Mary Ann Bronson
CV | Working Papers | Work in Progress


Assistant Professor, Economics
Georgetown University
 

Curriculum Vitae

Research Interests
Labor Economics, Applied Microeconomics

 



Working Papers

  • The Lifecycle Wage Growth of Men and Women: Explaining Gender Differences in Wage Trajectories (with Peter Skogman Thoursie) [PDF]
Abstract
Why do women's wages grow more slowly than men's? Theory indicates that wages grow over the lifecycle as workers progress up an internal "career ladder," and as they switch firms and move up the "job ladder" to higher-paying firms. In this paper, we use employer-employee linked data from Sweden to decompose cumulative wage growth of men and women at each age into wage gains associated with (1) firm changes, (2) large discrete wage gains relative to one's co-workers -- which we call promotions -- and (3) interim (non-promotion) growth. While women switch firms at almost identical rates as men over the lifecycle, they have substantially lower promotion rates at all ages, even controlling for firm, major, and occupation. Though relatively rare, promotions are the largest driver of wage growth by 45 for both men and women. Gender differences in promotion-related growth account for around 73 to 83% of the differences in lifecycle wage growth of college-educated men and women from ages 25 to 45. Differences in wage growth associated with firm changes account for 28%, while interim, non-promotion growth is slightly higher for women. Gender differences in sorting across firms with steeper vs. flatter wage structures explain only about 10% of differences in promotion probability. Lastly, we study hours worked and the evolution of the promotion gap with time to first birth. We use our findings to explain why childbirth penalties for women are so large, immediate and persistent; why gender wage differentials vary across professions; and what contributes to gender differences in estimated firm wage premiums. 


  • Degrees are Forever: Marriage, Educational Investment, and Lifecycle Labor Decisions of Men and Women [PDF]
Abstract
Women attend college today at much higher rates than men. They also select disproportionately into low-paying majors, with almost no gender convergence along this margin since the mid-1980s. In this paper, I explain the dynamics in the gender differences in college attendance and choice of major from 1960 to 2010. I document first that changes in returns to skill over time and gender differences in wage premiums across majors cannot explain the observed gender gaps in educational choices. I then provide reduced-form evidence that two factors help explain the observed gender gaps: first, degrees provide insurance against very low income for women, especially in case of divorce; second, majors differ substantially in the degree of "work-family flexibility" they offer, such as the size of wage penalties for temporary reductions in labor supply. Based on the reduced-form evidence, I construct and estimate a dynamic structural model of marriage, educational choices, and lifetime labor supply. I use the model to quantify the relative importance of changes in wages and changes in the marriage market over time for the observed educational investment patterns. Finally, I test the effects of two sets of policies on men's and women's choice of major: a differential tuition policy that charges less for science and technical majors, as has been proposed in some states; and interventions intended to improve work-family flexibility. My results show that the effects of family-friendly policies differ significantly depending on the program. Some policies, like part-time work entitlements, increase the share of women in science and business majors, while others, like paid maternity leave, further widen both college gender gaps. 



  • Cohort Size and the Marriage Market: Explaining a Century of Changes in U.S. Marriage Rates (with Maurizio Mazzocco) [PDF]
Abstract
We document a strong and negative relationship between changes in cohort size and marriage rates for both women and men. We provide the most convincing evidence on this relationship by using variation in cohort size due to differences across states in sale bans on oral contraceptives. This empirical pattern is puzzling if interpreted using insights derived from the previous literature and standard matching models which indicate that an increase in cohort size should reduce the marriage rate of women, but increase the marriage rate of men. We then investigate the mechanism behind the negative relationship using a standard dynamic search model of the marriage market. We first show that the model we consider is rejected by the data for the same reason the standard matching model is rejected: it predicts that a rise in cohort size should reduce the marriage rate of women, but increase the marriage rate of men. We then develop two variations of the search model and show that they are both able to generate the observed relationship between cohort size and marriage rates. Lastly, we derive a testable implication for the two models based on the relationship between cohort size and divorce rates and provide evidence that only one model is not rejected by the data.

  • A More Measured Approach: An Evaluation of Different Measures of Marriage Rates and Implications for Family Economics (with Maurizio Mazzocco) [PDF]
Abstract
We provide evidence that the measures of marriage rates most commonly used to study marriage behaviors generally lead to misleading inference about the probability that someone marries during his or her life or fertile lifetime, its evolution, and differences across populations. We also document that year-on-year changes in marriage probabilities of singles are poorly captured by the most commonly used measures. The data indicate that a less popular cohort-based measure and age-specific marriage hazards provide more reliable descriptions of those variables. Lastly, we discuss implications of our findings for studies of the drivers and consequences of marriage formation.

  • The Career Dynamics of High-Skilled Women and Men: Evidence from Sweden (with Jim Albrecht, Susan Vroman, and Peter Skogman Thoursie) [PDF]

Work In Progress

  • Joint vs. Individual Taxation and Lifecycle Human Capital Investments 
  • Work-Family Flexibility Policies in a General Equilibrium Model (with Jim Albrecht, Susan Vroman and Peter Skogman Thoursie)