenate tea production.
  • Rs. 100 crore allocated for National Rainfed Area Authority.
  • One hundred per cent subsidy for small farmers and 50 per cent for other farmers for water recharging scheme.
  • National Agricultural Insurance Scheme to be continued for Kharif and Rabi this year.
  • Bonds worth Rs 5,000 crore to augment NABARD to be issued.


Railway Budget 2007-2008 India Highlights

Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav has presented a populist and pro-poor Railway Budget for the year 2007 - 2008. He has announced a host of measures to benefit the common passenger. Railway Minister announced that Railways posted a profit of Rs 20,000 crores as against Rs 14,700 crores for the year 2006. Freight revenues and passenger revenues increased by 17 per cent and 14 per cent respectively, in April-December 2006.

Indian Railway Budget 2007 - 2008
  • AC 1st Class fares slashed by 6 percent in lean season and 3 percent in peak season.
  • Sleeper class fares slashed by four per cent.
  • Freight rates on diesel and petrol cut by five per cent each and that on iron ore by six per cent.
  • Wooden seats to be replaced by cushioned ones in ordinary class passenger trains from next fiscal.
  • 32 new trains, 8 garib raths planned.
  • Rs. 5,000 crore to be invested on Mumbai local rail service.
  • Work on Rs 3,000 freight corridor to begin this year
  • Unreserved compartments in new trains to be increased from four to six.
  • 800 more bogies to be introduced in existing trains
  • 50% fare concession offered for UPSC and other official examinees.
  • Special compartments to be designed for handicapped people to make rail travel easier for them.
  • Separate coach for vendors, milkmen and petty traders to be introduced in the passenger trains.
  • Women & senior citizens to get priority lower birth.
  • Number of berths to be increased from 72 to 84 in sleeper coaches.
  • 200 model station to be made by this year end.
  • Railway call centres to be set up from where ticket bookings and hotel bookings could be made.
  • Tickets to be sold at petrol pumps, ATM centres etc.
  • 6000 automatic ticket vending machines to be set up in next two years.
  • All metre gauge tracks to become broad gauge in 11th Five-Year Plan
  • Indian Railways to invest massively in container operations in next five years.
  • Railways to appoint SP grade officer in each zone to look into customer complaints.
  • Railways to appoint independent marketing agency to increase revenues.
  • Rail tracks to be electrified all over India.
  • New railway telephone enquiry number: 139
  • Rs 5,000 crore set apart for local trains.

Back to Index