Snowball Earth References

Useful reading, grouped by category.

Classics, origins.

Budyko, M. I., 1969, The effect of solar radiation variations on the climate of the Earth, Tellus, 21, 611–619.

Kirschvink, JL, 1992. Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: The snowball Earth. In, Schopf JW & Klein C. (eds), The Proterozoic biosphere: A multidisciplinary study. CUP, Cambridge, p. 51-52.

Harland, W.B., 1964, Critical evidence for a great infra-Cambrian ice age. Geologisches Rundschau, 54, 45-61.

**Hoffman PF, Kaufman AJ, Halverson GP & Schrag, DP. 1998. A Neoproterozoic snowball earth. Science, 281: 1342-1346.

Latitude, age.

Evans D.A.D., Li Z.X., Kirschvink J.L., et al.. 2000. A high-quality mid-Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic pole from South China, with implications for ice ages and the breakup configuration of Rodinia. Precambrian Res. 100 (1-3): 313-334.

*Evans, D.A.D., 2000, Stratigraphic, geochronological, and paleomagnetic constraints upon the Neoproterozoic climatic paradox: Am. J. Sci., 300: 347-433.

Hoffman PF. 1999. The break-up of Rodinia, birth of Gondwana, true polar wander and the snowball Earth. J Afr. Earth Sci 28 (1): 17-33.

*Kilner B, MacNiocaill C, & Brasier M., 2005. Low-latitude glaciation in the Neoproterozoic of Oman. Geology 33 (5): 413-416.

Meert, J.G., and Van der Voo, R., 1994, The Neoproterozoic (1000-540 Ma) glacial intervals: No more snowball Earth? Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 123: 1-13.

*Smith AG, Pickering KT. 2003. Oceanic gateways as a critical factor to initiate icehouse Earth. J. Geol Soc London 160: 337-340.

Zhang SH, Jiang GQ, Zhang JM, Song B, Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N, 2005. U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe ages from the Doushantuo Formation in south China: Constraints on late Neoproterozoic glaciations. Geology 33 (6): 473-476.


Allen, P.A. & P.F. Hoffman, 2005. Extreme winds and waves in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic glaciation. Nature, 433: 123-127, and 436:E1-2, doi:10.1038/nature04026

Jerolmack DJ. and D. Mohrig, 2005. Palaeoclimatology:  Formation of Precambrian sediment ripples Nature 436,(21 July), E1, doi: 10.1038/nature04025

Allen PA, Leather J, Brasier MD., 2004. The Neoproterozoic Fiq glaciation and its aftermath, Huqf supergroup of Oman. Basin Research 16 (4): 507-534.

*Arnaud, E., 2004. Giant cross-beds in the Neoproterozoic Port Askaig Formation, Scotland: implications for snowball Earth, Sed. Geol., 165: 155-174

*Arnaud E, Eyles CH., 2002. Glacial influence on Neoproterozoic sedimentation: The Smalfjord Formation, northern Norway. Sedimentology 49 (4): 765-788.

Condon DJ, Prave AR, Benn DI. 2002. Neoproterozoic glacial-rainout intervals: Observations and implications. Geology, 30: 35-38.

Crowell, J.C., 1999, Pre-Mesozoic ice ages: their bearing on understanding the climate system: Geological Society of America, Memoir, 192, 106 pp. (Late Proterozoic, 45-65)

Fairchild, IJ, 1993. Balmy shores and icy wastes: The paradox of carbonates associated with glacial deposits in Neoproterozoic times. Sedimentology Review, (ed VP Wright), 1: 1-16

*James NP, Narbonne GM, Dalrymple RW, Kyser TK, 2005. Glendonites in neoproterozoic low-latitude, interglacial, sedimentary rocks, northwest Canada: Insights into the Cryogenian ocean and Precambrian cold-water carbonates. Geology, 33 (1): 9-12.

*Leather J, Allen PA, Brasier MD, Cozzi A., 2002. Neoproterozoic snowball earth under scrutiny: Evidence from the Fiq glaciation of Oman. Geology 30 (10): 891-894

Nogueira ACR, Riccomini C, Sial AN, Moura CAV, Fairchild TR., 2003. Soft-sediment deformation at the base of the Neoproterozoic Puga cap carbonate (southwestern Amazon craton, Brazil): Confirmation of rapid icehouse to greenhouse transition in snowball Earth, Geology 31 (7): 613-616.

*Shields GA, 2005. Neoproterozoic cap carbonates: a critical appraisal of existing models and the plumeworld hypothesis. Terra Nova 17 (4): 299-310.

Williams, G.E., 1994, The enigmatic Late Proterozoic glacial climate: an Australian perspective, in Deynoux, M., Miller, J.M.G., Domack, E.W., Eyles, N., Fairchild, I.J., and Young, G.M., eds., Earth's glacial record: Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press, p. 146-164.

Isotopes and Geochemistry

Evans DA, Beukes NJ, Kirschvink JL. 1997. Low-latitude glaciation in the Palaeoproterozoic era. Nature 386: 262-266.

Halverson GP, Hoffman PF, Schrag DP, Maloof AC, & Rice AHN, 2005. Toward a Neoproterozoic composite carbon-isotope record Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 117: 1181-1207

Halverson GP, Hoffman PF, Schrag DP, et al., 2002. A major perturbation of the carbon cycle before the Ghaub glaciation (Neoproterozoic) in Namibia: Prelude to snowball Earth? Geochem Geophy Geosyst 3: art. no. 1035.

Higgins JA, Schrag DP., 2003. Aftermath of a snowball Earth. Geochem Geophy Geosyst 4: art. no. 1028 MAR 21

**Hoffman, P.F. & Schrag, D.P., 2002. The snowball earth hypothesis: testing the limits of global change. Terra Nova, 14: 129-155.

Hurtgen, M.T., M.A. Arthur, N.S. Suits, A.J. Kaufman. 2002. The sulfur isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater sulfate: implications for a snowball Earth? . Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 201: 413-429

**Jiang GQ, Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N. 2003. Stable isotopic evidence for methane seeps in Neoproterozoic postglacial cap carbonates. Nature 426 (6968): 822-826.

**Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N, Prave AR. 2001. Carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic glacial carbonates as a test of paleoceanographic models for snowball Earth phenomena. Geology 29: 1135-1138.

**Kennedy MJ, Christie-Blick N, Sohl LE. 2001. Are Proterozoic cap carbonates and isotopic excursions a record of gas hydrate destabilization following Earth's coldest intervals? Geology 29: 443-446.

Kennedy MJ. 1996. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and isotopic geochemistry of Australian Neoproterozoic postglacial cap dolostones: Deglaciation, delta C-13 excursions, and carbonate precipitation. J Sediment Res 66: 1050-1064.

Kirschvink JL, Gaidos EJ, Bertani LE, Beukes N.J., Gutzmer J., Maepa L.N. & Steinberger R.E. 2000. Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth:Extreme climatic and geochemical global change and its biological consequences. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA, 97: 1400-1405.

Pavlov AA, Hurtgen MT, Kasting JF, Arthur MA., 2003. Methane-rich Proterozoic atmosphere? Geology 31 (1): 87-90

*Rothman DH, Hayes JM, Summons RE., 2003. Dynamics of the Neoproterozoic carbon cycle. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA 100 (14): 8124-8129.

Schrag DP, Berner RA, Hoffman PF, et al., 2002. On the initiation of a snowball Earth
Geochem Geophy Geosyst, 3: art. no. 1036.

Tajika E., 2003. Faint young Sun and the carbon cycle: implication for the Proterozoic global glaciations. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett, 214 (3-4): 443-453.


*Corsetti, F.A., A.N. Olcott, C. Bakermans, 2006. The biotic response to Neoproterozoic snowball Earth. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 232, 114-130

Narbonne GM, Gehling JG., 2003. Life after snowball: The oldest complex Ediacaran fossils
Geology 31 (1): 27-30.

Olcott AN, Sessions AL, Corsetti FA, Kaufman AJ & de Oliviera TF, 2005. Biomarker evidence for photosynthesis during Neoproterozoic glaciation, Science, 310: 471-474.


Donnadieu, Y., F. Fluteau, G. Ramstein, C. Ritz, J. Besse, 2003. Is there a conflict between the Neoproterozoic glacial deposits and the snowball Earth interpretation: an improved understanding with numerical modeling. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 208: 101-12

Donnadieu, Y., Y. Goddéris, G. Ramstein, A. Nédélec & J. Meert, 2004. A 'snowball Earth' climate triggered by continental break-up through changes in runoff.Nature,428,303-6.

Goodman, J. C. & Pierrehumbert, R. T., 2003. Glacial flow of floating marine ice in "Snowball Earth" J. Geophys. Res., Vol. 108, No. C10, 3308 10.1029/2002JC001471.

Hyde, W. T., T. J. Crowley, S. K. Baum, and W. R. Peltier, 2000, Neoproterozoic “Snowball Earth” simulations with a coupled climate/ice-sheet model, Nature, 405, 425–429.

Lewis JP, Weaver AJ, Johnston ST & Eby M., 2003. Neoproterozoic "snowball Earth": Dynamic sea ice over a quiescent ocean. Paleoceanography 18 (4): art. no. 1092.

Pierrehumbert RT, 2002. The hydrologic cycle in deep-time climate problems. Nature, 419: 191-198.

Pollard D, Kasting JF, 2005. Snowball Earth: A thin-ice solution with flowing sea glaciers. J. Geophys. Res. -Oceans 110 (C7): Art. No. C07010.

*Poulsen, C.J., 2003. Absence of a runaway ice-albedo feedback in the Neoproterozoic. Geology, 31: 473–476.

*Ridgwell AJ, Kennedy MJ, Caldeira K., 2003. Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302 (5646): 859-862.

Stone PH & Yao MS, 2004. The ice-covered Earth instability in a model of intermediate complexity. Climate Dynamics 22 (8): 815-822.

*See discussion between Hoffman et al. and Kennedy et al. in Geology, 2002, 286-8, 761-3