Powerpoint Outlines

Chapter 1 : What is Sociology ?

 

 

Definition :

The scientific study of society and human social behaviors.

 

 

The sociological perspective-

understanding  human behavior by placing it within broader social context

 

                                    - C. Wright Mills –

“ sociological imagination”

Looks at how people are influenced by their society and how social forces affect behavior

 

Social Location

 

Sociologists study ones social location to understand human behavior

 

Social location refers to the corners in life that people occupy

 

Social location includes: Jobs, Social Class, Race, Sex, Religion, and other demographics

 

Social location shapes ideas of who we are and what we should attain in life

 

Sociology Vs. Common Sense

 

 

Benefits / Limitations

Of Sociology

 

 

Benefits:         

 

General Enlightenment

Challenge Popular Myth

Identify Social Problems &

Design Solutions

 

Limitations:

 

Human behavior too complex

to predict       

Researchers can influence

outcomes or behavior

Social patterns change

Value-free, objective research difficult to obtain.                        

Theoretical Perspectives

In Sociology

 

Theory – a general statement about

how some parts of the world fit

together and how they work.

           

Sociologists use three main theories

 

Functionalism

Conflict Theory

Symbolic interactionism

 

 

Functionalism

 

-           Like an organism, if society is

to function smoothly, it’s parts

must work together in harmony.

 

- Latent & Manifest functions

- Dysfunction

 

 

Conflict Theory

 

 - States that society is composed of

groups engaged in competition

for scarce resources.

 

 

Symbolic Interactionism

 

- Studies how people use symbols to

establish meaning, develop views of

the world and communicate.

 

 

Levels of Analysis

 

Macro & Micro Level

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 2:  CULTURE

 

 Culture –language, beliefs,

values, norms, behaviors, and

material objects passed

between generations

 

Material Culture- material

objects - distinguish a group

of people.

 

Non-material culture- ( symbolic culture)   group’s way of thinking, doing, and acting.

 

 

Components of Culture

 

Values  - Ideas of what is desirable in life.

 

Norms & Sanctions

 

Norms- rules or guidelines that

develop from values.

 

- Folkways- norms that are not strictly enforced.

 

-Mores- norms that are

essential to core values.

 

- Taboos- norms so strong thought of it’s violation is greeted with revulsion

 

Sanctions – reactions to the ways in which people follow norms.

 

-Positive / Negative sanctions

-Formal / Informal sanctions

 

Symbols – something which people

 attach meaning and significance

 

 

Language & Gestures

 

 

- Gestures – involve using one’s

 body to communicate.

 

 

 

Technology –tools and equipment;

skills and knowledge necessary to

  make and use tools.

 

 

Ideal vs. Real Culture

 

            -Ideal culture –values, norms,  goals - group considers

             ideal, and worth aspiring to.

 

 

            - Real culture – the norms and

             values that people actually follow.

 

 

Subcultures – world within the

larger world of dominant culture.

 

 

Countercultures -  members in

opposition to the values of the larger culture.

 

 

Cultural Change

 

- Alteration of the environment

- Cultural contact & diffusion

- Discovery & invention

 

 

Cultural Lag – not all parts of a culture change at the same pace

 

 

Cultural leveling -  cultures become

  similar to one another.

 

 

Culture shock –disorientation

  people experience with a different

  culture.

 

Ethnocentrism - tendency to evaluate other cultures and conclude yours is superior

 

Cultural Relativism - understanding people from the framework of their

own culture


Chapter 3:  SOCIALIZATION

 

 

Socialization is intended to turn us

  into conforming members

 

- Socialization = Society within you

 

 

Nature vs. Nurture

 

Nature argument:  ( Heredity)

 

-Human behavior ruled by drives

&  instincts

 

Nurture Argument -  ( Social

                                      Environment)

 

- Human behavior is product of

learning & social contact

 

Scientific support for Nurture

 

            - Pavlov : conditioned response

 

- Skinner & Watson: behavior

   modification

 

Isolation & Deprivation Studies

 

            - Children raised in isolation

 

            - Animal Studies – The Harlows

                        Rhesus monkeys

 

Cross cultural studies

 

            - Anthropologists offer evidence-

            social / cultural behavior is learned

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Freud’s Development of Personality

 

- Personality consists of three parts

 

Id =  the inborn drives

           

Superego = the conscience

- represents the culture within us

 

Ego = the balancing force

 

 Cooley’s Looking Glass Self

 

We imagine how we appear

to others

 

We interpret others reactions

 

 We develop a self-concept

 

 

Mead’s Role Taking

- Children develop a “self ” through

role play

 

- Preparatory Stage 

- Play Stage 

- Game Stage

 

 

Agents of Socialization

 

- People/ groups influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behavior

 

 - Some primary agents:

- Parents            - Babysitters

- Teachers            - Peers

    - Co-workers                       - Friends

- Sports team members   - Media

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 4:  SOCIAL INTERACTION & SOCIAL STRUCTURE

 

 

- Macrosociology – places the focus

on broad features of society

 

                        - Focus on social structure

           

 

- Microsociology – - Examines  daily experiences, using close-up,detailed analysis

 

- the emphasis is placed on social interaction

 

Social Interaction – What people do and say in one another’s presence

 

 

Personal space -  eye contact, body language

 

 

Erving Goffman

 

- Dramaturgy

 

- Presentation of Self

 

-Impression Management

 

- Actors on a stage   

 

- Backstage & Frontstage

 

- Use of Props

 

 

 Social Interaction Model

 

- Blending Cooley’s with Goffman

to examine social interaction

 

 

Social Interaction Principles

 

- “ The Real Me”

 

- Face saving behavior

 

-  Person tries to make an uncomfortable situation more bearable

 

- “Studied nonobservance” – ignore that you saw something

 

 

- Exchange & Reciprocity

 

- “ norm of reciprocity” - respond in same manner, as people treat you

 

 

Social Construction of Reality

 

- social construction of reality

– Society and life experiences

define what is real

 

 

- Thomas theorem – “ If people define situations as real, they are

real in their consequences.”

 

 

 

Social Structure

 

 

Social structure – refers to way

society is organized into predictable relationships

 

 

Social Status – the position

person occupies in society.

 

Achieved status – earned status

 

Ascribed status – involuntary

 

Master status – overriding status

 

 

Social role –behaviors , obligations, and privileges attached to status or social position

 

Role ambiguity – unclear

expectations

 

Role strain – multiple demands

 

Role conflict – one role incompatible with another

 

 

SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

 

Social institutions – the means each society develops to meet basic needs

 

Social Institutions include:

 

- family                                   - religion

- law                                        - politics

- economics                 - education

- medicine                    - science

- military                                 - mass media


Chapter 5:   SOCIAL GROUPS

 

 group – think of themselves as

belonging together ; they

interact with one another

 

Non –groups

 

-  category –share similar

                characteristics

 

- aggregate - share same physical

space

 

Important Groupings

 

- primary groups - groups that are intimate, long- term, personal             

 

- secondary groups - larger, more  formal and impersonal

 

In-groups  -  groups toward which we feel loyalty

 

Out – groups  -  groups toward which we feel antagonisms ( opposition or hostility)

 

Reference group – the groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves

 

Cliques -  within a larger group, a cluster of people who interact with each other

 

Coalition  - the alignment of some group members against others

 

 

GROUP DYNAMICS

 

Group dynamics – how groups

affect us and how we affect groups

 

 

Small group – group small enough for everyone to interact directly

with others

                       

Dyad – a two person group

           

                        Triad- a three person group

 

 

 

 

Effects of group size  

 

- stability

- diffusion of responsibility

                        - intimacy & conformity

 

Leadership types

 

 Leader – someone who influences the behaviors, opinions, or attitudes of others

 

-Instrumental leader – keeps group moving toward it’s goals

 

- Expressive leader – lifts group’s morale, keeps harmony,

resolves conflict

           

 

Leadership styles

 

- Authoritarian style

- Democratic style

- Laissez-faire style

 

 

Groupthink

 

- Groupthink – collective tunnel

vision

 

 

 

Bureaucracies

 

clear cut levels

division of labor

written rules

written records

impersonality

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6:   DEVIANCE

 

Deviance – behavior that violates standards or expectations of a group

 

- deviance is any violation of the rules or norms

 

Crime-    category of deviance.  Violation of the law.

 

Conditions of Deviance

 

Depends on who commits

the act

 

Depends on the situation

 

Depends on audience and

interpretation

 

Social definitions change over time

 

Theories of deviance

 

- Functionalists argue deviance has purpose ; serves a vital function in society

 

Clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms

           

Promotes social unity

 

Can promote social  change

 

 

Control Theory

 

   Inner Controls

Outer Controls

 

Social learning theories – deviant behavior is learned, just like conforming behavior is

 

- Differential association theory

We learn our behavior through association with others

 

Labeling Theory : society or group labels something to be deviant, and it becomes deviant

 

 

Techniques of  Neutralization

- Five Techniques:

 

- Deny responsibility

- Denial of any injury

- Blame the victim

- Condemn the condemners

- Appeal to a higher principle

 

Deviant Stereotyping

 

- Exaggeration

 

- Centrality & persistence

 

- Dichotomizing

 

- Homogeneity

 

- Clustering                            

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7 & 8  SOCIAL CLASS & STRATIFICATION

 

Social stratification:  system in which groups divided into layers according to their relative power, property & prestige

 

Social mobility - Refers to movement up or down social class ladder

 

            - Upward & downward mobility

 

 

Closed Systems –Positions are ascribed.

 

Open Systems -  Social position is achieved.  Movement is possible

 

 

Types of Stratification Systems

 

                        Slavery – ownership of some          

                        people by others.

 

Caste System – status is determined by birth and is life long.

 

Class System –open system where ranking based primarily on economic and social positions.

 

 

Social class –large group of people ranked together by social position

 

 

 

 

 

Components of social class

 

- Power  - ability to carry out your will, despite resistance.

 

- Prestige  - respect or high regard from others.

 

- Wealth -  consists of a persons property and income. 

 

 

Status – persons social ranking

 

status consistency - Similar rank in power, wealth, and prestige

 

Status inconsistency –person has mixture of high and low ranks in power, wealth, and prestige.

 

The U.S. Social Class

Ladder

 

- Upper Class ( Capitalist class)  1%

- Old Money & New Money

 

-Upper Middle Class – 15%

 

- Lower Middle Class – 35%

- white collar jobs

 

- Working Class – 30%

- blue collar positions

 

-Working Poor – 16%

- cannot make enough to pull out of poverty

 

-Underclass – 4% ?

- chronic poverty, chronic unemployment

 

Consequences of Social Class

 

Wealth & Income Distribution

 

Poverty in the U.S.

 

- Poverty Line – official measure of

    poverty

 

- Relative poverty / deprivation: 

   compare yourself to others

 

- Absolute poverty/deprivation:

when a person is truly living in poverty

 

- Feminization of poverty – most

poor families are headed by women.

 

 

Who are the Poor in United States?

 

Racial minorities over-represented

 

- 10% of Whites are poor

- 20 – 25% African Americans & Latinos

 

* most of the poor are White ( 55-56%)

 

Women  more likely to be poor than men

 

Only 2-3% college graduates are poor

- 20-25%  high school dropouts

 

Most poverty short term ( 1 yr. avg )

 

Society has an impact –

- deny certain people access to education or job skill training

Theories of Stratification

 

 

Karl Marx  - social class depends on a single factor – owning means of production

 

- those who control it exploit those who do not.

 

Max Weber -  wealth & economic position is not the only factor in social class.

 

- three components:  Property

( wealth), Power, and Prestige

 

Functionalist explanation

 

stratification is inevitable, and necessary for society to function

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 9:  RACIAL INEQUALITY

 

 

U.S.  RACIAL / ETHNIC  IDENTITY

 

 

White ( European)                   -              60-63 %

 

Latino / Hispanic                      -            14-15 %

 

African-American /            -            12-13 %

Black

 

Asian American                                 -             4-5 %

 

Native American /                   -            1 %

American Indian                         

 

2 or more categories            -            1-2 %

 

 

Racial Group – a group of people perceived to have physical/biological characteristics in common

 

- people are seen as different or similar due to physical appearance.

 

 

Ethnic Group – ( ethnicity)

People who identify with one another on the basis of common ancestry and cultural heritage

 

- people are viewed based on cultural characteristics

 

 

PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION

 

Prejudice :  an unfavorable attitude  and negative opinion of an individual or a group

 

 

Discrimination:           an act of unfair treatment against an individual or a group

 

 

*  Prejudice & discrimination may go hand-in-hand, but not always

 

 

 

Racism:  prejudice and/or discrimination on the basis of race.

 

 

 

Individual discrimination:  negative treatment person to person, or one person towards a whole group

 

Institutional discrimination: negative treatment of people by large institutions                 

or

 

- negative patterns of unequal treatment woven or built into society

 

Scapegoat:  an individual or group that is unfairly blamed for someone else’s  troubles

 

Dominant group:  greatest power, most privileges, and highest social status

Minority Groups:  people who are singled out for unequal treatment

 

-  the subordinate group

 

- minority status can be based on race, ethnicity, religion, gender, etc.

 

Characteristics of Minority status

 

- Members disadvantaged or given

   unequal treatment

 

- Members have traits that are

   looked down upon.

 

- Minority status is involuntary.

 

- Members create a shared sense of

       identity

 

GLOBAL  PATTERNS  OF

INTERGROUP  RELATIONS

 

Inhumanity                                                     Humanity  Rejection                                                              Acceptance                                               

I               I                        I              I                  I             I          

Genocide               Internal             Assimilation

                                       Colonialism

                 Population             Segregation          Pluralism

                 Transfer

 

                       

-Genocide

-Expulsion ( population transfer)

-Enslavement

-Internal colonialism

-Segregation/Congregation

-Assimilation 

-Pluralism / Multiculturalism

 

 

LOOKING TOWARD THE

FUTURE

 

The color line remains one of the most volatile topics facing our nation

 

The U.S. has both welcomed immigration and feared it’s consequences.

 

We have a history of including some groups and excluding others

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chap 10:  GENDER INEQUALITY

 

Sex traits:  biological characteristics that distinguish males & females

 

Gender traits: social characteristics of masculinity & femininity

 

Gender roles:   behaviors, attitudes, and expectations

appropriate for each sex.

 

Gender socialization:  gender roles are learned through socialization  process

 

Gender stratification:  unequal access to social rewards on the basis of sex/gender.

 

PATRIARCHY & MATRIARCHY

 

Patriarchy:  authority vested in men; men control the society or group.

 

Matriarchy:  authority vested in women; women control the society.

 

Egalitarian  society:  equality between men & women.  Both sexes treated as equals.

 

 

How Females Became a Minority Group

 

Around world, patriarchy has been dominant form

 

Females classified as  minority because denied equal access.

 

Females were  primary care takers of children, and men became socially dominant

 

Inequality in Family

 

- Second Shift-  After working

outside home for wages; this work includes cleaning house, cooking,  caring for the children.

 

Strategies of resistance – while some

men participate & help out, others resist. – Arlie Hochschild

 

“ Waiting it out”

“ Playing dumb”

“Needs reduction”

“ Substitute offerings” 

 

 

 

 

INEQUALITY IN WORKPLACE

 

Gender pay gap:   On average,  

women earn less than men. 

( 69% of a man’s salary )

 

pay gap at all levels of education

 

after years on job, still make less than men with the same experience

 

Glass ceilings :  mostly invisible

barrier keeps women from reaching top jobs

 

men more likely to be promoted & move up pay scale faster

 

women may lack necessary mentors and coaches

 

women may be viewed that they are going to leave  career & start a family

 

“ Glass escalator”  -  men who work

traditionally women’s occupations were accelerated into higher positions & higher salaries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 11 :  POLITICS & ECONOMICS

 

Power, Authority & Government

 

- State-  government or political

entity that claims power or authority.

 

- Anarchy – condition of disorder or

lawlessness caused by absence/ collapse of government

 

Power – ability to get your way, even over resistance of others.

 

Authority – legitimate power people accept as right.

 

-Coercion – illegitimate power  

  people do not accept as just.

 

Weber:  3 types of authority

 

Traditional authority

Rational –legal authority

Charismatic authority

 

TYPES OF GOVERNMENT

 

Autocracy: power rests in hands of one person

 

- Monarchy = government headed by

   royal family; king or queen

 

- Dictatorship = power is seized

           

Oligarchy:  power is held by a small group of people. 

 

Totalitarianism:  government exerts almost complete control

 

Democracy – Power derives from people.      

 

- Direct democracy : voters meet together  & make their decisions

 

- Representative democracy :  voters elect representatives to govern on their behalf

 

 

 

 

Democratic ideals ( 3 principles)

 

- Consent of the governed

 

- Equal opportunity for all citizens

 

- Majority rule ( protecting minority

rights )

 

 

Who rules in the U.S.

 

Functionalism :  Pluralism and spread of power

 

-  Conflict theory:   Power elite and

   a ruling class

 

 

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS

 

Capitalism vs. Socialism

 

Capitalism:  economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands ( not government owned); and profit is the main incentive.

 

 

-Laissez-faire capitalism:  government is not involved; the market dictates itself

 

 

-State ( welfare) capitalism:   the

 government regulates many economic activities for the welfare of the people

 

 

3 principles of Capitalism

 

-  Private ownership

 

-  Pursuit of profit as a motive

 

-  Free and open competition

 

 

 

 

 

 

Socialism:  means of production and distribution are state owned ( by the government); and main objective is to meet the needs of the people

 

 

- pure socialism :  government owns and controls all the resources

 

- welfare (democratic ) socialism:  government and individuals share in ownership and profit is allowed

 

3 principles of Socialism

 

-  Government owns means of production and the resources

 

-  Distribution of goods based on need, not profit

 

-  Central planning ; government eliminates competition

 

 

Convergence theory:  both capitalism and socialism adopt features of the other

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 12:  FAMILY

 

Basic social definition -  group of people who are related by blood, marriage or adoption

 

Household -   people who occupy the same housing unit

 

Family of orientation:  the family in which the individual grows up

 

Family of procreation :   the family that is formed when a couple has their first child

 

Fictive kin:   Stretching kinship to include people who are “like” family.

Not related, but close as “blood relatives”

 

Kinship:  How do we trace who we are related to ?

 

            - Bilineal system : related to both

mother & father’s side of family

 

- Patrilineal system:  related to only

 Father’s side of family

 

- Matrilineal system:  related to only

 Mother’s side of family

 

 

Marriage partners:

 

Monogamy:  only one spouse

 

-  Serial monogamy:   one spouse at a time ; not necessarily lifelong monogamy

 

 

- Polygamy :   more than one spouse at same time

 

- Polygyny:  a man can have more than one wife

 

 

- Polyandry:   a woman can have multiple husbands

 

 

Mate Selection

 

Endogamy:  marry within the

group

 

- Exogamy:   marry outside the  group

 

 

Family Functions

 

- meet basic survival needs

- meet emotional needs

-  care for sick and aged

- socialize & teach values

- regulate sexual activity & reproduction

 

 

FAMILY FORM

 

 

Nuclear family:   a family consisting of husband, wife , and their children

 

 

Extended family:   a nuclear family plus other relatives ( grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, etc.

 

 

Blended family:   a family whose members were once part of other families ( step- family)

 

 

Unmarried  mothers / one-parent households

 

 

Cohabiting couples:  unmarried people living together in a sexual relationship

 

 

Families without children

 

 

Other family forms:    same-sex relationships, skipped- generation families,  various other family forms.

 

 

FAMILY ISSUES:

 

Divorce & Remarriage

Sandwich Generation

-  Empty nest & not-so-empty nest

Absent parents ( dead-beat parents)

Abuse & spousal battering

 

Chapter 13:  RELIGION

 

Religions around the world

 

- Christianity             30-33%

- Islam                                     18-20%

- Hinduism                              13-14%

- Buddhism                             6%

- Judaism                                 1%

- All other religions combined     14%

- Non-religious                        16%

 

 

Religion in U.S.

 

- Primarily Christian, but variety of denominations  ( Protestants, Catholics, non-denominational)

 

 

 

Basic elements found in religion

 

 

- Belief system :  convictions that cannot be proved or disproved by ordinary means

 

 

- Rituals & symbols  :  symbols evoke a meaning.  Rituals are ceremonies or practices that embody the belief system

 

 

- Religious experience : an awareness of the supernatural, or coming in contact with God

 

 

- Sense of community :   a shared identity and bond that brings people together as a group of believers

 

 

Types of religions ( social hierarchy)

 

ecclesia -   national or state religion ; the official religion of that society. 

 

mainstream church -   a large, highly organized religious group which is formalized and usually highly bureaucratic. 

 

sect -    a smaller religion that is somewhat at odds with mainstream society and mainstream religions. 

 

 

cult  -  a new religion with few followers, whose teachings and practices put it in opposition to the dominant culture and religion.

 

Religious theoretical viewpoints

 

 

Emile Durkheim   - religion provides purpose & function

 

- by dividing beliefs  up into the sacred and profane, a moral community is formed

 

Karl Marx  -  conflict perspective on religion

 

 

- believers escape into religion, and use religion as a crutch

 

- religious teachings and practices reflect and legitimates society's inequalities

 

Symbolic Inteactionists  - 

 

- religions use symbols to provide identity and social solidarity

 

- Symbols  used to communicate with others

 

 

Religion in the U.S.

 

- religion and geography

 

- religion and social class connection

 

- religion and racial/ethnic connection

 

 

Function & Conflict of religion

 

-In what ways can religion be functional, and serve the interests of society ?

 

- In what  ways can religion create conflict, and be disruptive to society ?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 13:   EDUCATION

 

Functional Perspective:   Providing social benefits

 

Teaching knowledge & skills

 

Cultural transmission of values

 

Social integration

 

Social placement & tracking

 

Replacing family functions

 

 

 

Conflict Perspective:   perpetuating social inequality

 

Hidden curriculum

 

I.Q. testing bias

 

Unequal student funding

 

Reproduces social class structure

 

 

Symbolic Interaction Perspective:

Face –to-face interaction

 

Teacher expectations

 

-  Self-fulfilling prophecy

 

 

Issues in education

 

Grade inflation

 

Social promotion

 

Functional illiteracy

 

School violence

 

Other problems in schools

 

Chapter 14:   POPULATION & URBANIZATION

 

 

Demography:   The study of human populations

 

 

Malthus Theorem:  Thomas Malthus – 1798

 

            Population grows geometrically, and food production increases arithmetically

 

New Malthusians

 

            Population is growing faster than imagined – doubling time is shorter

 

                       

 

 

Year                             World Pop.   Time span

 

1800                            1 billion                          1800 yrs

 

1930                            2 billion                                      130 yrs

 

1960                            3 billion                          30 yrs

 

1975                            4 billion                          15 yrs

 

1987                            5 billion                          12 yrs

 

1999                            6 billion                          12 yrs

 

 

150 babies born every minute

 

214,000 more people each day

 

78 million people per year

Anti-Malthusians  -  Believe that populations are in transition.  Eventually population will stabilize and start to decline.

 

Food production vs. distribution

 

 

 

 

3  Demographic Variables

 

Fertility rate:  The number of children an average woman bears

 

 

-  Mortality rate:   The number of

    deaths in a population

 

-  Net Migration rate:   Difference

   between number of immigrants vs. 

   emigrants

 

URBANIZATION  PATTERNS

 

Urbanization:   People moving into the cities and cities having a growing influence on society

 

Year                                         % living in cities

 

1790                                        5%

 

1920                                        50%

 

Today                                     79%

 

 

Gentrification:   Movement of middle class people into rundown areas of the city

 

Positive & negative impacts

 

Suburbanization:   People move from cities to suburbs.

 

Suburbs are the outlying areas of

   the cities

 

Rural rebound:   Migration to rural areas and small towns

 

Contrasts of City life

 

Alienation & Norm of

non- involvement

 

              -  Creating community

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 15 – Social Change

 

Definition:  Alteration of culture and societies over time

 

Modernization: Transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies

 

William Ogburn

 

Invention

Discovery

Diffusion

Cultural Lag

 

Social Movements:  Large numbers of people organized to either promote or resist social change

 

Public Opinion:  How people think about the issue

Propaganda: Present information in an attempt to influence

Resource Mobilization:  Gathering and organizing resources

 

Oppositional social movements

 

Technology:   a double-edged sword

 

Benefits

Innovation and improvement

Making life better

 

Problems

Environmental degradation

Unequal access to technology

 

Environmental Injustice:   Minorities and poor suffer the most from pollution

 

Green Parties:  Political parties whose central issue is the environment

 

Ecosabotage:  Actions taken to disrupt the efforts of those thought to be legally harming the environment

 

Environmental Sociology:   The focus is on relationship between human societies and the natural environment. 

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Linda Pasion,
Jan 9, 2013, 8:58 AM
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