I currently have five ongoing research projects at the intersection of food security, development, transnational governance and advocacy (two projects are funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada). Please see the Selected Publications tab for my publications related to these areas.
objective of my research is to improve our knowledge of the global governance
of agriculture and food. It does so by examining the global governance of food
security. Food insecurity is not simply a ‘natural’ or ‘scientific’
phenomenon: it is primarily caused by
human-made actions. As such, it is a direct by-product of historically specific
forms of social, economic, and political organization. Achieving world food
security has long been a major objective of international cooperation and a
focus of international and regional institution building and development policy.
In the present era, there has been a renewed centrality of food security to
global governance, especially in the context of agricultural trade liberalization,
developments in biotechnology, climate change and most recently the global food
Rising levels of food security is currently
one of the most pressing issues in global politics. While the United Nations (UN) system has traditionally been responsible for addressing world hunger, the
World Trade Organization (WTO) has emerged as a major site of global food
security governance. As a result, the UN and WTO now share authority over the
global governance of food security. There are major tensions between these two
regimes, with WTO trade rules making agriculture and food increasingly subject
to market forces, while, in sharp contrast, the UN advances a human rights
approach to food and a greater role for states and deeper constraints on the
market. The WTO’s expanding authority over food security has prompted a
counter-movement by the UN system, with UN institutions actively seeking to
shape WTO trade rules in an attempt to limit the negative impacts of trade
liberalization on world food security. The research project develops a theory
of international organizations as semi-autonomous actors that influence
outcomes at competing institutional sites of global governance.
This new project builds on my previous research on the global governance of food security. Since the 2008 global food crisis, investors have acquired over 150 million hectares of agricultural land in developing countries to produce food, feed and biofuel. This scale of land acquisition has not been seen since the era of colonialism and critics have referred to this phenomenon as a “global land grab” in direct comparison to its colonial-era antecedents. Several controversial land deals – most notably the attempt by the Daewoo Corporation of South Korea to lease 1.3 million hectares in Madagascar (equivalent to half the country’s arable land) that led to widespread riots and the fall of an elected government – have prompted efforts to design new global rules to mitigate the potential risks and ensure the transparency and accountability of large-scale land acquisitions. This research project will analyze the negotiation of new transnational institutions to regulate land grabbing and their implementation at the international and national level. These acquisitions have ignited a global debate over whether such large-scale investment in agriculture will be channeled to promote pro-poor economic growth and sustainable development or exacerbate food insecurity, ecological deterioration and political instability in developing countries.Existing scholarship has primarily focused on the local and national sites where land grabbing is occurring and its interplay with the political economy of land reform and agricultural restructuring in developing countries. However, the transnational governance dimensions of land-grabbing have been under-examined, in particular the emerging global governance mechanisms being negotiated at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)and the World Bank. At each of these sites we find different configurations of state and non-state actors that are pursuing competing objectives and regulatory outcomes. There is a major fault line between actors that support modes of voluntary, private self-regulation and those advocating for rules that could be enforceable under international public law. As a result, these negotiations have become key sites of political conflict, yet it remains unclear how different actors such as global civil society organizations or private hedge funds are able to influence developments in this transnational negotiation setting. By examining new efforts to govern land grabbing at the global level, this research project will provide a better understanding of how different actors (including states, international organizations, private sector actors and civil society) exercise power in transnational negotiations and shape an emergent global governance regime.
This workshop project is funded by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Connections Grant that will take stock on the rapidly evolving research on global food issues. This workshop project is co-organized by Dr. Jennifer Clapp (Canada Research Chair in Global Food Security and Sustainability at the University of Waterloo), Dr. Annette Desmarais (Canada Research Chair in Food Justice at the University of Manitoba) and I with the objective to integrate multiple sources and forms of knowledge (i.e., experience in the field, expertise in policymaking and scholarly knowledge) to yield a compilation of written and web-based outputs that will be both widely accessible and relevant for informing policy and public opinion. *More information will be posted here in the coming months.
This research project is part of a multi-year collaborative project funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC). This project seeks to determine if changing social values and attitudes towards food and agriculture are translating into change in public policy processes. We focus on three policy regimes in Canada: food sovereignty, land preservation, and international competitiveness. My contribution to this project is to examine whether transnational conceptions of food sovereignty are being institutionalized in land use policy at the federal and provincial levels and if this contributes to more inclusive and beneficial land use outcomes. For more information visit:
Agricultural Land Use Planning in Canada Project
I am currently editing a volume on Raúl Prebisch, one of the most influential thinkers, political leaders and personalities of the post-war global political economy. More information to be posted soon.