Powerpoint Outlines

Chapter 1 : What is Sociology ?



Definition :

The scientific study of society and human social behaviors.



The sociological perspective-

understanding  human behavior by placing it within broader social context


                                    - C. Wright Mills –

“ sociological imagination”

Looks at how people are influenced by their society and how social forces affect behavior


Social Location


Sociologists study ones social location to understand human behavior


Social location refers to the corners in life that people occupy


Social location includes: Jobs, Social Class, Race, Sex, Religion, and other demographics


Social location shapes ideas of who we are and what we should attain in life


Sociology Vs. Common Sense



Benefits / Limitations

Of Sociology





General Enlightenment

Challenge Popular Myth

Identify Social Problems &

Design Solutions




Human behavior too complex

to predict       

Researchers can influence

outcomes or behavior

Social patterns change

Value-free, objective research difficult to obtain.                        

Theoretical Perspectives

In Sociology


Theory – a general statement about

how some parts of the world fit

together and how they work.


Sociologists use three main theories



Conflict Theory

Symbolic interactionism





-           Like an organism, if society is

to function smoothly, it’s parts

must work together in harmony.


- Latent & Manifest functions

- Dysfunction



Conflict Theory


 - States that society is composed of

groups engaged in competition

for scarce resources.



Symbolic Interactionism


- Studies how people use symbols to

establish meaning, develop views of

the world and communicate.



Levels of Analysis


Macro & Micro Level






Chapter 2:  CULTURE


 Culture –language, beliefs,

values, norms, behaviors, and

material objects passed

between generations


Material Culture- material

objects - distinguish a group

of people.


Non-material culture- ( symbolic culture)   group’s way of thinking, doing, and acting.



Components of Culture


Values  - Ideas of what is desirable in life.


Norms & Sanctions


Norms- rules or guidelines that

develop from values.


- Folkways- norms that are not strictly enforced.


-Mores- norms that are

essential to core values.


- Taboos- norms so strong thought of it’s violation is greeted with revulsion


Sanctions – reactions to the ways in which people follow norms.


-Positive / Negative sanctions

-Formal / Informal sanctions


Symbols – something which people

 attach meaning and significance



Language & Gestures



- Gestures – involve using one’s

 body to communicate.




Technology –tools and equipment;

skills and knowledge necessary to

  make and use tools.



Ideal vs. Real Culture


            -Ideal culture –values, norms,  goals - group considers

             ideal, and worth aspiring to.



            - Real culture – the norms and

             values that people actually follow.



Subcultures – world within the

larger world of dominant culture.



Countercultures -  members in

opposition to the values of the larger culture.



Cultural Change


- Alteration of the environment

- Cultural contact & diffusion

- Discovery & invention



Cultural Lag – not all parts of a culture change at the same pace



Cultural leveling -  cultures become

  similar to one another.



Culture shock –disorientation

  people experience with a different



Ethnocentrism - tendency to evaluate other cultures and conclude yours is superior


Cultural Relativism - understanding people from the framework of their

own culture




Socialization is intended to turn us

  into conforming members


- Socialization = Society within you



Nature vs. Nurture


Nature argument:  ( Heredity)


-Human behavior ruled by drives

&  instincts


Nurture Argument -  ( Social



- Human behavior is product of

learning & social contact


Scientific support for Nurture


            - Pavlov : conditioned response


- Skinner & Watson: behavior



Isolation & Deprivation Studies


            - Children raised in isolation


            - Animal Studies – The Harlows

                        Rhesus monkeys


Cross cultural studies


            - Anthropologists offer evidence-

            social / cultural behavior is learned








Freud’s Development of Personality


- Personality consists of three parts


Id =  the inborn drives


Superego = the conscience

- represents the culture within us


Ego = the balancing force


 Cooley’s Looking Glass Self


We imagine how we appear

to others


We interpret others reactions


 We develop a self-concept



Mead’s Role Taking

- Children develop a “self ” through

role play


- Preparatory Stage 

- Play Stage 

- Game Stage



Agents of Socialization


- People/ groups influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior


 - Some primary agents:

- Parents            - Babysitters

- Teachers            - Peers

    - Co-workers                       - Friends

- Sports team members   - Media












- Macrosociology – places the focus

on broad features of society


                        - Focus on social structure



- Microsociology – - Examines  daily experiences, using close-up,detailed analysis


- the emphasis is placed on social interaction


Social Interaction – What people do and say in one another’s presence



Personal space -  eye contact, body language



Erving Goffman


- Dramaturgy


- Presentation of Self


-Impression Management


- Actors on a stage   


- Backstage & Frontstage


- Use of Props



 Social Interaction Model


- Blending Cooley’s with Goffman

to examine social interaction



Social Interaction Principles


- “ The Real Me”


- Face saving behavior


-  Person tries to make an uncomfortable situation more bearable


- “Studied nonobservance” – ignore that you saw something



- Exchange & Reciprocity


- “ norm of reciprocity” - respond in same manner, as people treat you



Social Construction of Reality


- social construction of reality

– Society and life experiences

define what is real



- Thomas theorem – “ If people define situations as real, they are

real in their consequences.”




Social Structure



Social structure – refers to way

society is organized into predictable relationships



Social Status – the position

person occupies in society.


Achieved status – earned status


Ascribed status – involuntary


Master status – overriding status



Social role –behaviors , obligations, and privileges attached to status or social position


Role ambiguity – unclear



Role strain – multiple demands


Role conflict – one role incompatible with another





Social institutions – the means each society develops to meet basic needs


Social Institutions include:


- family                                   - religion

- law                                        - politics

- economics                 - education

- medicine                    - science

- military                                 - mass media

Chapter 5:   SOCIAL GROUPS


 group – think of themselves as

belonging together ; they

interact with one another


Non –groups


-  category –share similar



- aggregate - share same physical



Important Groupings


- primary groups - groups that are intimate, long- term, personal             


- secondary groups - larger, more  formal and impersonal


In-groups  -  groups toward which we feel loyalty


Out – groups  -  groups toward which we feel antagonisms ( opposition or hostility)


Reference group – the groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves


Cliques -  within a larger group, a cluster of people who interact with each other


Coalition  - the alignment of some group members against others





Group dynamics – how groups

affect us and how we affect groups



Small group – group small enough for everyone to interact directly

with others


Dyad – a two person group


                        Triad- a three person group





Effects of group size  


- stability

- diffusion of responsibility

                        - intimacy & conformity


Leadership types


 Leader – someone who influences the behaviors, opinions, or attitudes of others


-Instrumental leader – keeps group moving toward it’s goals


- Expressive leader – lifts group’s morale, keeps harmony,

resolves conflict



Leadership styles


- Authoritarian style

- Democratic style

- Laissez-faire style





- Groupthink – collective tunnel







clear cut levels

division of labor

written rules

written records











Chapter 6:   DEVIANCE


Deviance – behavior that violates standards or expectations of a group


- deviance is any violation of the rules or norms


Crime-    category of deviance.  Violation of the law.


Conditions of Deviance


Depends on who commits

the act


Depends on the situation


Depends on audience and



Social definitions change over time


Theories of deviance


- Functionalists argue deviance has purpose ; serves a vital function in society


Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms


Promotes social unity


Can promote social  change



Control Theory


   Inner Controls

Outer Controls


Social learning theories – deviant behavior is learned, just like conforming behavior is


- Differential association theory

We learn our behavior through association with others


Labeling Theory : society or group labels something to be deviant, and it becomes deviant



Techniques of  Neutralization

- Five Techniques:


- Deny responsibility

- Denial of any injury

- Blame the victim

- Condemn the condemners

- Appeal to a higher principle


Deviant Stereotyping


- Exaggeration


- Centrality & persistence


- Dichotomizing


- Homogeneity


- Clustering                            





























Social stratification:  system in which groups divided into layers according to their relative power, property & prestige


Social mobility - Refers to movement up or down social class ladder


            - Upward & downward mobility



Closed Systems –Positions are ascribed.


Open Systems -  Social position is achieved.  Movement is possible



Types of Stratification Systems


                        Slavery – ownership of some          

                        people by others.


Caste System – status is determined by birth and is life long.


Class System –open system where ranking based primarily on economic and social positions.



Social class –large group of people ranked together by social position






Components of social class


- Power  - ability to carry out your will, despite resistance.


- Prestige  - respect or high regard from others.


- Wealth -  consists of a persons property and income. 



Status – persons social ranking


status consistency - Similar rank in power, wealth, and prestige


Status inconsistency –person has mixture of high and low ranks in power, wealth, and prestige.


The U.S. Social Class



- Upper Class ( Capitalist class)  1%

- Old Money & New Money


-Upper Middle Class – 15%


- Lower Middle Class – 35%

- white collar jobs


- Working Class – 30%

- blue collar positions


-Working Poor – 16%

- cannot make enough to pull out of poverty


-Underclass – 4% ?

- chronic poverty, chronic unemployment


Consequences of Social Class


Wealth & Income Distribution


Poverty in the U.S.


- Poverty Line – official measure of



- Relative poverty / deprivation: 

   compare yourself to others


- Absolute poverty/deprivation:

when a person is truly living in poverty


- Feminization of poverty – most

poor families are headed by women.



Who are the Poor in United States?


Racial minorities over-represented


- 10% of Whites are poor

- 20 – 25% African Americans & Latinos


* most of the poor are White ( 55-56%)


Women  more likely to be poor than men


Only 2-3% college graduates are poor

- 20-25%  high school dropouts


Most poverty short term ( 1 yr. avg )


Society has an impact –

- deny certain people access to education or job skill training

Theories of Stratification



Karl Marx  - social class depends on a single factor – owning means of production


- those who control it exploit those who do not.


Max Weber -  wealth & economic position is not the only factor in social class.


- three components:  Property

( wealth), Power, and Prestige


Functionalist explanation


stratification is inevitable, and necessary for society to function

























White ( European)                   -              60-63 %


Latino / Hispanic                      -            14-15 %


African-American /            -            12-13 %



Asian American                                 -             4-5 %


Native American /                   -            1 %

American Indian                         


2 or more categories            -            1-2 %



Racial Group – a group of people perceived to have physical/biological characteristics in common


- people are seen as different or similar due to physical appearance.



Ethnic Group – ( ethnicity)

People who identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage


- people are viewed based on cultural characteristics





Prejudice :  an unfavorable attitude  and negative opinion of an individual or a group



Discrimination:           an act of unfair treatment against an individual or a group



*  Prejudice & discrimination may go hand-in-hand, but not always




Racism:  prejudice and/or discrimination on the basis of race.




Individual discrimination:  negative treatment person to person, or one person towards a whole group


Institutional discrimination: negative treatment of people by large institutions                 



- negative patterns of unequal treatment woven or built into society


Scapegoat:  an individual or group that is unfairly blamed for someone else’s  troubles


Dominant group:  greatest power, most privileges, and highest social status

Minority Groups:  people who are singled out for unequal treatment


-  the subordinate group


- minority status can be based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, etc.


Characteristics of Minority status


- Members disadvantaged or given

   unequal treatment


- Members have traits that are

   looked down upon.


- Minority status is involuntary.


- Members create a shared sense of






Inhumanity                                                     Humanity  Rejection                                                              Acceptance                                               

I               I                        I              I                  I             I          

Genocide               Internal             Assimilation


                 Population             Segregation          Pluralism





-Expulsion ( population transfer)


-Internal colonialism



-Pluralism / Multiculturalism






The color line remains one of the most volatile topics facing our nation


The U.S. has both welcomed immigration and feared it’s consequences.


We have a history of including some groups and excluding others































Sex traits:  biological characteristics that distinguish males & females


Gender traits: social characteristics of masculinity & femininity


Gender roles:   behaviors, attitudes, and expectations

appropriate for each sex.


Gender socialization:  gender roles are learned through socialization  process


Gender stratification:  unequal access to social rewards on the basis of sex/gender.




Patriarchy:  authority vested in men; men control the society or group.


Matriarchy:  authority vested in women; women control the society.


Egalitarian  society:  equality between men & women.  Both sexes treated as equals.



How Females Became a Minority Group


Around world, patriarchy has been dominant form


Females classified as  minority because denied equal access.


Females were  primary care takers of children, and men became socially dominant


Inequality in Family


- Second Shift-  After working

outside home for wages; this work includes cleaning house, cooking,  caring for the children.


Strategies of resistance – while some

men participate & help out, others resist. – Arlie Hochschild


“ Waiting it out”

“ Playing dumb”

“Needs reduction”

“ Substitute offerings” 







Gender pay gap:   On average,  

women earn less than men. 

( 69% of a man’s salary )


pay gap at all levels of education


after years on job, still make less than men with the same experience


Glass ceilings :  mostly invisible

barrier keeps women from reaching top jobs


men more likely to be promoted & move up pay scale faster


women may lack necessary mentors and coaches


women may be viewed that they are going to leave  career & start a family


“ Glass escalator”  -  men who work

traditionally women’s occupations were accelerated into higher positions & higher salaries.



























Power, Authority & Government


- State-  government or political

entity that claims power or authority.


- Anarchy – condition of disorder or

lawlessness caused by absence/ collapse of government


Power – ability to get your way, even over resistance of others.


Authority – legitimate power people accept as right.


-Coercion – illegitimate power  

  people do not accept as just.


Weber:  3 types of authority


Traditional authority

Rational –legal authority

Charismatic authority




Autocracy: power rests in hands of one person


- Monarchy = government headed by

   royal family; king or queen


- Dictatorship = power is seized


Oligarchy:  power is held by a small group of people. 


Totalitarianism:  government exerts almost complete control


Democracy – Power derives from people.      


- Direct democracy : voters meet together  & make their decisions


- Representative democracy :  voters elect representatives to govern on their behalf





Democratic ideals ( 3 principles)


- Consent of the governed


- Equal opportunity for all citizens


- Majority rule ( protecting minority

rights )



Who rules in the U.S.


Functionalism :  Pluralism and spread of power


-  Conflict theory:   Power elite and

   a ruling class





Capitalism vs. Socialism


Capitalism:  economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands ( not government owned); and profit is the main incentive.



-Laissez-faire capitalism:  government is not involved; the market dictates itself



-State ( welfare) capitalism:   the

 government regulates many economic activities for the welfare of the people



3 principles of Capitalism


-  Private ownership


-  Pursuit of profit as a motive


-  Free and open competition







Socialism:  means of production and distribution are state owned ( by the government); and main objective is to meet the needs of the people



- pure socialism :  government owns and controls all the resources


- welfare (democratic ) socialism:  government and individuals share in ownership and profit is allowed


3 principles of Socialism


-  Government owns means of production and the resources


-  Distribution of goods based on need, not profit


-  Central planning ; government eliminates competition



Convergence theory:  both capitalism and socialism adopt features of the other




























Chapter 12:  FAMILY


Basic social definition -  group of people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption


Household -   people who occupy the same housing unit


Family of orientation:  the family in which the individual grows up


Family of procreation :   the family that is formed when a couple has their first child


Fictive kin:   Stretching kinship to include people who are “like” family.

Not related, but close as “blood relatives”


Kinship:  How do we trace who we are related to ?


            - Bilineal system : related to both

mother & father’s side of family


- Patrilineal system:  related to only

 Father’s side of family


- Matrilineal system:  related to only

 Mother’s side of family



Marriage partners:


Monogamy:  only one spouse


-  Serial monogamy:   one spouse at a time ; not necessarily lifelong monogamy



- Polygamy :   more than one spouse at same time


- Polygyny:  a man can have more than one wife



- Polyandry:   a woman can have multiple husbands



Mate Selection


Endogamy:  marry within the



- Exogamy:   marry outside the  group



Family Functions


- meet basic survival needs

- meet emotional needs

-  care for sick and aged

- socialize & teach values

- regulate sexual activity & reproduction






Nuclear family:   a family consisting of husband, wife , and their children



Extended family:   a nuclear family plus other relatives ( grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.



Blended family:   a family whose members were once part of other families ( step- family)



Unmarried  mothers / one-parent households



Cohabiting couples:  unmarried people living together in a sexual relationship



Families without children



Other family forms:    same-sex relationships, skipped- generation families,  various other family forms.





Divorce & Remarriage

Sandwich Generation

-  Empty nest & not-so-empty nest

Absent parents ( dead-beat parents)

Abuse & spousal battering


Chapter 13:  RELIGION


Religions around the world


- Christianity             30-33%

- Islam                                     18-20%

- Hinduism                              13-14%

- Buddhism                             6%

- Judaism                                 1%

- All other religions combined     14%

- Non-religious                        16%



Religion in U.S.


- Primarily Christian, but variety of denominations  ( Protestants, Catholics, non-denominational)




Basic elements found in religion



- Belief system :  convictions that cannot be proved or disproved by ordinary means



- Rituals & symbols  :  symbols evoke a meaning.  Rituals are ceremonies or practices that embody the belief system



- Religious experience : an awareness of the supernatural, or coming in contact with God



- Sense of community :   a shared identity and bond that brings people together as a group of believers



Types of religions ( social hierarchy)


ecclesia -   national or state religion ; the official religion of that society. 


mainstream church -   a large, highly organized religious group which is formalized and usually highly bureaucratic. 


sect -    a smaller religion that is somewhat at odds with mainstream society and mainstream religions. 



cult  -  a new religion with few followers, whose teachings and practices put it in opposition to the dominant culture and religion.


Religious theoretical viewpoints



Emile Durkheim   - religion provides purpose & function


- by dividing beliefs  up into the sacred and profane, a moral community is formed


Karl Marx  -  conflict perspective on religion



- believers escape into religion, and use religion as a crutch


- religious teachings and practices reflect and legitimates society's inequalities


Symbolic Inteactionists  - 


- religions use symbols to provide identity and social solidarity


- Symbols  used to communicate with others



Religion in the U.S.


- religion and geography


- religion and social class connection


- religion and racial/ethnic connection



Function & Conflict of religion


-In what ways can religion be functional, and serve the interests of society ?


- In what  ways can religion create conflict, and be disruptive to society ?







Chapter 13:   EDUCATION


Functional Perspective:   Providing social benefits


Teaching knowledge & skills


Cultural transmission of values


Social integration


Social placement & tracking


Replacing family functions




Conflict Perspective:   perpetuating social inequality


Hidden curriculum


I.Q. testing bias


Unequal student funding


Reproduces social class structure



Symbolic Interaction Perspective:

Face –to-face interaction


Teacher expectations


-  Self-fulfilling prophecy



Issues in education


Grade inflation


Social promotion


Functional illiteracy


School violence


Other problems in schools





Demography:   The study of human populations



Malthus Theorem:  Thomas Malthus – 1798


            Population grows geometrically, and food production increases arithmetically


New Malthusians


            Population is growing faster than imagined – doubling time is shorter





Year                             World Pop.   Time span


1800                            1 billion                          1800 yrs


1930                            2 billion                                      130 yrs


1960                            3 billion                          30 yrs


1975                            4 billion                          15 yrs


1987                            5 billion                          12 yrs


1999                            6 billion                          12 yrs



150 babies born every minute


214,000 more people each day


78 million people per year

Anti-Malthusians  -  Believe that populations are in transition.  Eventually population will stabilize and start to decline.


Food production vs. distribution





3  Demographic Variables


Fertility rate:  The number of children an average woman bears



-  Mortality rate:   The number of

    deaths in a population


-  Net Migration rate:   Difference

   between number of immigrants vs. 





Urbanization:   People moving into the cities and cities having a growing influence on society


Year                                         % living in cities


1790                                        5%


1920                                        50%


Today                                     79%



Gentrification:   Movement of middle class people into rundown areas of the city


Positive & negative impacts


Suburbanization:   People move from cities to suburbs.


Suburbs are the outlying areas of

   the cities


Rural rebound:   Migration to rural areas and small towns


Contrasts of City life


Alienation & Norm of

non- involvement


              -  Creating community






Chapter 15 – Social Change


Definition:  Alteration of culture and societies over time


Modernization: Transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies


William Ogburn





Cultural Lag


Social Movements:  Large numbers of people organized to either promote or resist social change


Public Opinion:  How people think about the issue

Propaganda: Present information in an attempt to influence

Resource Mobilization:  Gathering and organizing resources


Oppositional social movements


Technology:   a double-edged sword



Innovation and improvement

Making life better



Environmental degradation

Unequal access to technology


Environmental Injustice:   Minorities and poor suffer the most from pollution


Green Parties:  Political parties whose central issue is the environment


Ecosabotage:  Actions taken to disrupt the efforts of those thought to be legally harming the environment


Environmental Sociology:   The focus is on relationship between human societies and the natural environment. 

Linda Pasion,
Jan 9, 2013, 8:58 AM