Costs

Costs of 100% recycling

Full calculation of the costs associated with 100% recycling can be found in the article:
100% Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Review and Analysis, Resources, Conservation and Recycling 

Publications

100% Recycled Hot Mix Asphalt: A Review and Analysis, (2014), Resour Conserv Recy 92: 230-245 http://goo.gl/rXFvbr  
Influence of Six Rejuvenators on the Performance Properties of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) binder and 100% recycled asphalt mixtures, (2014), Cons Build Mat 71: 538-550 https://sites.google.com/site/martinszaumanis/publications/publications-pdf-files/Zaumanis%20100%20recycled%20hot%20mix%20asphalt%20Res%20Cons%20Recycl.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1  
Determining optimum rejuvenator dose for Asphalt Recycling Based on Superpave Performance Grade Specifications, (2014), Cons Build Mat 69: 159-166 http://goo.gl/Vtlb3l  
Review of very high-content reclaimed asphalt use in plant-produced pavements: state of the art, (2015), Int J  Pavement Eng 16 (1): 39-55 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Martins_Zaumanis/publication/261875706_Review_of_very_high-content_reclaimed_asphalt_use_in_plant-produced_pavements_state_of_the_art/links/54688c050cf2f5eb1804d9a9?ev=pub_int_doc_dl&origin=publication_detail&inViewer=true  
Evaluation of Different Recycling Agents for Restoring Aged asphalt Binder and Performance of 100% Recycled Asphalt, (2014), Mater Struct  https://sites.google.com/site/martinszaumanis/publications/publications-pdf-files/Zaumanis%20Recycling%20agents%20Materials%26Structures.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1  
Rheological, microscopic, and chemical characterization of the rejuvenating effect on asphalt binders, (2014), Fuel 135: 162-171 https://sites.google.com/site/martinszaumanis/publications/publications-pdf-files/Zaumanis%20Rejuvenation%20characterization%20Fuel.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1
Evaluation of Rejuvenator's Effectiveness with Conventional Mix Testing for 100% Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Mixtures, (2013) Transp Res Rec 2370 (1): 17-25  https://sites.google.com/site/martinszaumanis/publications/publications-pdf-files/TRR%202013.pdf?attredirects=0&d=1  
Finite element modeling of rejuvenator diffusion in RAP binder film – simulation of plant mixing process, RILEM symposium 2013, Stockholm, Sweden, 06.12-14.2013    
Low temperature properties of 100% reclaimed asphalt pavement mixtures, 5th European Asphalt Technology Association, Braunschweig, Germany, 06.03-05.2013       
Use of Rejuvenators for Production of Sustainable High Content RAP Hot Mix Asphalt, 28th International Baltic Road Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania, 08.26-28.2013
Interactive presentation of Phase I results and research plans
 
The figure below summarizes the calculation results of material related costs per ton of produced asphalt ranging from 0% to 100% RAP content. Depending on the market situation with availability of RAP, the costs of per ton of 100% RAP mixture would be reduced between 32 to 48 USD or 50 to 70% compared to virgin mix. Clearly, the major part of the costs comes from binder expenses and as the cost of oil continues to rise, the benefit of using high RAP mixtures will only increase.
The assumptions for costs that were used in the calculation are shown below the figure.
Full methodology of the calculation is available in the article (see above).


https://sites.google.com/site/martinszaumanis/100-rap/100-rap-costs/costs.png?attredirects=0

Aggregate - 19.80/t 
Binder - 704.00/t 
Recycling Agent - 1.30/l 
RAP Purchasing - 11.00/t 
RAP Disposal - 5.50/t 
RAP Processing - 3.30/t 
Burner Fuel - 3.47/t 
RAP and Performance Testing - 1.48/t 
Pollution Control - 2.75/t@100%RAP


Return on Investment

 Of course Switching to production of 100% RAP mixture would require investment in plant technology, such as asphalt production related equipment, RAP processing units, and possible RAP storage upgrade. These expenses will vary greatly depending on the chosen technology and readily available equipment.

Three different investment levels (1, 2, and 5 million USD) and profit margins ranging from USD 0 to 40 per tonne of mix were used for calculation of time to break even and the results are illustrated in figure to the left. The profit per tonne of mix will likely not be directly related to the savings calculated earlier; at least until proved that the quality and longevity of 100% RAP pavement is equal to that of conventional asphalt. However, even a reduction of asphalt price by as much as USD 20 compared to low RAP mix would still promise the contractor at least USD 12 profit per tonne of produced mixture (see figure). At such margin, for example, time to reach break-even point would be less than three years for 1 million USD investment and 30,000 t/yr. production rate.

Full methodology and cost analysis can be found in the article (see above) 



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