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Costs

Costs

My WMA publications

            http://www.springer.com/energy/renewable+and+green+energy/book/978-3-662-44718-5

Zaumanis. Warm Mix Asphalt., K. Gopalakrishnan et al. (eds.), Climate Change, Energy, Sustainability and Pavements, Green Energy and Technology, Springer-Verlag, (2014), DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44719-2_10

Zaumanis, Martins, and Juris Smirnovs. 
Analysis of Possibilities for Use of Warm Mix Asphalt in Latvia.” 
In Civil Engineering. International Scientific Conference. Proceedings. Vol. 3. Jelgava, Latvia, 2011.
 
Laboratory Evaluation of Organic and Chemical Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies for SMA Asphalt.” 
The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering 7, no. 3 (2012): 191–197. doi:10.3846/bjrbe.2012.26.
 
“Laboratory Evaluation of Warm Mix Asphalt Properties.”
 In 
5th International Conference “Bituminous Mixtures and Pavements.” Thessaloniki, Greece, 2011.
  
Development of Calculation Tool for Assessing the Energy Demand of Warm Mix Asphalt.”
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 48 (January 2012): 163–172. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.997.
 
“Laboratory Testing of Organic and Chemical Warm Mix Asphalt Technologies.” 
St. Louis, MO, USA: National Asphalt Pavement Association, 2011


My book:                                          My Masters thesis:  
http://www.amazon.com/Asphalt-Going-Green-Overview-technologies/dp/384430018X
                 
References

The use of WMA, can result in both reductions and increases in production expenses, depending on the circumstances. The calculations should be based on several important variables, which are summarized here. 

Savings

Different techniques of producing Warm Mix Asphalt promise various energy savings for production. The economic benefit from energy savings should be addressed together with the cost and type of energy used, as higher energy prices promise greater savings. Most contractors report a burner fuel usage decrease of 10% to 15% and savings ranging from $0.10 to $0.80 per ton depending on the fuel type and temperature decrease (West, 2012). It is estimated that the production of 47 million tons of WMA in 2010, saved 30 million gallons of fuel worth more than $80 million (Nadau, 2012). In the UK, it is estimated that for a typical asphalt plant the WMA technology installation costs are low compared to other means of reducing emissions and the payback period is up to one year (Carbon trust, 2010). Higher RAP use, which may be realized by the use of WMA, can also significantly reduce the material costs of asphalt mixtures.

Economic benefits should be evaluated together with environmental effects. If stricter emission standards are implemented, there may be higher economic incentive for WMA use. In this case the potential savings may not be immediately quantifiable and should be evaluated together with environmental regulations.

Some savings may be realized in the paving process as well. WMA additives are often used as compaction aid. This may be very beneficial when working with stiff mixes or in cold weather. In fact – the use of WMA technology can allow an extension of the paving season and night work which promise large economic benefits for the contractors. Due to the better workability that most technologies provide, contractors are also more likely to reach the required compaction density, thus avoiding the penalties for unsatisfactory compaction, and perhaps providing longer pavement life-cycles.

Cost Increases

The savings from WMA production may be offset by the additional costs of WMA production. Each specific case must be evaluated to determine if reduced energy consumption will reduce the overall costs of WMA production. Different WMA technologies will require various additional costs depending on the process and existing plant. Increase in costs may arise from (Zaumanis et al., 2011):

·  Investment and the depreciation of plant modification.

·  Costs of the additives.

·  Costs for technology licensing.

Because WMA technologies are relatively new, there are still concerns over the long term performance of the pavements. If WMA does not have the same or better longevity than HMA, the life-cycle costs of WMA may far exceed the benefits of this technology. For this reason agencies often require firm proof of the performance of each technology before allowing its use in construction projects.

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