Spotted Fever Group

January 18, 2016-  In less than 3 weeks, 2 publications from 2 continents identified about a dozen known disease causing organisms in just two batches of ticks.  That could be a record-breaking number.  The scientists also discovered seven (7) new species/strains not previously identified, in the same ticks.  Please see update shared below.  

New tick borne diseases are being discovered at an alarming rate (see two new studies below).  

The problem is if they are not studied in certain areas, no one knows they exist in that area.  Funding is lacking and the science has not been able to keep up.  The charts below from the CDC show a number of Rickettsia diseases (not all), however, the CDC tends to be further behind than the science when it comes to alerting the public and doctors about tick borne diseases.  Personally I would not accept the geographical boundaries in the list below, nor depend on the symptom list presented because, more often than not the CDC/IDSA has been wrong.
 
Additionally, many diseases have still not been studied in other areas yet, as mentioned above, and symptoms can vary from individual to individual.  Plus, there is the problem of being co-infected with other known or unknown tick borne disease pathogens.

The important thing to remember here is to TREAT THE BITE.  Don't wait until you become ill, it may be too late.  To be blunt, when it comes to Rickettsia infections you could die without immediate treatment; many have.  

Don't depend on lab tests to detect any of these diseases as most of them don't have tests available and the ones that do have been proven to miss people who are infected.  Even the CDC realizes Rickettsia diseases are serious and state: 

"Prompt treatment with doxycycline is recommended if tick-borne SFGR is suspected, and should never be delayed pending the outcome of diagnostic tests."

Table 1: Other Spotted Fever Rickettsia transmitted by ticks in the United States
SpeciesTick VectorGeographic DistributionClinical Symptoms
Rickettsia parkeriAmblyomma maculatum(Gulf Coast tick)Eastern and southern U.S., particularly along the coastFever, headache, eschar(s), variable rash
Rickettsiaspecies 364D Dermacentor occidentalis (Pacific Coast tick)Northern California, Pacific CoastFever, eschar(s)
Table 2. Other Spotted Fever Rickettsia transmitted by ticks internationally 
DiseaseSpeciesGeographic DistributionClinical Symptoms
RickettsiosisRickettsia aeschlimanniiAfrica, Mediterranean regionFever, eschar, maculopapular rash
African tick- bite feverRickettsia africaeSub-Saharan Africa, West IndiesFever, eschar, maculopapular rash
Queensland tick typhusRickettsia australisAustralia, TasmaniaFever, eschar, regional adenopathy, rash on extremities
Mediterranean spotted fever or Boutonneuse feverRickettsia conoriiMediterranean region and Africa to  Indian subcontinentFever, eschar (usually single), regional adenopathy, maculopapular rash on extremities
Far eastern spotted feverRickettsia heilongjiangensisNorthern China, Eastern AsiaFever, eschar,  maculopapular rash, regional adenopathy
Aneruptive feverRickettsia helveticaCentral and northern EuropeFever, headache, myalgia
Flinders Island spotted fever, Thai tick typhusRickettsia honeiAustralia, ThailandMild spotted fever, eschar and adenopathy are rare
Japanese spotted feverRickettsia japonicaJapanFever, eschar(s), regional adenopathy, rash on extremities
Australian spotted feverRickettsia marmionii
subspecies
AustraliaFever, eschar, maculopapular or vesicular rash, adenopathy
Rickettsia massiliae rickettsiosesRickettsia massiliae
France, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Sicily, Central Africa and MaliFever, maculopapular rash, necrotic eschar
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, febre maculosa, Sao Paulo exanthematic typhus, Minas Gerais exanthematic typhus, Brazillian spotted feverRickettsia rickettsiiNorth, Central and South AmericaFever, headache, abdominal pain, maculopapular rash progressing into papular or petechial rash (generally originating on extremities)
North Asian tick typhus, Siberian tick typhusRickettisa sibiricaBroadly distributed through north AsiaFever, eschar(s), regional adenopathy, maculopapular rash
Lymphangitis associated rickettsiosisRickettsia sibirica mongolotimonaeSouthern France, Portugal, China, Sub-saharan AfricaFever, multiple eschars, regional adenopathy and lymphangitis, maculopapular rash
Tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), Dermacentor-borne necrosis and lymphadenopathy (DEBONEL)Rickettsia slovacaSouthern and eastern Europe, AsiaNecrosis erythema, cervical lymphadenopathy and enlarged lymph nodes, rare maculopapular rash

‡ Includes 4 different subspecies that can be distinguished serologically and by PCR assay, and respectively are the etiologic agents of Boutonneuse fever and Mediterranean tick fever in Southern Europe and Africa (R. conorii subsp. conorii), Indian tick typhus in South Asia (R. conorii subsp. indica), Israeli tick typhus in Southern Europe and Middle East (R. conorii subsp. israelensis), and Astrakhan spotted fever in the North Caspian region of Russia (R. conorii subsp. caspiae).



Again, PLEASE REMEMBER...
The important thing is to TREAT THE BITE.

January 18, 2016

In less than 3 weeks, 2 publications from 2 continents identified about a dozen known disease causing organisms in ticks.  That could be a record-breaking number.  The scientists also discovered seven (7) new species/strains not previously identified, in the same ticks.  

We know lab tests miss B. burgdorferi already (about 75% of those infected), and we don’t have accurate tests for most of the other strains/species listed here, certainly not any of the new ones.

Best advise?  
TREAT THE BITE!  
Don't wait to see if you become sick.  
TREAT THE BITE!  
Go to www.TreatTheBite.com for more information. 

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Quote from latest article-  "We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected." 

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PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jan 15;10(1):e0004367. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004367. eCollection 2016.

Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d'Ivoire.
Ehounoud CB1,2,3, Yao KP3, Dahmani M1, Achi YL4, Amanzougaghene N1, Kacou N'Douba A5, N'Guessan JD3, Raoult D1,2, Fenollar F1,2, Mediannikov O1,2.

Author information
1Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm U1095, Faculté de médecine, Marseille cedex 05, France.
2Campus International UCAD-IRD, Dakar, Senegal.
3Felix Houphouet Boigny Université, UFR Biosciences, Côte D'Ivoire.
4Ecole de spécialisation en Elevage de Bingerville, Côte D'Ivoire.
5Felix Houphouet Boigny Université, UFR Sciences médicales, Côte D'Ivoire.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: 

Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d'Ivoire.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 
Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. 

Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. 

We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. 

Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. 

Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. 

Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick).

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 

For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d'Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity.

PMID: 26771308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] Free full text


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Posted 3 weeks earlier
MORE tick borne diseases discovered…

PLoS One. 2015 Dec 28;10(12):e0145449. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145449. eCollection 2015.

Bacterial Profiling Reveals Novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma Species in Australian Human-Biting Ticks.

Gofton AW1, Doggett S2, Ratchford A3, Oskam CL1, Paparini A1, Ryan U1, Irwin P1.
Author information

1Vector and Water-borne Pathogen Research Group, School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
2Department of Medical Entomology, Pathology West and Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia.
3Emergency Department, Mona Vale Hospital, New South Wales, Australia.

Abstract

In Australia, a conclusive aetiology of Lyme disease-like illness in human patients remains elusive, despite growing numbers of people presenting with symptoms attributed to tick bites. 

In the present study, we surveyed the microbial communities harboured by human-biting ticks from across Australia to identify bacteria that may contribute to this syndrome. 

Universal PCR primers were used to amplify the V1-2 hyper-variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in DNA samples from individual Ixodes holocyclus (n = 279), Amblyomma triguttatum (n = 167), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (n = 7), and H. longicornis (n = 7) ticks. 

The 16S amplicons were sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform and analysed in USEARCH, QIIME, and BLAST to assign genus and species-level taxonomies. 

Nested PCR and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm the NGS data and further analyse novel findings. All 460 ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. by both NGS and nested PCR analysis. 

Two novel "Candidatus Neoehrlichia" spp. were identified in 12.9% of I. holocyclus ticks. 

A novel Anaplasma sp. was identified in 1.8% of A. triguttatum ticks, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. was identified in both A. triguttatum (1.2%) ticks and a single I. holocyclus (0.6%) tick. 

Further phylogenetic analysis of novel "Ca. Neoehrlichia", Anaplasma and Ehrlichia based on 1,265 bp 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that these are new species. 

Determining whether these newly discovered organisms cause disease in humans and animals, like closely related bacteria do abroad, is of public health importance and requires further investigation. 

PMID: 26709826 [PubMed - in process] Free full text

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