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Linkers and connectors

LINKERS


Contrast

.     In spite of / Despite Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase. 
.     Although / (Even) though Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a sentence. 
.     However / Nevertheless / Still / Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast. Introduce a new idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas. Introduced by a comma. 
.     On the one hand ... On the other hand. Links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs. 
.     In contrast to / Contrary to. Link two contrasting ideas. Followed by a noun phrase. 
.     Whereas Link two contrasting ideas. Not separated by commas. 

Reason and cause

.     Because / As / Since / Seeing that Introduce a sentence. Subordinate sentences introduced by because always appear in final position. 
.     Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to. Introduce a noun phrase. 

Purpose
 
.     In order to So as to Introduce an infinitive of purpose.
.     In order that / So that Introduce a sentence. 

Consequence

    . Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore   
    . As a consequence of / As a result of Followed by a noun phrase. 
.     So Introduces a sentence. No commas.   

Addition

    . Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides What's more Used after a strong pause and separated from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma. 
    . As well as / In addition to / Besides Used to add  one more piece of information. Followed by a noun phrase. 

Exemplification

      For example / For instance Introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas. 
.     Such as Introduces an example referring to the last idea.

CONNECTORS

Contrast

but / yet: followed by a noun phrase or a sentence. 
‘The book is short but / yet interesting’

in spite of / despite: It is placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.
‘He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late’

although / though/ even though / in spite of the fact that: followed by a complete sentence. They can be placed at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. If it is placed at the beginning we need to use a comma after the clause.  
  ‘Although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that the pupils had not studied, they all passed their exams’. 
  
however, nevertheless, even so, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary
‘He was quite ill however/ nevertheless/ even so, he went to school’
  
. while, whereas   
‘This film is very interesting, while/whereas that one is quite boring’  

Reason and cause

because, as since, seeing that:  
‘Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home’ 

because of, on account of, owing to, due to: 
    ‘Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home’

. in order to, so as to, to: 
‘She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes’ 

Add information

for example, for instante, such as: 
‘Vegetables are a good source of vitamins: for example / for instance, oranges have vitamin C’ 

more over, furthermore, besides, in addition to: 
‘In addition to soul music, she likes rap’ 

. apart from, except for: 
‘Apart from English, she speaks French’.

Succession

. - First of all / Firstly / To begin with / First …. 
 - Second / Secondly / Then … 
 - Third / Thirdly / After that...
 - The next stage … 
 - Finally / in short / to sum up / in conclusion / lastly / last but not least…  
  
 Result

As a result of
‘As a result of his brave action, he was awarded a military medal. 

Therefore, as a result, consequently, for this reason: 
‘Consequently / for this reason, it always passes its annual road test’. 


Order

First parragraph

At first sight: A primera vista
First: En primer lugar
First of all: Antes que nada
In the first place: En primer lugar
To start with: Para empezar


Second parragraph

In the second place: En segundo lugar
Second: Segundo
Secondly: En segundo lugar
Third: Tercero
Thirdly: En tercer lugar


Conclusion

Finally: Por último
In conclusion: Para concluir
Lastly: Por último
And eventually: Y finalmente


Adding information

apart from: Aparte de
in addition: Además
in addition to: Además de
What’s more: Además; lo que es más
moreover: Además
on top of that: Además
besides: Además
On the one hand: Por una parte
On the other hand: Por otra parte
and eventually: Y finalmente



Contrast

all the same: a pesar de todo
however: sin embargo
instead of: en vez de
in spite of / despite: a pesar de
nevertheless: no obstante
on the contrary: por el contrario
whereas / while: mientras
though / although: aunque



Reason

because of + noun: a causa de
due to + noun: debido a
due to the fact that + sentence: debido a que 
for this / that reason:  por esta / esa razón
owing to + noun: debido a 
owing to the fact that + sentence: debido a que



Result

as a result: como resultado
because of: a causa de
consequently: en consecuencia
so: por lo tanto
that's why: por eso, por esa razón...
therefore: por lo tanto



Expressing facts
actually: en realidad
as a matter of fact: de hecho
in fact: de hecho
really: en realidad



Expressing a personal opinion
as far as I am concerned por lo que a mí respecta
from my point of view desde mi punto de vista
I agree estoy de acuerdo
I disagree no estoy de acuerdo
in my opinion en mi opinión
in my view según lo veo
I think that creo que
it is true that es verdad que
personally personalmente
to be honest, para ser honesto
to tell the truth, a decir verdad



Explain
that is (to say): es decir
in other words: en otras palabras
in short: en resumen
above all: sobre todo
all in all: en general
at least: al menos
basically: básicamente, fundamentalmente
especially: especialmente, sobre todo
essentially: esencialmente
in general: en general
in particular: en particular
more or less: más o menos
on the whole: en general
to a certain extent: hasta cierto punto



Exemplifying
and so on: etcétera
for example: por ejemplo
for instance: por ejemplo
such: as tal(es)como



Summarizing
all in all: en suma
in brief: en resumen
in conclusion: Para concluir
in short: en resumen
on the whole: en general
to sum up: Para resumir



Sequencing
after that: después de eso
all of a sudden: de repente
Finally: Finalmente
First of all: En primer lugar
in the end: al final
in the meantime: mientras tanto
meanwhile: mientras tanto
next: luego
suddenly: de repente
then: entonces, después
while: mientras

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