time measurement in ancient India

 
 
                            Time measurement system in ancient India
 
    We do so many activities daily during our life-time. Many of them are time-based, i.e. we do certain specific activties during specific times.  This involves a time scale based on some system of measurement. All systems of time measurement are based on the time of revolution or rotation of various celestial bodies including the moon and the sun. In some countries, they follow a system based on the revolution of the moon round the earth.  In others, they follow a system based on the time taken by the earth to revolve round the sun once.  Many astronomical works have been written in India based on the solar system, such as the Surya Siddhanta etc. In ancient India, a system of time measurement starting with the time taken for twinkling of an eye and going up to the age of the Creator Brahma, based on the solar year, which corresponds to one human year as we observe now, was in vogue, right from the time of the Vedas, thereby esablishing its antiquity. 
     Evidence for the fact that our forbears had their own system of time measurement, is available in the references to this in the Vedas as well as the Puranas. We give below the system  as it is indicated in the Vishnu Purana 1.3.
  
1 निमेष = Time taken to pronounce a letter with one मात्रा, time taken for twinkling of eye 
15 निमेष = 1 काष्ठा
30 काष्ठा = 1 कला  
30 कला = १ मुहूर्त = 2 नाडिका
30 मुहूर्त = 1 human day (day and night)
15 days  =  1 पक्ष 
30 days      = 2 पक्ष = 1 मास (1 month)
6 मास = 1 अयन
2 अयन = 12 months = 1 year (human) 
(1 नाडिका = 24 minutes)
                    Time in the world of the Devas/पितृ
उत्तरायण 6 months  = 1 देव/पितृ  day
दक्षिणायन 6 months = 1 देव/पितृ night
12 human months = 1 human year = 1 Deva/पितृ day  
30 days of the देव/पितृ = 1 month of the देव/पितृ
360 human years = 1 देव/पितृ  येअर
Life span of  देव/पितृ = 100 years of देव/पितृ  = 36,000 human years
12000 Deva years = 12000 x 360 human years = 43,20,000 human years
                           Time span for Brahma
Kaliyuga = 4,32,000 human years
Dwaparayuga = 8,64,000 human years
Tretayuga = 12,96,000 human years
Kritayuga = 17,28,000 human years
1 चतुर्युग = 43,20,000 human years
1000 चतुर्युग = 4,320,000,000 human years = 1 daytime of Brahma = one महायुग
1000 चतुर्युग = 4,320,000,000 human years = 1 night-time of Brahma
1 Brahma full day = 8,640,000,000 human years
1 Brahma month = 30 x 8,640,000,000 = 259,200,000,000 human years
1 Brahma year = 12 x 259,200,000,000 = 3,110,400,000,000 human years
Brahma's age = 100 Brahma years = 311,040,000,000,000 human years
1 Brahma day = 14 मन्वन्तर = 1000 चतुर्युग = 4,320,00,00,000 human years
1 मन्वन्तर = 500/7 चतुर्युग = 306,720,000 human years (according to Vishnupurana 1.3)
Brahma's age = 1 परम् = 2 परार्ध = 311,040,000,000,000  human years
1 कल्प = 25 years of Brahma = 77,760,000,000,000 human years 
2 कल्प = 1 परार्ध = 155,520,000,000,000 human years
                                    *********************
 
1 परार्ध = 1/2 परम् = 50 x 360 x8,64,00,00,000 human years
                                         *******
1 याम = 3 hours = 15/2 nazhika
5 nazhika = उषा
5/2 nazhika = pradosha
1 daytime = 30 nazhika
5/2 nazhika = प्रदोष
Daytime = 30 Nazhika
1 night time  = 30 Nazhika 
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