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Lawrence Township

This township is situated in the extreme northeastern portion of the county, and is seven miles square, containing 
forty-nine square miles, or thirty thousand eight hundred and nineteen acres of land. It is bounded on the north by
Hamilton County, on the east by Hancock County, on the south by Warren township, and on the west by Washington
township. The surface of the country is generally level, except along the streams, where it is somewhat broken, and in
some localities hilly. The soil is well adapted to the culture of wheat, corn, rye, barley, and most vegetables, but the
culture of fruit has proved to be unprofitable during the past few years, though in a few localities this branch of
agriculture has yielded a good revenue. About thirty-five years ago immense crops of peaches were raised, but the
peach crop has been almost an entire failure during the last twenty years. The soil is principally clay, but consists of
four grades, viz.: white clay, or beech flats; black loam of the flats; limestone or clay hills; and bottomland, or dark
chocolate loam intermixed with sand. Originally the township was covered with a heavy growth of timber, consisting
principally of walnut, sugar, poplar, ash, beech, hickory, sycamore, lime, buckeye, oak, and hackberry. In the lowlands,
the primitive forest abounded with grape-vines, frequently growing to an enormous height. Beneath the forest and the
net-work of vines grew pawpaws, leatherwood, prickly-ash, black haw, and other underbrush. At the Lawrence district
fair, September, 1883, John Johnson exhibited fifty-four natural varieties of timber of the township. Nearly all the
valuable timber was recklessly destroyed in the clearing of the land, or has since been sold in the market. In an early
day the level lands were covered with immense sheets of water, quagmires, and ponds.
From its first settlement the township has constantly increased in wealth, as the wilderness disappeared before the 
march of civilization. The taxable wealth of the township in 1883 was as follows:
Farming and wild lands................................. $   1,041,196
Improvements................................................ 83,075
Lots................................................................. 13,858
Improvements................................................ 20,885
Personal property........................................... 544,995
Total valuation................................................ $ 1,704,009
In 1883 there were in the township two hundred and twelve miles of drainage (mostly tile), and the value of its 
manufactured goods in the year 1882 was twenty thousand eight hundred and seventy-five dollars. In the year 1883
there were cultivated five thousand four hundred and fifteen acres in wheat, five thousand nine hundred and sixty-
seven acres in corn, and one thousand and sixty-eight acres in other staple grains and in vegetables. There were two
thousand two hundred and seventy-one acres in timothy meadow, and two thousand and eleven acres in clover.
The following is the number of head of live-stock in the township in the year 1883:  
Horses...................................................................  934 
Milk-cows............................................................. 723
Other cattle........................................................... 879
Mules.................................................................... 49
Sheep.................................................................... 2184
Hogs (fatted in 1882)........................................... 3340

The lands bordering on the creeks and rivulets are well supplied with springs, which afford a plentiful supply of water 
for stock, and the lands produce a luxuriant growth of blue-grass, and thus the township contains quite a number of
valuable stock farms, not excelled elsewhere in the county.
In many portions of the township is found limestone, and in the peat swamps stratified rocks are found. Deposits of 
gravel and sand are found along the bluffs of Fall Creek, and in numerous mounds scattered promiscuously throughout
the township. Probably the most peculiar rock in the township is upon the farm of Mr. Jonah F. Lemon. It is about four
feet in length by two feet each in width and height. The rock is composed entirely of very small stones, of almost every
imaginable shape and color, and of adamantine hardness. Mr. Lemon prizes it very highly, and has refused an offer of
one hundred dollars for it. A most peculiar limestone rock is found in the edge of a peat swamp on the farm of Mr. Robert
Johnson. The stone rises above the ground to the height of ten feet, and in length extends thirty feet; the width is
unknown, as the rock extends back into a hill fifty feet in perpendicular height. The stone contains many curious holes
or crevices, no two of the same size or shape, while out of many water oozes continually.
Fall Creek, Mud Creek, Indian Creek, and the tributary brooks afford thorough drainage for the lands embraced in the 
township. Fall Creek is so named from the falls at Pendleton. Mud Creek was so named by Elisha Reddick, from the fact
that in the first settlement of the country the water at its mouth was always muddy. Subsequently the name was
changed, and it was called Walnut Creek, and was so recorded, but it is called by the original name.  Indian Creek at
first was called Indian Branch by Elisha Reddick, because Indians were found encamped at various points along the
stream. Afterwards it gained the name of Indian Creek, and was so recorded. Fall Creek, the principal stream, enters
the township one half-mile west of the northeast corner, flows about a mile in a semicircle, and leaves the township. It
re-enters about one and three-fourths miles west of the northeast corner, and flows in a southwesterly direction through
the township, and leaving it at a point one and three-fourths miles north of the southwest corner. Mud Creek flows into
the township at a point three and one-half miles west of the northeast corner, and flows in a direction bearing west of
south, and empties into Fall Creek about three-fourths of a mile west of the centre of the township. The source of
Indian Creek is in the swamps in Hancock County, and it enters the township one mile north of the southeast corner,
and flows in a serpentine course, with a general direction towards the northwest for a distance of several miles, and
empties into Fall Creek about three-fourths of a mile north-northeast of the centre of the township. Three fine covered
wooden bridges, costing eight thousand seven hundred and ten dollars each, span Fall Creek at convenient points; and
Mud Creek is supplied with one covered wooden and one iron bridge, all built by the county. Since the country has
become  mostly cleared and drained these streams have become subject to frequent damaging freshets, causing great
destruction to crops and property in the valleys almost annually. The freshets of June and August, 1875, were the most
damaging in the history of the township, although the one of January, 1847, was much the highest. The freshet of
November, 1883, did a great amount of damage.
Lawrence township was erected April 16, 1822, by order of the board of county commissioners, and on the same day 
and by the same authority it was joined to Washington for purposes of township organization (neither township being
sufficiently populous to be organized separately. This union of the two townships as one continued until Sept. 4, 1826,
when the board of justices ordered that Lawrence be taken from Washington and separately organized, and that an
election be held on the first Saturday in the following October at the house of John Johnson for choice of a justice of the
peace for Lawrence, Alexander Wilson to be inspector of said election. The election was held as ordered, and resulted
in the choice of Peter Casteller as justice of the peace. The following is a list of officers of the township from its erection
to the present time, viz.:

William D. Rooker, June 22, 1822, to Dec. 2, 1826. 
Joel Wright, June 22, 1822, to Sept. 5, 1825; resigned.
Hiram Bacon, Oct. 15, 1825, to Dec. 2, 1826.
(The three preceding served for Washington and Lawrence while they were joined as one township.)
Peter Castetter, Dec. 15, 1826, to Dee. 15, 1831.
John Bolander, Feb. 19, 1831, to October, 1832; resigned.
William J. McIntosh, April 17, 1832, to January, 1835; resigned.
Joseph Johnston, Dec. 13, 1832, to Dec. 13, 1837.
Daniel Sharts, April 18, 1835, to April 18, 1840.
Joseph Johnston, Jan. 3, 1838, to Aug. 4, 1838; resigned.
Madison Webb, April 20, 1840, to April 20, 1845.
John Emery, Feb. 1, 1843, to Feb. 1, 1848.
Madison Webb, April 26, 1845, to April 26, 1850.
Travis Silvey, July 14, 1848, to July 11, 1853.
James W. Perry, April 26, 1850, to March 9, 1862; resigned.
Milford H. Vert, April 19, 1852, to April 19, 1856.
Levi A. Hardesty, April 20, 1852, to April 20, 1856.
Charles Faussett, July 16, 1853, to Nov. 24, 1854; resigned.
Cornelius B. Wadsworth, April 23, 1866, to April 18, 1860.
Moses Craig, May 1, 1866, to April 18, 1860.
John Thomas, May 5, 1866, to April 18, 1860.
John W. Combs, April 18, 1860, to April 18, 1868.
John a. Downing, April 18, 1860, to April 18, 1868.
John Thomas, April 20, 1860, to April 18, 1864.
John Thomas, May 21, 1864, to March 8, 1867; resigned.
Ozro Bates, April 22, 1866, to April 17, 1869.
Thomas M. Elliott, April 20, 1867, to April 13, 1875.
John W. Combs, April 21, 1868, to Sept. 7, 1875; resigned.
Cornelius B. Wadsworth, April 17, 1869, to April 16, 1873.
Charles Faussett, Sept. 16, 1875, to April 21, 1876.
Robert Johnson, Oct. 2, 1875, to Oct. 2, 1879.
John A. Chapman, Oct. 30, 1876, to Oct. 25, 1880.
Cornelius B. Wadsworth, Oct. 26, 1876, to Oct. 26, 1880.
William Roberts, Nov. 19, 1880, to Oct. 30, 1884.
Moses C. Hamilton, April 16, 1882, to April 15, 1886.
William F. Combs, April 9, 1859, to April 14, 1860. 
Samuel Cory, April 14, 1860, to Oct. 24, 1874.
George W. Stanley, Oct. 24, 1874, to April 14, 1880.
William B. Flick, April 14, 1880, to April 15, 1884.
William McIlvain, Jan. 1, 1827, to Jan. 7, 1828. 
Peter Castetter, Jan. 7, 1828, to Jan. 4, 1830.
Daniel R. Smith, Jan. 4, 1830, to Jan. 2, 1832.
Peter Castetter, Jan. 2, 1832, to Jan. 7, 1833.
Jacob Schenkle, Jan. 7, 1833, to Jan. 7, 1839.
Robert Wells, Jan. 7, 1839, to Jan. 6, 1840.
Jacob Sehenkle, Jan. 6, 1840, to Dec. 6, 1841.
James Hinds, Jr., Dec. 17, 1862, to June 5, 1864.
Jacob McCord, June 5, 1854, to Nov. 29, 1856.
Joseph Badgley, Nov. 29, 1856, to Nov. 24, I860.
George W. Teal, Nov. 24, I860, to Nov. 28, 1862.
Moses Craig, Nov. 28, 1862, to Nov. 21, 1866.
Cicero Vanlaningham, Nov. 21, 1866, to Oct. 29, 1868.
Abel M. Wheeler, Oct. 29, 1868, to Aug. 1, 1873.
Abel M. Wheeler, March 27, 1875, to April 11, 1878.
John W. Combs, April U, 1878, to April 14, 1880.
George W. Church, April 14, 1880, to April 10, 1882.
George N. Kesselring, April 10, 1882, to April 10, 1884.  
When the first settlers came into the township large numbers of Indians were encamped here, principally on Indian 
Creek. They were of the Delaware and Miami tribes, with a few Pottawatomies, and were in charge of three chiefs
named Big Otter Skin and Old Buckwheat and a nearly deaf Indian (name unknown) aged about one hundred years.
The Indians were very friendly to the new settlers, and made frequent visits to their cabins. There were three
Indians living near the cabin of Elisha Reddick, and they always expressed the warmest friendship for him, visiting
him often, and in divers ways showing great attachment towards him. About the time Hudson, Sawyer, and Bridges
were hung at Pendleton for the murder of Indians the redskins in this township became furiously enraged at the whites,
and the latter became much alarmed. However, soon afterwards (about the year 1826) the Indians departed from
their hunting-grounds here never to return. Many Indian relics have been found in the township, principally
upon the lands adjacent to the streams. These curious and interesting stones consist of darts, axes, hoes, pestles, etc.
Many of the early settlers in this township came from Brown and Clermont Counties, Ohio. The families of Plummer, 
Hoss, Chapman, Johnson, and John Bolander came from Brown County; those of Cory, Apple, Peter Bolander, Emry,
Perkins, Heltman, Smith, Lewis, Bragdon, Marshall, McCord, Wilmington, White, Reddick, Collous, Fred, and Brown
(James P. and William), from Clermont.
Other settlers emigrated from various localities, as hereafter mentioned. 
Following is a list of resident tax-payers in Lawrence in 1829, as shown by the assessment-roll of that year, viz.: 
Alexander Smith. 
Daniel Shurts.
John Setter.
Christopher Sellers.
John A. Tuttle.
Jeremiah Vanlaningham.
Robert Warren.
Christopher Beaver.
William Beaver.
James Ballenger.
Isaac Ballenger.
Peter Castetter.
John Clark.
Samuel Con.
Andrew Clark.
Leonard Elier.
David Eller.
Adam Eller.
Andrew Eller.
Nathan Essary.
Robert Ellis.
John Flannigan.
James Flannigan.
James Giles.
William Graves.
Robert Hewstin.
Samuel Harrison.
James Hines.
Henry Hardin.
John Johnson.
Fountain Kimberlin.
George Long.
Robert Large.
Samuel Morrow.
John McConnel.
Alexander McClaren.
William McClaren.
Ephraim Morrison.
John Negley.
Samuel North.
William North.
Joseph North.
John North.
Heirs of Thomas North.
James North.
Jeremiah Plummer.
William Reddick.
Joshua Reddick.
Alexis Riley.
Conrad Ringer.
David Ringer.
Abraham Sellers.
Jacob Shinkle.
Daniel Speece.
John Shinkle.  
Elisha Reddick was the first settler in the township. He is a son of William and Margaret Reddick, and was born Jan. 9, 
1797, in Pennsylvania. At an early age he went with his parents to Kentucky, and remained there until sixteen years
of age, when he went to Clermont County, Ohio, where he married Elizabeth Johnson, daughter of John Johnson, in
the year 1821. He came from there to this township with his wife and son, James Milton, and settled near the "correction
line, ”one-half mile east of Fall Creek, on the 18th day of October, 182.3. He entered one hundred and thirty-two acres
of land and subsequently purchased one hundred and eighty acres more. He lived on that farm fifty-one years, and has
been absent from the township (in Boone County, Ind.) only three years from 1873 since 1823. Mr. Reddick came here
in an old Pennsylvania wagon, the bed of which would hold seventy-five bushels of corn. He brought with him two yoke
of oxen, two horses, twenty-five hogs, two milk-cows, and twelve sheep. The wagon was loaded with provisions and
household goods. The last four miles of his journey was accomplished with great difficulty, as he was compelled to cut
his way through the timber and thick underbrush. For several months after his arrival at his new home Mr. Reddick
did little but protect his stock from the wolves, wildcats, and other wild animals. Soon after his arrival at his now home
he had a desperate encounter with a large catamount weighing not far from one hundred pounds. The reception was not
a pleasant one, but after a fierce struggle he succeeded in dispatching it with his axe, but not until it had nearly killed
his two dogs and severely injured himself. Mr. Reddick states that it was the most dangerous encounter he ever
experienced. He killed no less than fifty wildcats on his farm in the early years of his settlement, and with the assistance
of his brother Joshua succeeded in killing three black bears.
He says that when he first came to his new home the bottom-lands were exceedingly wet, and abounded in bayous 
and swamps and dense thickets, into which it was almost impossible to penetrate. Mr. Reddick was on the most
intimate terms with the Indians; he received them as visitors at his cabin, went hunting, ran races and shot at marks
with them, and in perfect contentment lived in their midst for three years, — until their departure.
 The first cabin raised in the township was that of Elisha Reddick, on the tract of land entered by him. He raised it 
in November, 1823. After he had his logs prepared he called upon the Indians in camp on Indian Creek to assist him.
Their chief, "Big Otter Skin, ”promised the required help, and many of the Indians were ready to offer their assistance
and help Mr. Reddick raise his wigwam, as they called it. Not an Indian came at the appointed time; however, but they
sent three squaws, who came riding up to the selected site for the cabin at the time fixed for the raising. Mr. Reddick
told them to remain and help his squaw get dinner. They did so, and remained until evening. Mr. Reddick then, with the
assistance of Alexander Smith, John McConnel, and John Johnson, who were in the township prospecting for a location,
and Charles Johnson, a boy seventeen years of age who had helped him move to the township, raised the cabin in two
days' time. As an incident of pioneer life we will relate that Mr. Reddick once upon a time carried on horseback a grist of
two and one-half bushels of corn sixty miles before he could get it ground. He first went to William Conners', near
Noblesville, and got the corn. He took it to the falls of Fall Creek, and, being unable to get it ground there, he took it to
Linton's Mill, on White River, near Indianapolis, then operated by Seth Bacon. He left it there and returned for it in one
week. In time of high waters the early settlers used the "hominy-block" to make their meal. They would cook the
coarsest of the meal for the grown folks and the finest for the children. Mr. Reddick states that for some time after he
came into the township he was compelled to work all day and hunt raccoons nearly every night; would frequently have
three or four skins stretched before breakfast. They brought twenty-five cents each, and were considered a cash article,
while corn, wheat, pork, chickens, etc., were exchangeable for dry-goods and groceries only.
Mr. Reddick endured all the hardships and trials of a pioneer life, and witnessed the new country in which he so 
many years ago cast his fortune emerge from a wilderness to its present state of civilization. He is a member of the
Universalist Church at Oakland, and has been for twenty-five years. In his early settlement the latch-string was
always hung out at his door, and the weary pilgrim cordially welcomed within. He never refused the hungry food, the
weary shelter, or the oppressed assistance. He has always been ready to nurse the sick, comfort the dying, and help
bury the dead. His memory is good, his health fair, though his age is nearly eighty-seven years. He is a ready thinker,
and delights to relate the incidents of his early pioneer life. He has been a farmer all his life, and cleared a large farm.
His wife was also a member of the Universalist Church, and died in that faith a few years ago. Since her death Mr.
Reddick has been living with his children. In all he had fourteen children, six of whom died in their infancy.
James Milton, his eldest son, was born in Ohio, and came into Lawrence township with his parents. He served in the 
Fiftieth Indiana Regiment, and died in Louisville, Ky., in 1862, of typhoid fever.
William Perry and John Newton (twins), the next eldest, were the first white children born in the township. The former 
served in the Twenty-fifth Indiana Regiment, and was killed in 1862 at the battle of Prairie Grove, Ark. The latter is a
farmer, and lives on his farm one mile northeast of Lawrence.
Margaret Ellen lives in Augusta, Ind., is the widow of Michael Day, and has two children.  
Charles was born in 1831, left the township in 1872, and has since lived near Sheridan, Ind. 
Lucinda died of spotted fever in this township in 1862. Her husband, Jesse Herrin, and two sons, Aldus and Fernando, 
both of age, all live in this township.

Augustus Harrison served nearly four years in the Union army (in 1861 to 1865); was severely wounded at 
Munfordsville, Ky. He is a resident of this township, and has lived here since his birth, except one year in Missouri
and three years in Boone County, Ind.
Elisha Taylor, the youngest son of Elisha Reddick, has been a resident of this county all his life except two years. He 
now lives in Indianapolis.
William Reddick was born in Ireland about 1762, came to America with his parents when eleven years of age. While in 
Ireland he was bound to an older brother to work at the weaver's trade, and when they arrived in America he was
rebound to a weaver in Pennsylvania. At the age of thirteen years he ran away and enlisted in Wayne's division, and
served in the Revolutionary war six years and seven months. At the close of the war he returned to near Lebanon, Pa.,
where he married Margaret Trump. He lived in Pennsylvania nineteen years after his marriage, and then went to what
was called the "backwoods" in Virginia. In one year he returned to Pennsylvania. In 1805 he went to Bracken County,
Ky., where he lived ten years. He then went to Ohio, and lived there until the latter part of November, 1823. During
the war of 1812 he kept ferry at the mouth of Bull Skin, forty miles above Cincinnati, in Clermont County. He came to
this township in the fall of 1824. He entered for his son Joshua one hundred and sixty acres of land just northwest of the
mouth of Mud Creek. He lived on that farm until his death, in October, 1831, at the age of sixty-nine years. He laid out
and set apart the first graveyard in the township. He was a Methodist nearly all his life, and was a moral and strictly
honest man. Circuit preaching was held at his house for years, and ministers were always welcome at his abode; in fact,
no person ever failed to receive hospitable treatment at his hands. He was a class-leader in the church and a true
Christian. The first sermon ever delivered in the township was at his cabin. His wife lived nearly forty years after
his death, and died in Clinton County, Ill., of milk sickness, at the age of ninety-three years. She also was a consistent
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church from childhood.
The number of their children was ten, two of whom never came into this county, and but three are now living. 
Margaret lived here twenty years, married, went to Missouri, and died, aged eighty-two. Polly married James Giles.
Died about 1831. Katie lived in this county forty years; married James Gittleman. Died in Kansas in May, 1883, of
apoplexy, at the age of eighty-nine. Elisha (first settler in Lawrence as before mentioned). Joshua (noticed elsewhere).
Helen married Alexander McClaren. Died two years ago in Illinois, at the age of seventy-two. Lived in this county thirty
years, and was thirty-five when she left. Lucinda lives at Lathrop, Mo. She lived in this county forty years. Rachel
married Moses McClaren, and lives in this county, one mile west of Castleton. She was fourteen years old when her
parents came to this county, and has lived here ever since. Aged seventy-three.
Joshua Reddick, son of William and Margaret Reddick, was born in Washington County, Pa., May 20, 1801. He went 
with his father on his various journeys till the last of November, 1823, when he came to this township. He raised a
small crop in 1824, and in the fall of that year he went to Ohio and brought his parents and sisters to this new country.
He settled on the farm now known as the Elijah Fletcher farm, and one hundred and sixty acres of which was entered
for him by his father in 1825. Mr. Reddick lived there about twenty-three years. He sold the farm in 1848 and went to
Clinton County, Ill., where he resided until October, 1859, when he died of milk sickness. Mr. Reddick and three of his
grown children died within two weeks' time. His wife died of the same disease in the following April. Mr. Reddick
married Elizabeth, daughter of Adam Eller. Mr. Reddick was a farmer, and in religious belief a Universalist. He took a
great interest in all public improvements, and gave all his children a good education. He had eight children, seven were
born in this township and one in Illinois. Six of the children went to Clinton County, I11., with their parents. Catharine,
the youngest, married George Church, and lived here until her death in 1878. Three of the other children are dead.
Samuel Morrow was born in Westmoreland County, Pa., about 1789, of Irish descent. Married Agnes Anderson. In 1821 
or 1822 himself, wife, two sons, Adam Kerr, and his son, Samuel Kerr, took passage on a flat-boat, and landed at
Cincinnati, Ohio, with a span of horses and two "tester" bedsteads. They went from there to near Brookville, Ind.,
and remained till the fall of 1824. Through the solicitation of John Johnson, his cousin, he came to this township in
November, 1824. He entered eighty acres of land Aug. 25, 1824. It is known as a part of the Webb farm, and joined
John Johnson on the west. Immediately after his arrival he cleared a spot of ground for his cabin, and erected it on
the north side of Fall Creek. He brought into the township with him two horses, one yoke of oxen, and two milk-cows.
Thirteen persons landed in the township with Mr. Morrow, and remained with him in his cabin during the following
winter. The cabin erected was eighteen feet by twenty feet, without floor. The roof was made of clapboards, and having
no nails to nail the boards on, they were weighted down with poles, and thus kept in place. The room was divided in
sleeping apartments by hanging quilts for partitions. As soon as Mr. Morrow had his cabin completed he began clearing
his land. The Indians called frequently at his cabin, and camped quite a while on his farm. A great deal of sickness
prevailed at the cabin of this new settler. His son, Jacob A., and his two daughters, Elizabeth and Thersa, as well as
Jacob Anderson, who was there on a visit, and Adam Kerr, all died there about the same time, and were buried in the
Joshua Reddick graveyard. His physicians were Dr. Isaac Coe and Dr. Mears, of Indianapolis, the nearest doctors. He
was a member of the Presbyterian Church, and his family used to ride horseback to Indianapolis, and attend church at
the Presbyterian meeting-house on Pennsylvania Street, north of Market. He was a moral, upright man, sociable,
neighborly, and exceedingly popular. He was a farmer all his life, and did an immense amount of hard work. He
experienced all the hardships and privations of pioneer life, and stood up bravely against them all. He was a voter at
the first election in the township, and was elected supervisor. When he first came to the township he had to go to Conner's,
near Noblesville, and get corn, and then take it to a mill on Fall Creek, near where the Crawfordsville road crosses the
stream, to get it ground. It took two days to make the round trip horseback with a two-bushel grist — distance ten
miles — from his cabin. That was the nearest mill at that time, and the nearest school-house was six miles. He lived in
the township until about 1831, when he went to Washington township, this county, and thence to Morgan County, Ind.
He lost an arm while there, and then went to near Colfax, Jasper Co., Iowa, where he bought a pre-emption right, and
subsequently entered the tract, on which he died in the year 1850. His son John died in Iowa. Two daughters, Martha
Plummer and Margaret Griggs, are living, the former in Iowa.
The following are the names of the thirteen who came from Brookville, Ind., to this township together:  
Samuel Morrow.  
Agnes Morrow, his wife.
John Morrow, his son.
Jacob A. Morrow, his son.
Robert Ellis.
Martha Ellis, his wife.
Elizabeth Ellis, his daughter.
John Ellis, his son.
Samuel Stewart Ellis, his son.
Samuel Johnson Black.
William M. Black.
Adam Kerr.
Samuel Kerr, his son.  
Of the thirteen but three are living, namely:  Samuel S. Ellis, at Leavenworth, Kan.; Elizabeth Moore, at Des Moines, 
Iowa; William M. Black, at Indianapolis, Ind.
Robert Ellis was born in New York State. He came on flat-boat from Westmoreland County, Pa., to Cincinnati, Ohio, 
going thence to Brookville, Ind., in May, 1824. He brought with him his wife (formerly Martha Morrow) and his
daughter Elizabeth, and two sons, John and Samuel Stewart, and also Samuel Johnson Black, who was living with him.
In the fall of the same year the party came to this township with Samuel Morrow, and lived with him in his cabin for
six months. He then settled on Congress land; farm now owned by Robert Johnson. He raised a cabin, and lived there
till about 1830, and then went to Hamilton County, Ohio. In 1832 he went to Marietta, Ohio, to visit a sister, took the
cholera, and died. The heirs failed to pay for the land he had bought in Hamilton County, and lost it. His wife was a
Presbyterian, and, after her husband's death, moved to various places, finally to Iowa, and died there at the house of
her daughter, Elizabeth Moore, in Des Moines. Of the three children who came into this township with their parents two
are living. Elizabeth married S. P. Moore, and lives in Des Moines, Iowa; Samuel Stewart lives in Leavenworth, Kan.;
John went to Illinois years ago, and died there. There were four other children born after Mr. Ellis and family came here,
viz.: James, who died in the army; Margaret, who lived in Iowa at last accounts; Mary J., who lives in Chicago with her
daughter; William B., who lives in Franklin, Ind.
Samuel Johnson Black came to the township at the age of twelve years, and lived with Robert Ellis about five years. 
He then began learning the tanner's trade with Abraham Sellers, in this township, worked three years, and then went
to Indianapolis with Blythe and Noble. He died in Newton, Jasper Co., Iowa, about 1853. He was one of the party of
thirteen who came here together in the fall of 1824.
Adam Kerr came to the township with Samuel Morrow, his brother-in-law, from Pennsylvania, at an advanced age, 
and lived here until his death, which occurred Aug. 27, 1828. He was buried in the Reddick graveyard.
Samuel Kerr came to this township with his father, Adam, and Samuel Morrow. He was a boy thirteen years of age 
in the year 1824. After his father's death he continued living with Samuel Morrow and with Hiram Bacon until a young
man; learned the blacksmith trade with Thomas Long, worked at journey-work awhile, and then began business for
himself near where Millersville now stands. He married Caroline Ringer, and after her death he married Catherine
Easterday. He carried on his trade for several years, where Glen Ethel now is, and died there in 1861. He was a member
of the Masonic fraternity, a moral, industrious citizen, firm in his convictions, and his word was as good as his bond. He
experienced all the trials incident to pioneer life.
William M. Black, son of Thomas R. and Sarah Black, was born in Erie County, Pa., on the waters of French Creek, 
Jan. 1, 1811. He was taken by his uncle, Samuel Morrow, on horseback when quite a small boy to Westmoreland County,
Pa. He came from there with Robert Ellis and family to near Brookville, Ind., in May, 1824, and in the fall of the same
year came to this township, being one of the party of thirteen. He lived with Samuel Morrow till Jan. 18, 1827, and
helped him clear land. Mr. Morrow gave him the privilege of remaining with him till of age and receiving an eighty-acre
tract of land or learning a trade. He chose to learn the tanner's trade. He learned it with Yandes & Wilkins in Indianapolis.
He lived with John Wilkins in a house that stood where the station-house now stands. Apprenticed five years, after which
he worked at journey-work till March, 1833. He then entered into a partnership with Yandes & Wilkins, himself owning a
half interest, and bought a tan-yard of John G. Kline at Mooresville, Ind. In 1839, Mr. Black sold his interest and moved to
Indianapolis, and has lived there ever since, following various occupations. On July 4, 1833, he married Frances Hardwick,
daughter of John and Sarah Hardwick. They have had nine children, six of whom are living, — Sarah and John H. live in
Indianapolis, Martha J. lives at home with her parents, Nancy L. lives in Morgan County, Thomas S. is in Virginia, and
 Elizabeth lives in Washington Territory. Mr. Black is an ardent Freemason, and is tiler of every lodge, chapter, council,
and commandery, both subordinate and grand, that meets in the Masonic Temple. He has been tiler of Marion Lodge
since 1867, and of the Grand Lodge since 1869. When the old Masonic building was torn down in 1874 his name was
found recorded in papers found in the corner-stone, showing that he was a member when that building was erected.
His name is also deposited in the corner-stone of the new building. He was raised a Presbyterian, but is now a Methodist.
He saw the first engine and first steamboat, "General Hanna,”come to Indianapolis.
Robert Warren was born in Kentucky in 1797, on Clinch Mountain, at the head of Big Sandy, and with his wife and two 
children, William and Matilda, came to this county in 1821, and lived near where Millersville now is till the year 1824,
then came to this township, and entered eighty acres of land just north of and adjoining the land known as the Elisha
Reddick land. He lived there seven years and then went to Crawfordsville, where he lived five years, and moved to
Michigan, and subsequently to Iowa, where he was living at last accounts. He was a great hunter and a crack shot. He
killed a large number of deer; his gun furnished most of the meat for the table. He was a member of the Methodist Church
when he lived in this county; he afterwards became a Universalist. Mr. Warren was a kind and good neighbor, and a
skillful nurse of the sick. He was very healthy and robust. When he left this county six children and his wife left with him.
Nothing further is known of their history.
John Sellers was born in Kentucky, on Clinch Mountain, at the head of Big Sandy, about the year 1797. He came to this 
county in 1821 and settled near (east of) where Millersville now is. Lived there three years, and then entered eighty
acres in what is known as the Ringer Settlement in this township. He cleared a portion of the tract, and about 1840 he
sold out and went to Illinois, where he died about 1871.
Christopher Sellers was born about 1804, on Clinch Mountain, in Kentucky. He married a daughter of Nathan Essary 
about 1827. He came to this county in 1822, and into this township about 1825. He went to Hamilton County, Ind., about
1829, and died there about 1880.
Daniel Sharts came to this county with a colony of Lutherans in the year 1824, and with his wife and four children 
settled on a farm now owned by Anna C. Pressly, two miles south of Millersville. He entered a tract of land there and
lived upon it until he died, about ten or twelve years ago. He was a Lutheran all his life, and took an active part in all
church affairs. He was a justice of the peace for some years, and was a good citizen. Of the children that came with him,
Hanson was raised in this township, and is now living in the county. Joseph died in California about 1850. He was
drowned in the American River. Rebecca went to Illinois about 1855, and lives there now. William died in Hamilton
County, Ind., three years ago.
Fountain Kimberlain was born in Kentucky. He came to this county in 1820, and first settled about half a mile north 
of where Allisonville now is. He lived there seven years. In 1827 he came to this township, and entered the eighty-acre
tract of land now owned by his heirs. On that laud he lived until his death, in 1864. He followed farming all his life. He
built a saw-mill on Fall Creek about 1835, but tore it down in about five years. The election was held at his house for
several years from about 1837. In 1827 he married Elizabeth Shenkle. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal
Church nearly all his life, — a conscientious, upright, moral man. There were born unto himself and wife ten children,
three of whom are living, namely: Marion and John Wesley, farmers, and residents of this township; and Julia Ann,
wife of John Thorp, a resident of this township.
Christopher Beaver was born in North Carolina, and emigrated to this township about 1824, and settled near where the 
Salem Lutheran Church now stands. He came to this country with two six-horse teams, following an Indian trail for more
than twenty miles. His wife died in Butler County, Ohio; and six children came from there to his new home here with him.
He died here after a continuous residence of thirty-one years. He was a farmer all his life. He spent all his spare time
hunting deer for years after his arrival here, and he was a dead shot. He never swore, drank, or gambled. He was a strict
Lutheran for several years prior to his death. Polly, the oldest daughter, came to the township in 1824 with her husband,
Harrison, and three children. She died here about twenty years ago. William, born in North Carolina, came to this
township with his father, and died here about 1859. Sarah, born in North Carolina, came to this township with her father,
and died in Oakland, Marion Co., about 1873. Mary, born in North Carolina, came to this township with her father, and
died in Hamilton County, Ind., fourteen years ago. Henry, Moses, Ann, and Elizabeth were born in Ohio, and came to
this township with their father. They all lived here until their deaths. Henry died eight years ago; Moses died forty years
ago; Ann died fifteen years ago, at the age of thirty years; Elizabeth married James N. McCoy, and died at the age of
sixty-one years only a few years ago.
Samuel Harrison was born in North Carolina, and with his wife and three children came from Butler County, Ohio, to
this township in 1824 with his father-in-law, Christopher Beaver, and lived on his farm eight years. He then went to
Hamilton County, Ind., and died there about twenty years ago. He was a blacksmith by trade. He took a lease and
cleared a large tract of land in this township. He followed farming the latter part of his life. He was a moral man,
— a member of the Campbellite Church.
Samuel North was born near Stillwater, Ohio, and from there came to Lawrence township in 1825 with his wife, 
formerly Mahala Brooks, and one daughter. He entered the eighty-acre tract of land now owned by V. T. Malott, one
mile west of Lawrence. He lived there two years, and moved into Washington township, this county, and died near
Allisonville many years ago. He was a farmer.
William North was born near Stillwater, Ohio. He came here in 1825 with his wife and one child. He lived here four 
years, then sold out, and returned to Ohio. He subsequently went to Missouri.
Joseph North came here from Little Troy, Ohio, at an early date, and owned forty acres where John Newhouse now 
lives. In or about 1850, he returned to Ohio.
John North was born in North Carolina. He was a Tory during the Revolutionary war. From North Carolina he went 
to Ohio, and in the spring of 1827 he came here. There were high waters nearly the whole of that year, and he had a
terrible time getting to his destination. He entered the eighty acres of land now owned by James McHaffey. Mr. North
was a farmer, and both himself and wife lived to be about ninety years of age. They both died on the old homestead
many years ago.
James North was born in North Carolina. He emigrated to Stillwater, Ohio, and thence here in the year 1821. After 
his arrival he married Mary Flannigan, and three sons and one daughter were the number of their children. He lived
here about thirty-five years, until his death, in 1860. He never owned any land, though he was a farmer.
Thomas North came to this township from Stillwater, Ohio, in the year 1824. He entered eighty acres of land, now 
owned by Samuel Cory; he was a farmer, and died in 1826. His daughter, Matilda, married Richard North, and went
to Missouri about 1838. His son, Alexander, returned to Stillwater, Ohio, about 1838.
David Ringer was born in Maryland in 1790. Himself and family, consisting of wife (Susan Darr) and two children, came 
with the Lutheran colony to this county in 1824. He located at once on the land now owned by James Pressly, and lived
there the remainder of his life, — about forty-one years. He died June 25, 1865. He was one of the prominent members
of the colony, and identified with the Lutheran Church nearly all his life. He was a farmer and a good citizen. He was
married three times; his last wife died at the age of eighty-nine years. His son Peter died at New Britain, Ind., in 1859;
lived in this township twenty-seven years. His daughter Delana is the wife of Leander Harper, a prominent citizen of
Lawrence township.
Conrad Ringer was born in Washington, Md., in 1792. Himself and family, consisting of wife (Mary D. Bower) and four 
children, came from Maryland to this State with the colony of Lutherans, and located in this township in 1824, about
one mile southeast of where Millersville now is. He entered two hundred and forty acres, and lived upon the land until
his death, in 1851. The land is now owned by six different persons. He followed farming all his life. He was a member of
the Lutheran Church long before he came to this county, and was a leading member at the time of his death. He was an
earnest encourager of all laudable enterprises, a good citizen and a Christian. The names of the children who came with
him to this county are Caroline, Joseph, Jacob J., and Emma E. The first named married Samuel Kerr, and died
December, 1844. Joseph was a farmer and blacksmith; died about 1857; lived in township twenty-eight years. Jacob J.
lived in this county about twenty-nine years; now lives in Cass County, Ind. Emma E. married John C. Hoss, and has lived
in this county since 1824. Mr. Ringer had five children born in this county, three boys and two girls. Two are living,
Harrison and Ann, both in this township.
Jeremiah Vanlaningham was born in Fleming County, Ky., in May, 1801. He assisted his father in clearing a farm in 
Bath County, Ky. At the age of eighteen he went to New Orleans as a hand on a flat-boat, returning home on foot. He
drove hogs to Washington City in 1821, and returned to Kentucky on foot. In 1822 drove hogs to South Carolina, and
returned on foot. In 1823 drove hogs to North Carolina, and returned home on foot. In 1824 drove hogs to Petersburg,
Va., and returned home on foot. In fall of 1824 he came to Indiana and selected land in this township, upon which he
moved with his wife and two children in the fall of 1828. The farm is situated on Indian Creek, one mile southwest of
Oakland. He settled in the woods and cleared a farm, and resides upon it now. His wife (Nancy Denton), to whom he was
married in 1822, died about seven years ago. Mr. Vanlaningham is a highly respected and prominent citizen of the
township. He has endured many privations and trials, but has triumphed over them all. Of the two children who came
to the township with, him but one (Woodford) is now alive. He has lived in the township fifty-five years. The other child
(Jane) lived in the township seventeen years; married James McClain, and is now dead. Mr. Vanlaningham had eight
children born here; six are living. Ellen lives in Hancock County, Ind., and John lives in Texas; the remainder live in
this township.
Alexander Smith came into this township in 1825 and entered forty acres on Indian Creek, near its mouth. In 1827 he 
married Betsy McConnell. He was a shoemaker by trade, but followed farming also for a livelihood. He lived on that
forty acres about twelve years, and then moved to the Indian reserve in this State, where he lived about twelve years
until his death.
John Shenkles was born in Ohio in 1803; was married to Isabel McConnell in Brown County, Ohio, in 1822. In 1824 
they came to this township and settled on Indian Creek, two and a half miles south of where Oakland now is. He
remained there about twenty-two years, and emigrated with his family to Illinois, and subsequently to Iowa, where
he died about 1877. He was a farmer, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for thirty years previous to his
death. His wife also belonged to the same church.
John Mock was born June 1, 1820, in Butler County, Ohio. At the age of three years he went with his father to Ripley 
County, Ind.; lived there three years, and returned to Ohio; remained there till 1831, in which year he came to this
township with his father. He has resided here since 1831. His mother died when he was but seventeen months old. Mr.
Mock has lived on his farm adjoining Oakland during the past thirty-two years, and in the township fifty-two years.
He laid off an addition to the town of Oakland several years ago. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal
Church about twenty-five years. He has been married twice. His first wife's maiden name was Leah Klepfer, and that
of his second wife was Mary Ann Lingle. Mr. Mock is a Freemason, a Democrat, and a good citizen.
Alexis Riley was born in Maryland about 1802. At the age of eleven years he went to Clermont County, Ohio, and in the 
year 1824 he came to this county. He worked two years for Peter Negley, near Millersville, this county, and in 1826
bought forty acres of government land about two miles southwest of where Oakland now is. He came into the township
with his family, consisting of wife (Nancy Moore) and four children. He was a farmer and great stock-raiser. He was
raised a Catholic, but never professed any religion. He was a great promoter of the public schools and the cause of
education. At one time he operated a little mill on Indian Creek for about ten years. In all he had ten children, two by
his second wife (Jane Davis). Of the four children who came into the township with him, two, John and Oliver, are dead,
and Klias L. went to Illinois about 1856, and lives there now. Ellen has never left the township, and is now the wife of
Joseph N. Day. Of the children born here, Charles J. and George N. are dead; Stephen P., Wesley, Lavinia, and William
have lived here since their birth.
Stephen P. Riley is a son of Alexis and Nancy Riley, and was born in this township in 1832, and lived in it ever since. He 
lives half a mile west of Oakland on a farm. He married Lizzie Bolander, and has four children, one son and three
daughters. He is a member of the Patrons of. Husbandry, Independent Order of Odd-Fellows, and Free and Accepted
Masons. He is one of the most influential citizens in the township. He takes a great interest in politics, and always votes
the Republican ticket. He takes great delight in encouraging every worthy public enterprise.
William Lakin came here from Clermont County, Ohio, about 1833, and took a lease. Afterwards he traded the lease 
for forty acres where Daniel Jordan now lives. He took an active part in the building of the first church in this township,
and was a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for nearly half a century. He was a class-leader and
an exhorter, and took a great interest in church affairs. He moved to Jennings County, Ind., about 1847, and died two
years ago. His widow lives in Indianapolis. One of his children lives in Ripley County, Ind. One of his daughters married,
and lives in Grant County, Ind. Another lives in this township, and is Anderson Hamilton's widow.
Alexander Mock was born in Butler County, Ohio, in 1815. He came to this township in 1831, and is one of its prominent 
and successful farmers.
James Hines, Sr., came from Lawrenceburg, Ind., to this township in 1826 with a wife, two sons, and one daughter. He 
herded fifty head of cattle for Gen. Hanna for some time, and the general gave Mr. Hines a forty-acre tract of land,
entered by him, situated one-half mile southwest of where Oakland now is. He was a farmer and a great hog-trader.
His three children are all dead. James was killed accidentally at the Methodist Episcopal Church building in Oakland;
Lovey married John Hoss, and died the mother of six children; Clark died in Hancock County, Ind., about 1881. He lived
here about forty years. James Hines, Sr., died about 1850. His wife is also dead. Thus not one of the family of five that
came here together is living to-day.
Andrew McDonald was born in North Carolina. He came from Clermont County, Ohio, with a wife and several children 
to this township in 1826, and entered one hundred and sixty acres of land in 1827. Mr. G. McLain is the present owner
of the tract. Mr. McDonald was a farmer; remained here only a short time.
William Gallon was born in Kentucky May 16, 1799. He went to Clermont County, Ohio, with his parents at the age of 
four years. There he married Ruth Wells, and in the year 1828 he emigrated with his family — wife and two children —
to this township. He entered sixty-three acres three-fourths of a mile north of where Lawrence now is; was a farmer, and
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for forty years. He died Jan. 7, 1867. His wife died June 6, 1880. William
and Leonidas were the children that came here with the father and mother. William died at the age of eighteen years;
Leonidas went to Iowa in 1868, and now lives there. There were eight other children, all born in this township.
James Giles and family came from Bracken County, Ky., in 1824, and entered eighty acres where Joseph N. Day now 
resides, near the mouth of Indian Creek. His wife's maiden name was Mary Reddick, whom he married in 1818. He lived
here until 1835, and then went to Tipton County, and died in May, 1875. He was a farmer, and a fine man. He had two
sons and four daughters. William, the oldest son, died while working on the Wabash and Erie Canal, in Hamilton County,
Ind.; James and Sallie live in Tipton County; Lettie in Missouri;
Marie lives near Perkinsville, Ind., and Catharine is dead. 
Robert Huston came from Brown County, Ohio, to this township about 1827, and worked on the farm of Elisha Reddick 
one year, raising five acres of corn. The next spring he went to Rush County, Ind., where he had left his family, and
brought them here. He resided for several years on the farm east of the McIlvain farm and north of Fall Creek, and
then moved to what is known as the McCormick farm. Here he lived until about 1848, when he died at the age of
fifty-eight years. He married Barbara Shengles. She has been dead thirty years. Mr. Huston was a Methodist seven
years; was constable for ten years, and was serving as such when he died. He had five sons and two daughters,
— William, Jacob, Joshua, George, Fountain, Betsy, and Polly. Fountain and William live in Bracken County, Ky.;
Jacob and George are dead, — the former died here at the age of thirty, and the latter died about 1873, and his family
lives in Washington Territory; Joshua lives in Boone County, Ind.; Betsy and Polly both died unmarried before 1861 in
Warren township, this county.
Henry Hardin came from Lawrenceburg, Ind., to Lawrence township in the fall of 1 825, and settled in the woods on 
one hundred and forty acres of land that he had entered from the government. He raised a cabin upon his land, on
a spot near where Jonah F. Lemon now resides. He cleared about forty acres of the fractional quarter-section. His
wife's maiden name was Ludwick. He was converted at a prayer-meeting at the house of William Reddick about 1828,
and shortly afterwards began preaching. He lived in this township twenty years, and then moved to Iowa. He was a
moral, upright, conscientious man, and a kind, generous neighbor.
Ephriam [sic] Morrison came to this township in the year 1825 from Lawrenceburg, Ind., bought the farm of one hundred 
and forty-two acres owned by William McClaren, and settled upon it. At that time fifteen acres was cleared. The farm is
now owned by H. M. and J. E. Hunter. In 1845 he went to Iowa, and died there after a residence of five years. His sons,
William and Perry, went to California after their father's death, but subsequently returned, and took their mother (who
was a sister to Henry Hardin) and the rest of the family to California.
William McClaren was born in Manchester, Ohio, in 1797. He emigrated in 1824 with his wife and two children to this 
township, and entered the fractional quarter-section subsequently owned by Ephraim Morrison, but now owned by
H. M. and J. E. Hunter. He lived there only one year, sold to Morrison, and purchased the ninety-one-acre tract now
owned by D. Leatheman. He lived there about ten years, and went to Bloomington, Iowa, where he died. His family
are all dead except his son Andrew. Mr. McClaren had four children when he left this county. He was a great trader,
and made his living mostly in that way. He was an intelligent man, and one of the shrewdest in this township in those
days. He was a good pettifogger, and practiced considerably before the justices of the peace.
Robert Wells was born in Mason County, Ky., in 1804. Emigrated with wife and son Aaron to this township about 1827, 
and bought the fractional quarter-section now owned by John Newton Reddick, where he lived for twenty or twenty-five
years. He then sold the farm to Robert Walpole and went to Stringtown, Ind., where he lived two years, thence moved
to the Twelve-mile Prairie, thence to Anderson, and since the war of 1861—65 went to Illinois, where he died about 1875.
His wife died when he lived on the Twelve-mile Prairie. He was a farmer while he lived here, but subsequently became
a shoemaker and a dealer in harness and saddlery. He and his wife were both members of the United Brethren Church,
and they died in that faith. For four or five years that denomination held preaching at his house. He took a great interest
in improving the public highways, in advancing the cause of education, and, in fact, in all laudable public enterprises.
He was regarded by all who knew him as a model gentleman, and by his emigration the township lost one of its best
citizens. He had six children when he left here. His son Aaron lives in Illinois.
John Johnson was a native of Ireland, but was raised in Kentucky. He went from there to Ohio. From there he came to 
this township, arriving on New Year's day, 1824. He entered in all seven hundred and twenty acres of land in the vicinity
of where the correction line crosses Fall Creek. He erected his cabin about half a mile southeast of the hill known as the
Johnson Hill. There he lived until his death in 1849, aged sixty-seven years. His wife's maiden name was Jane McConnel.
She died four years before him, at the age of sixty-three years. He was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, and took
great interest in church affairs. His wife and the most of his children died in that faith. He built a mill on Fall Creek in
1825, and operated it for years. The first election ever held in the township was at his cabin, and he was one of the
thirteen electors. He was instrumental in bringing quite a number of new settlers into the township shortly after his
arrival. He was a farmer and miller, — industrious, persevering, and moral. He had two sons and five daughters.
Charles, the oldest son, came to the township with Elisha Reddick in October, 1823. When twenty-one years of age
his father gave him eighty acres of land. Charles grubbed three acres. He went in swimming the day after he was
twenty-one years old, took the fever, and died four days thereafter. John Calvin died two years after his father's death.
Elizabeth married Elisha Reddick in Ohio in 1822, and died in this township March 11, 1872, at the age of sixty-eight
years. Isabel, Mary, and Jennie are also dead. Nellie married John Newkirk, moved to Carlisle, Ill., about 1850, where
she now resides.
Robert Large came into the township about 1825. He owned no land, but lived on the farm now owned by Philip 
Miller; lived there eight years and went to Washington township, this county, and subsequently died there. His
vocation was fishing, and he did little else.
James Ballenger came to this township about 1825. He lived on Daniel Ballenger's land, half a mile east of where 
Millersville now is, about eight years, then went to Washington township, this county, and died there.
George Long was a native of England. He came to this township with his family about 1827, and entered one hundred 
and sixty acres, now owned by Dr. Jonathan Conkle. He lived there ten or twelve years and went to Missouri, where
he now resides. He is a tailor by trade, but was a farmer when here, and cleared a large farm. Two of his daughters
live here. Elizabeth, the wife of Joseph Swarm, lives in Centre township, and Ellen, the widow of Simeon Mock,
lives near Germantown.
Alexander McClaren was born near Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1804. He went to Kentucky when a mere boy, and from 
there came to this township in 1824. He was married here to Helen Reddick, daughter of William Reddick. He
bought eighty acres, the farm now owned by John Sargent, in 1828. He was a shoemaker, and worked at his trade
evenings. He was a very industrious man, and prospered. He and his wife were members of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, and he improved every opportunity to advance the interest of that denomination. He was a leader in the
building of the Hopewell Methodist Episcopal Church. He sold his land here about 1850 and went to Clinton County,
Ill. He died about 1859. He had six sons and four daughters. His wife died in 1881. Five of the sons lived in Clinton
County, Ill. Andrew died more than twenty years ago.
Moses McClaren was born in Adams County, Ohio, Nov. 15, 1810, and went to Kentucky with his parents about 1820. 
From there he came to Marion County in the fall of 1823, and in 1832 settled in this township, half a mile above the
mouth of Mud Creek. That year he married Rachel, daughter of William Reddick. He lived in this township twelve years,
following farming. He and his wife now live half a mile east of Allisonville, this county, where they have lived during
the last fifty-one years. He has been a member of the Allisonville Methodist Episcopal Church since 1849. He is a
Republican in politics. His residence of sixty-three years in the county has given him an opportunity to become
acquainted with the first citizens. He is now in the "sear and yellow leaf" of life, and is honored and respected by all
who know him. His children, nine in number, are all dead.
John Gillam entered one hundred and sixty acres in 1828, the same now owned by John F. Sterrett. He was a farmer, 
and a hard-working man. He raised quite a family of children, and taught them all to believe in witches and witchcraft.
He sold his land here, and went to Illinois with his family in 1840.
John Collins came to this county from Mason County, Ky., in 1820. He was in Washington township a few years, 
and in 1824 or 1825 he came into this township, where he lived about twenty years. He followed hunting for a living,
was in the woods nearly all the time, and strolled from place to place. No person knows whither he went from this
Adam Eller came from Stillwater, Ohio, with family (wife and six children) in a very early day. He entered one hundred 
and sixty acres, a part of which is now owned by Philip Miller. Mr. Eller was a farmer, and died there forty years ago.
His wife also died several years ago. His daughters were Elizabeth, Lucinda, and Nancy, and they all moved to Illinois
years ago. His sons were David, Andrew, and Leonard.
David Eller came from Stillwater, Ohio, with his father, Adam. He entered the farm now owned by Ettie Newhouse, 
and married Lucinda Reddick. He was a farmer and also a carpenter. He was a great and noted hunter. About 1854
he went to Kirksville, Mo., and died there in 1875. He was in California during the gold fever about 1849.
Leonard Eller came from Ohio with his father, Adam. He went West at the age of twenty years. 
Andrew Eller, son of Adam, came here with his father at a very early date. His first wife was Martha, daughter of 
John McConnell. Mr. Eller entered eighty acres, now owned by Josiah Day. He moved upon it in 1835, and in 1840
he moved on the farm now owned by Christopher McConnell. In about 1853 he moved on the John Johnson place.
His second wife's maiden name was Elizabeth Flaningan. She only lived three years, and he then married the widow
of John Calvin Johnson. In 1859 he went to Missouri, but returned to this county during the Rebellion on account
of the troubles in Missouri. At the close of the war he returned to Missouri. In the early settlement of the country he
was a great deer-hunter. He was a good citizen and a kind neighbor when in this county.
Edmund Newhouse was born near Charlestown, Va., about 1796, and came here in 1832. He entered one hundred 
and sixty acres about three-fourths of a mile west of where Lawrence now is. He followed farming for a livelihood
until a few years ago. He is now eighty-seven years old, and lives on the old homestead with his children. He has been
a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church about fifty years, and was one of the founders of the Lawrence
Methodist Episcopal Church about the year 1838. He and his children and grandchildren are among the best and
most highly respected of Lawrence township's citizens.
Jacob Shenkle came here from Brown County, Ohio, with his wife, two sons, and a daughter. He entered one hundred 
and sixty acres of land on Indian Creek, — now owned by Lewis Hossenfans, — and was assessor of the township by
appointment many years. He sold his farm in 1841 and left the county. His son John went to Illinois, and Benjamin
moved West. His daughter Elizabeth married Fountain Kimberlain in 1827.
William Dickerson came from Kentucky to this county in 1825 with his wife, three sons, and five daughters. He lived 
three miles east of Indianapolis for five years, and then came to this township and entered eighty acres, being the east
eighty-acre tract now owned by John D. Louden. He was a farmer, and died on the above eighty-acre tract in the year
1851. Merritt, his second son, was killed by a railway train, in 1850, at the crossing of Indian Creek. The other two sons
are dead. The five daughters went to Pana, Ill.
Abel Swords came from Ohio about the year 1827, and entered the west eighty-acre tract now owned by John D. Louden. 
His wife, four sons, and two daughters came here with him. He died in Washington township, this county, about 1861.
His wife died on the old homestead. His sons, William and Robert, live in this township.  
Daniel Speece was born Jan. 10, 1802, in the State of Kentucky. From there he came to this township in January, 1828. 
He was married, March 9, 1825, to Elizabeth Fidaman. They emigrated here with two children, Franklin and Frederick M.
Mr. Speece was a farmer. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church since the oldest member of the family
can remember, and he died in that faith at an advanced age. His widow is still living, although very feeble. Mr. Speece,
if not the first, was one of the first teachers in the first log school-house built in this township. Their son Franklin died
in 1852, and Frederick M. emigrated to Kansas. Thirteen other children were born to these old pioneers, eight of whom
are dead. William H. lives at home with his mother; George lives at Glenn's Valley, this county; Thomas B. J. lives in
this township; Joseph is in Missouri; and Martha Ann in Kansas.
John Thomas was born June 20, 1805, near Red Stone Old Fort, Pa. He lived in Hamilton County, Ohio, from June, 
1806, till 1815, when he went to Clermont County, Ohio. His mother died in the year 1810. Mr. Thomas was married
to Harriet Bradbury on the 9th of March, 1828. On Sept. 16, 1832, he came here and settled in the woods near and east
of Minnewan Springs. He made shelter for his family out of brush until he could raise a log cabin. After his cabin was in
order, he and his wife began clearing the eighty-acre tract upon which he now resides and which they had previously
entered. Two children, Elizabeth and Benjamin, emigrated to the township with their parents. These old pioneers had
seven children after they arrived here. They raised all these children to be full-grown men and women. Six of them are
dead and three are living. His wife, Harriet, died in March, 1863. The following children are living: the two who
emigrated to this township with their father, and John M., the next to youngest son.
Mr. Thomas was a school-teacher for several years during the first settlement of the township. He cleared and improved 
the farm upon which he now resides. He was elected captain of the Indiana militia in Lawrence township, March 23,
1833, and held that commission for five years and then resigned. He was elected justice of the peace in 1856, and
re-elected twice in succession, but resigned after eleven years' service. He has served as supervisor and as school
trustee several terms. He served one term as clerk of the board of township trustees. He has been a member of the
Universalist Church continuously since 1840. He has led an active and industrious life, and takes rank as one of the
best citizens of the township. He has always encouraged every commendable public enterprise. He is now seventy-
eight years of age, and is living with his second wife, whom he married April 9, 1876.
Abraham Sellers was born Jan. 25, 1805, in North Carolina. He served three years as an apprentice, and learned the
tanner's trade in Clermont County, Ohio. In the year 1827 he came to this township. In order to reach his destination
he was compelled to cut his way through the brush and timber during the last four miles of his journey. He entered
eighty acres, now owned by his heirs, and he subsequently purchased an additional eighty acres. He married Lydia
Rumple when in Ohio, and he, his wife, and two children (Susan and Elizabeth) came to this county in a wagon. He
cleared a large farm in this township, and followed farming for a living. He had a tan-yard on his farm for many years,
and occasionally worked at his trade. He was a moral man, and used his influence for the good of society. He was a
member of the Lutheran Church, and services were held at his house for years before any church was built in the
neighborhood in which he lived. He built a saw-mill on Fall Creek about the year 1853, and sold it after operating it
two years. Mr. Sellers died March 10, 1875. His first wife, Lydia, died in 1850. The two eldest children are also dead.
Seven children were born unto Mr. Sellers after he came to the township, two of whom are dead.
Amos Hanway came to this county from Vincennes, Ind., in the year 1821. He came into this township in 1824, and 
lived till his death on the farm now owned by his son Samuel. Mr. Hanway came to this county on a flat-boat up
White River. He brought his wife and three children, — Mary, Amos, and Ann E. The last-named married James
Crigler, April 24, 1836. Mr. Crigler was a member of the Lutheran Church. He is now dead. His widow is living,
aged sixty-five years. Mary Hanway married Isaac Doty, and died one year there after. Amos Hanway, Jr., is still
living, and is a leading member of the Methodist Episcopal Church.  
Francis Flannigan was born in Maryland. He moved to North Carolina, and married there Mary Eller. He moved to 
Miami County, Ohio, and thence to this township in October, 1824. He entered eighty acres about one and a quarter
miles southeast of where Millersville now is. His children were: James, located east of where Millersville now is; John,
located near where No. 4 school-house now is; Elizabeth, located north of where John located; Sarah, located near
same place; Peter, married in Lawrence township to Nancy Mock, located north of the Marion County line, in
Hamilton County; Leonard, married in Lawrence township to Amelia Mitchell, located in Hamilton County,
afterwards moved back to Marion County, and located on Mud Creek; Francis F., lived one year and three months
in Marion County, then died, age not known. Mr. Flannigan's widow married James North, and died in 1863, aged
eighty-one years. The first school attended by the children was in an old log house on the Smay farm, one mile south
of where Millersville now is. It was taught by Samuel Burns.
John Flannigan, the second eldest child of Francis Flannigan, came to the township in October, 1824, and located on 
eighty acres now owned by John Johnson. He afterwards married Elizabeth North, farmed four years, and worked in
the saw-mills at Millersville, Germantown, Cicero, and other places. He died at Jesse Klepfer's, in this township, about
1860, aged fifty-seven years. He was buried at Hopewell. He had eight children, — four sons and four daughters. Three
of the former and one of the latter are living.
James Flannigan (born May, 1804), eldest child of Francis Flannigan, came to this township in 1824, with his wife, 
Susannah Bracken, daughter of John Bracken, of Tennessee. Mr. Flannigan first located east of where Millersville now is,
and subsequently just north of where his brother John located, where he continued to reside until his death, in 1876.
His aged wife also died the same year. Mr. Flannigan was a farmer, and cleared a large farm, and raised a large family
of children, five of whom are now living. He endured all the trials incident to a pioneer life, and died respected by all
who knew him.
Peter Bolander was born in Pennsylvania. He emigrated to this township in 1833, and entered the one hundred and 
sixty acres upon which the village of Oakland is situated. He was a farmer. He died several years ago, and his wife died
three years afterwards. They had five children, one of whom, Andrew, is still living in the township, aged sixty-four years.
John J. Mollenkopf, Sr., was born in Germany, Sept. 24, 1794; came to America in 1821; located in Baltimore County, 
Md.; engaged in the manufacture of paper; moved to Wayne County, Ind., in 1836, and to this township in 1839;
married Julianna Painter in 1825 in Maryland. There were born unto them nine children; eight are living. Mr.
Mollenkopf died aged seventy-nine years. Mrs. Mollenkopf died aged sixty-four years. He engaged in farming after
coming to Indiana.
John Negley, one of the pioneers of this township, was born in Hamilton County, Ohio, Dec. 20, 1804. He was raised 
there, and at the age of nineteen years came with his parents to this county. In the year 1825 he married Isabella, a
daughter of John Johnson, and had born to him seven children, three of whom are living. He worked with his
father-in-law one year after his marriage, and then located on what is now known as the McCormick farm. His wife
died in 1842. He was married in September, 1844, to Mary Ann Sheets, and by her had eleven children, five of whom
are living. In 1845 he removed to Warren County, Ohio, where he lived six years. He then returned to this county,
and located adjoining Millersville, where he lived until his death, which took place Aug. 30, 1878, aged seventy-three
years, eight months, and ten days. He was a consistent member of the Lutheran Church. From the spring of 1823 till
his death he was absent from the county only six years. He endured all the trials and hardships of a pioneer life; was
an industrious and influential citizen. He was a voter at the first election ever held in the township, and was an
encourager of all worthy public enterprises. For more than twenty-five years prior to his death he was a Master Mason
in good standing, and no craftsman ever labored more zealously in the cause of Masonry than he. His loss to the
fraternity was most keenly felt. In the improvement of the public highways and the promotion of the cause of
education, and in the advancement of the cause of religion, no person evinced greater interest. He lived respected,
and his loss to society was regretted by all who knew him.
William Orpurd, an old pioneer of Lawrence township, was born in Frederick County, Md., Nov. 9, 1793. He served 
in the war of 1812 from commencement to close, and after discharge from the army he emigrated to Indiana. He came
to this county in 1821, and located on what is known as the Metzger farm, on White River. In the year 1830 he entered
eighty acres about one mile southwest of where Castleton now is, and resided upon it until his death, which occurred
Aug. 5, 1871. On Aug. 18, 1824, he was united in marriage to Nancy Allison, who came to this county with her parents
in 1819, and who walked every rod of the way from Kentucky to where Allisonville now is. Mr. Orpurd was a farmer.
During his early residence here his living was made by clearing land and hunting deer. During the last twenty-five
years of his life he was a pious man, and believed in the doctrines of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was
strictly moral and temperate in all his habits. The first school attended by his children was in a log cabin, just south
of Allisonville. His wife survives him, living on the old homestead of eighty acres, and holds the old patent for the
property, signed by Andrew Jackson. She joined the Methodist Episcopal Church when nineteen years of age, and
although nearly eighty-seven now, she has not let her faith be shaken. During the past four years she has been afflicted
with almost total blindness. The number of children born unto these pious people was six, three of whom are now
living, viz.: Lavica, Calvin, and Marion. Lavica, now in her fifty-seventh year, was never married, and lives with her
mother. Marion is a widow, in her forty-eighth year, and resides with her mother. Calvin went to Missouri fourteen
years ago, and in 1883 moved to Kansas.
John Newhouse was born in Kanawha County, W. Va., Dec. 21, 1804. When thirty years of age he and his wife came 
to this township, on horseback, with nothing but a very limited supply of clothing. He located and bought the land on
which he now resides. He has cleared a large tract of land, and by his industry and good management succeeded in
accumulating a large amount of property. He married Catharine Squires, May 22, 1834. They have four sons and four
daughters, all living. Their oldest son lives in Virginia. Two daughters live near Lebanon, Ind. Three sons and one
daughter reside in this county.
Robert White was born in Clermont County, Ohio, in April, 1802. He came to this township in September, 1833, and 
located in the woods on the eighty acres now owned by him. He cleared the land, and has always followed farming.
Four children came to the township with Mr. White and his wife, viz.: Mary Jane, John, Joseph, and Elizabeth.
Joseph is dead, the other three are living. Mr. White is now living with his second wife.
Daniel Smay was born in Maryland. He came here with the Lutheran colony in 1824, at the age of fifty-four years, and 
located in the southwest part of the township, and finally bought the farm entered in 1827 by John North, where he
lived until his death, in 1854. He was a farmer, and a member of the Lutheran Church for forty or fifty years. He was
one of the leading members in the Ebenezer Lutheran Church for thirty years, and took an active part in all church
affairs. He was a pious, moral, honorable man, and a good citizen. Four children emigrated here with Mr. Smay and
his wife, viz.: Joseph, who lived here forty years, went to Iowa and died. Polly, who married David Ringer, and died
in the township. Absalom, who went to Story County, Iowa, twenty-eight years ago. David, who went to Story County,
Iowa, in 1862.
David Hoss was born in North Carolina, 1790. He married Nellie Trout, and moved to Brown County, Ohio. While 
there his wife died, leaving him nine children. He was married, in Ohio, to Martha Plummer, and by her had two
children. Mr. Hoss came to this township in September, 1829, and entered land about one mile southwest of where
Oakland now is. He lived there till his death, in July, 1882. He built a saw-mill on Indian Creek, on his land, in the
year 1836, and operated it about fifteen years. Farming was his chief occupation, and he cleared a large tract of land.
The first school to which he had the privilege of sending his children was in an old log cabin once used as a dwelling-
house. Jeremiah Wells was the first teacher. Mr. Hoss' second wife, Martha, is deceased. Of the nine children who
came here with him, five are dead. William lives in Perry township, this county. Christian lives in Pike County, Ill.
Sarah is the wife of Henry Apple, and lives one mile south of Oakland. Eliza J. married Nelson Hoss, and lives in Perry
township, this county. One of his children by the second wife is dead, and Benjamin is an inmate of the Hospital for
the Insane at Indianapolis.
Isaac Hartsock was born in Maryland, and emigrated thence to Kentucky. In November, 1834, he came to this township 
with his wife and four children. He located on an eighty-acre tract entered by William McKinster. The first school to
which he sent his children was on the Smay land. John Hutcheson was the teacher. Mr. Hartsock followed farming
all his life. Peter, the oldest son, is a farmer, and resides in this township. Eliza married Isaac Hensley, and died,
aged thirty-five years. Wilson C. died in 1874. Emily married William P. Hensley.
William S. Thomas was born in Nicholas County, Ky., Oct. 25, 1805. He emigrated to Rush County, Ind., in November, 
1828, and lived there four years. In 1831 he was married to Polly Hensley. In 1833 they removed to this township with
one child, named Elizabeth, who died in July, 1862. Mr. Thomas is an honest, upright citizen. One of his sons was
killed in the army during the late Rebellion, and two died of disease contracted while in the army. In all he has had nine
children, only two of whom are living.
Robert Johnson was born in Scotland; time of birth not known. He emigrated to Ireland at the age of seventeen years; 
learned the weaver's trade at the age of twenty-one; was drafted as a soldier to serve the British government for four
years. He found a favorable opportunity and came to America, leaving behind his British uniform, and became a
citizen of Pennsylvania. He set up a loom in Philadelphia, and engaged in weaving for some time. He then married
Sarah Guthry, and shortly moved to Morgan County, Ohio, locating there on eighty acres of land. He remained
until November, 1836, when he sold and removed to Lawrence township, Marion Co., Ind., taking with him his family
and six children His children, all born in Ohio, were James, who died at the age of twenty years; Margaret, married
Thomas P. Silvey; John, born Aug. 21, 1828; married Nancy Thomas. He has raised a large family, and takes an active
interest in the welfare of his township, county, and country generally. Robert, born Aug. 31, 1831; married Mary H.,
daughter of George W. Deford. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church and the Masonic fraternity, and
takes rank as one of the leading citizens of the township. Richard, born Jan. 17, 1834; has lived a bachelor; George G.,
born Aug. 18, 1836; married Nancy Day.
Mr. Johnson being a man of firmness and steady aim, as well as a foreigner by birth, was not greatly admired by his 
pioneer neighbors, who spent their Sundays hunting, and seemingly no moral influence existed. He did not rebuke
them, but engaged the services of a minister of the gospel of his choice to preach at his house. For some ten or twelve
years preaching was held there, until a church edifice was erected. Mr. Johnson lived a member of the Methodist
Episcopal Church ever since any of his children can remember. In his last days he told his pastor that he felt that his
time spent in his religious devotion was not in vain. He felt that he was like a sheaf of corn fully ripe, ready for his
Master's garden. He died at the age of seventy-eight years.
John Herron, his wife, and two children emigrated from near Crab Orchard, in Kentucky, to this township in 1828. 
He entered eighty acres, now owned by Robert Johnson, and died of typhoid fever about 1853. He was a farmer. His
wife and daughter, Polly, are dead. Jane married William Sigmund, and lives in this township.
Peter Castater came from Ohio to this township about 1824 with wife and four children. He entered eighty acres, 
known as the Stoops farm, and improved it. He was a voter at the first election ever held in the township; was elected
justice of the peace in 1825, and served as such for several years. About 1837 he moved to Hamilton County, Ind.
Samuel Conn and family came here from Ohio about 1827 or 1828, and lived here about one year, and then moved to 
Pike township, where he died.
Lewis Hossenfaus was born in Ohio in 1834, and came to this county with parents in 1846. He lives one and a half 
miles west of Oakland. At the age of twenty-one he married Catharine Baker. He has two children living and two dead.
Mr. Hossenfaus is an industrious and enterprising citizen.
Edward P. Day was born in North Carolina, Aug. 6, 1788. He emigrated to Ohio, and thence, in the fall of 1830, to this
township. He located in the woods, on the land where "Male" Emery now lives, where he resided until his death. He
was a farmer. His wife (formerly Elizabeth Williamson) and six of the eight children came here with him. Joseph N.,
Josiah W., and Evaline live here now; Nathaniel W. is dead; Jonathan W. went to Kansas several years ago, and John
E. lives in Illinois.
William McIntosh came here about 1828, a single man. He married Sallie, daughter of Peter Negley, about 1830. He 
was a minister of the gospel, and called himself a Dunkard Baptist. By trade he was a stone-mason. He moved to Illinois,
west of Vincennes, Ind.
Moore McIntosh, with his wife and family, came here about 1830, and lived in the Highland neighborhood. He was 
justice of the peace for four years.
John Cory was born in New Jersey, May 9, 1792. He emigrated to Clermont County, Ohio, and thence to this township, 
arriving here Sept. 10, 1834, with his wife, Mary, and six children. He located on eighty acres near Indian Creek, a
quarter of a mile northwest of where Oakland now is. He lived there until his death, June 26, 1872. He was a farmer,
and built and ran a saw-mill on Indian Creek for several years. His wife died two months subsequent to his death.
He was a member of the Universalist Church for thirty-four years preceding his death. He belonged to the first society
of Universalists organized in the township, which was about the year 1838. He was constable of the township two terms.
But two of his children are living, viz., Samuel and Andrew P., both prominent citizens of the township.
Samuel Cory was born in what is now Hancock County (then Brooke County), W. Va., Jan. 4, 1818. At the age of three 
years he went to Highland County, Ohio, lived there eight years, and moved to Clermont County, Ohio. From there he
emigrated with his parents to this township in September, 1834. He taught the first public school ever taught in the
Oakland district, commencing October, 1837, and continuing six months. He taught school during each subsequent
winter till the winter of 1849. He worked on the farm and at his father's saw-mill when not teaching. He served as
school officer for nine years, and in 1849 was elected one of the associate judges of Marion County, serving in that
capacity from April, 1850, to November, 1851. The office was then abolished by the new State constitution. He was
then appointed by Governor Wright probate judge of Marion County, and filled the vacancy occasioned by the death
of Adam Wright. He served as such until the office was abolished by an act of the Legislature, which act transferred
the business of that court to the Court of Common Pleas. In April, 1853, he was elected one of the township trustees
for Lawrence township under the new school law; was re-elected from time to time, and served till 1874 (except for
the year 1859). In October, 1874, he was elected county commissioner for Marion County, and served as such for three
years, during which time the new court-house was completed. He has settled a large number of estates of deceased
persons and acted as guardian for a number of orphan children. In the mean time he has lived on the farm and labored
there, and raised a family of three sons and six daughters. He served for thirteen and a half years as Worshipful Master
and eight years as secretary of Millersville Lodge, No. 126, F. and A. M. He has been a member of that lodge since May,
1853. He belongs to no church, but in sentiment is a Universalist. In politics he is a Democrat, and looked upon as a
leader of that party in Lawrence township. He is a moral, honest, conscientious citizen, positive in his views, and
temperate in his habits. A better or more honorable citizen never lived in the township.
Andrew F. Cory was born in Highland County, Ohio, April 21, 1821. He emigrated to this county and township with 
his parents in 1834. He lived with his father on the farm until eighteen years of age, and then learned the carpenter
trade. He worked at that trade three years and then studied medicine. In the year 1844 attended lectures at the
Eclectic College in Cincinnati, Ohio. He received the degree of M.D. in 1846, and has practiced medicine ever since.
He has a good farm near Oakland. He was treasurer of the township for several years, — as long as it had three trustees.
He served over seven years as Worshipful Master of Oakland Lodge, No. 140, F. and A. M., and three years as secretary
of that lodge. He is a prominent Democrat and an influential citizen. He has three sons and two daughters.
Jeremiah Plummer was born in Kentucky about 1776, and emigrated from Brown County, Ohio, to this township in 
1826 with wife and seven children, and entered two hundred and forty acres on Indian Creek, now owned by John
Smith and Chris. McConnell. His wife's maiden name was Monica Chapman. He was a member of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, and took a great interest in all affairs of the church. About the year 1835 a class was organized at
his house, and preaching held there regularly every four weeks for two or three years. He was the leading spirit in
the formation of Wesley Chapel, Methodist Episcopal Church, and in the building of the first church in the township,
long known as the “Plummer Church." He had five sons and two daughters.
The two daughters are dead, also two sons. Mr. Plummer died about 1853. His wife is also dead. 
John McConnell was a native of Ireland. When he first came to this country he settled in Pennsylvania, and 
subsequently moved to Brown County, Ohio. While there he enlisted and served eighteen months in the army
during the war of 1812, at the close of which he was discharged, and he returned to Ohio. Betsy Brown was his wife's
maiden name. He, together with his family (wife and nine children), emigrated to this township Nov. 17, 1824, and
entered eighty acres about three miles southwest of where Oakland now is. The land is now owned by Chris McConnell.
He continued to reside there until 1837, when he died. He was a blacksmith, but his principal occupation was that of a
farmer. While in the township on a prospecting tour in the fall of 1823 he assisted at the raising of the first cabin ever
raised by a white man in the township. The first barrel of salt bought by him cost twelve dollars and fifty cents, and
two and one-half bushels of wheat furnished all the flour his large family ate during the first year of his residence here.
The first school privilege was a subscription school, taught for eighteen days only, in the kitchen of Peter Negley,
— distance six miles. His family had to go seven miles to church in the early days of their residence here. Mr. McConnell
was an honorable, conscientious citizen, and being one of the very first settlers of the township, was compelled to
endure many privations and hardships. His companion has long since passed from this earth, and of their nine
children only two remain. Four of the children died in 1855 at about the same time. Isabel lived here about twenty
years; married John Shenkle, and died in Iowa in 1880. Betsy married Alexander Smith; lived here till 1837, when
she died. Martha married Andrew Eller; located on Indian Creek, and lived there till her death, in 1850. John L. died
about 1855; lived here thirty-one years. Thomas died about 1855; lived here twenty-nine years. William died about
1855; lived here twenty-six years. Hiram died about 1855; lived here twenty-four years. Washington lived here
twenty-two years, and went to Missouri thirteen years ago.
Charles McConnell, the third child of John and Betsy McConnell, was born in Brown County, Ohio, in 1808, and 
came to this township with his parents Nov. 17, 1824, and remained with them until twenty-one years of age. He
assisted in grubbing and grading the National road for several miles east of Cumberland, this county, at thirteen
dollars per month, and thereby saved enough money to buy the eighty-acre tract of land upon which he now lives
with his son-in-law, Mr. Barr. At the age of twenty-three he married Barbara Hoss, with whom he lived forty-one
years, until her death. By this marriage there were born unto them nine children, eight of whom are living, and
seven of whom live in this township. He has been a member of the Universalist Church for thirty years, and has
been a believer in that faith all his life. lie has always been liberal in his donations towards all churches and for
all purposes. The public highways and schools always received great encouragement from him. By his perseverance,
industry, and economy he has accumulated quite a fortune. He is now seventy-five years of age, and is one of
Lawrence township's best citizens. He followed farming most of his life, but has now retired. In politics he is a
John Bolander was born in Pennsylvania, Jan. 11, 1791. He emigrated to Brown County, Ohio, and thence to this 
township, arriving here in October, 1828, with his family, consisting of a wife and' eight children. He located on
Indian Creek, two miles southwest of where Oakland now is. He entered there two hundred and forty acres of land,
and lived upon it until his death, June 16, 1865. He farmed all his life, and was a member of the Universalist Church
many years. His children were Samuel, died November, 1875, never left county to live; Levi, lives in township; Irena,
died June, 1881, never left county to live; Elizabeth, died May, 1880, never left county to live; Joseph, died May, 1878,
never left county to live; Solomon, lives in county, has lived in Iowa and Illinois; Noah, died in 1848, never left county
to live; Polly, died about twenty-two years ago, in township. Three children were born after their parents came to this
county, viz.: Christina, died about 1858,' aged twenty-three; Catherine, married Joseph Apple, lives in township;
Rebecca, lived here until she moved to Hancock County, Ind., four years ago.
Levi Bolander was born in Brown County, Ohio, October, 1815, and came to this township with his parents in October, 
1828. He has lived here ever since, and now owns seven hundred and twenty-three acres of as fertile land as there is in
the township. He resides two miles northeast of Lawrence. He has been a great encourager of the public schools, and
has freely given his money and time towards the improvement of the public highways. He is treasurer of the Lawrence
District Fair Association, an Odd-Fellow, a granger, and a member of the Lawrence Township Horse Company. He has
fourteen children living, all of whom reside in this county except two. He has been married three times, and is now
living with his third wife (Mary J. Badgley), whom he married twenty-three years ago. He is known throughout the
county as one of Lawrence township's most substantial, influential, and valuable citizens. He votes the Democratic
George H. Negley, son of Peter and Elizabeth Negley, and a native of Hamilton County, Ohio, came to this county with 
his parents in the year 1823. He located in this township about 1830. He was a Methodist preacher for years, a farmer,
and a true Christian, — moral, temperate, and industrious. At the time of his death he owned four hundred acres of
land in this township. At an early age he married Elizabeth Ludwic, who survived him thirty-three years, and who raised
a large family of children by her own industry, economy, and good management. Rev. Negley died April 23, 1848,
aged thirty-seven years and two months. They had twelve children, — two died in infancy and ten are now living.
Three sons and three daughters reside in this county. One son lives in Frankfort County, Ind., one daughter in Kansas,
one in Ohio, and the youngest daughter in Sheridan, Ind.
William McCoy, a native of Pennsylvania, emigrated to this county Dec. 21, 1826, with his wife and ten children, and 
located half a mile west of Malott Park. He moved to this township about 1830, and bought the farm now owned by
Bash heirs. He followed farming. He and his wife both died in this township. The following are the names of their
children that came to this township: Rebecca, married John Collins, died after a residence of sixteen years; Elizabeth,
married, went to Illinois and died there; John, lived in township twenty years, died in Illinois; William, lived in township
thirty years, died here about 1870; Clarrisa, lived in township thirty-five years, been dead eight years; Hannah, been
dead twenty-two years, died here; James N. has lived in county fifty-seven years; Murdock, went to Wabash County, Ind.,
forty years ago; Morris, died four years ago, lived in county fifty-three years; Nancy, married James Ballenger, lives in
Grant County, Ind., been there twenty-five years; Louis and Polly were born in this county, and are both dead. Four
children died before Mr. McCoy came here.
James N. McCoy, son of William McCoy, was born in 1816. The first school attended by him in this county was half a 
mile west of Malott Park, and was taught by James Blackaby. The first church attended by him was at his father's house,
early in the year 1827. He suffered all the trials and hardships of a pioneer life, and has been a very hard-working,
industrious man. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for fifty years; has held numerous
positions of trust and honor in the church at different times. In early times he was compelled to go horseback to
Pendleton to get corn ground into meal, and during the time of high waters resorted to the use of the "hominy-block."
His first wife was named Elizabeth Beaver, daughter of Christopher Beaver.
Hilary Silvey was born in Prince William County, Va., July 27, 1798. He emigrated with his parents to the Twelve-Mile 
Purchase near Brookville, Ind., in the year 1812. He married Patience Williams in Franklin County, Ind., and in 1832
moved with his wife and five children to this township. He entered one hundred and sixty acres near the centre of the
township, land now owned by William K. Sproul. He lived there five years, and then moved into Washington township,
this county, and bought one hundred and sixty acres of Francis Holland, upon which he has since lived. He has been
a farmer all his life, and has done an immense amount of labor. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal
Church for fifty-nine years. During his residence in this county circuit preaching was regularly held at his cabin.
During the past few years he has been totally blind, and his usefulness is thus somewhat impaired. His wife is still
living, and on the 27th day of November, 1883, they had been married sixty years. In all there were born unto them
thirteen children. The five who came here with them were Thomas P., lived in Lawrence township till his death, two
years ago; Martha, died in Indianapolis in 1872; Sarah, married Joshua Houston and lives in Zionsville, Ind.; William
A. is a farmer in Washington township, this county; John Wesley was drowned in a spring when a baby. Several of the
other children live in this county.  
Travis Silvey was born in Prince William County, Va., in I7d6. He emigrated with his parents to the Twelve-Mile 
Purchase, near Brookville, Ind., in 1812. He married Elizabeth Powers, and in 1834 moved, with wife and three children,
to this township, and entered two hundred acres of land, now owned by his heirs. He lived there until his death, in
April, 1878. He followed farming all his life, and was a useful member of the community in which he lived. He was a
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church for forty-five years; was an exhorter, and took a great interest in all
matters of religion. His wife survives him. The three children who came here with him were Mary Jane, married
Jordan Hendricks, went on the Wabash, and died there; William, lives in Missouri, went there five years ago; Martha,
went to California four years ago; is a widow.
Henry Bell, a native of Kentucky, came to this township when sixteen years of age (in 1835), and located where he now 
resides, two and one-half miles south of east of Lawrence. He worked in Indianapolis nine years. He has followed
farming nearly all his life. During the past thirty years he has followed auctioneering. He was married in 1843 to
Elizabeth Brown. They have had seven children, of whom two sons and two daughters are living. He has been a
member of the Masonic fraternity for a quarter of a century, and evinces a great interest in its prosperity. He has
been a good farmer and a successful man.
Jacob Fred was born in Virginia Sept. 29, 1794. He emigrated to Clermont County, Ohio, with his parents at the age 
of five years. He and his family moved to this township in 1833, and settled in the woods one and one-half miles
southeast of where Lawrence now is. He entered one hundred and sixty acres of land, upon which No. 11 school-house
now stands, and lived there until his death, in January, 1863. His wife died in 1866. He was a blacksmith by trade,
but followed farming after he came here. During his lifetime he cleared seventy acres of heavy timbered land. Of the
eight children who came to the township with him but four are living, as follows:  James B., lives on a part of the
old homestead; Israel, lives in McCordsville, Ind., left here about 1843; William W., lives on the west ninety acres
of the old homestead; Hulda, married Samuel Groves, and went to Illinois in 1866. She lived here thirty-three years.  
John W. Combs was born Jan. 25, 1825, in Dearborn County, Ind. He came to this county with his parents in 1828, 
located on Pennsylvania Street, in Indianapolis, his father building a residence on a lot known as Switcher property,
opposite where the new Denison Hotel now is. In 1837 he moved five miles west of Indianapolis, on the National road,
where his father, Jesse Combs, bought a farm of eighty acres. John W. left home at the age of seventeen years, and
engaged in the dry-goods business with his brother, William F. Combs, at Strawtown, Ind. He was there two years.
In 1847 he was married, in Hamilton County, Ind., to Emma, daughter of Allen Cole. These two brothers then moved
to this county, and engaged in the dry-goods business at Germantown till 1852. They built the first store-house in
Oakland, and moved there in 1852, and continued the business five years. John W. was agent of the "Bee Line" at
Oakland for fourteen years. He served as justice of the peace in this township for sixteen years; has been assessor
of the township, and held many places of trust and honor. After retiring from the drygoods business he purchased a
farm near Oakland, and is now a farmer. He has three children, — two sons and one daughter. He has been a Master
Mason since 1852, and served as Worshipful Master of Oakland Lodge, No. 140, two years, and as secretary eleven
years, and held many other places of honor and trust in that fraternity. He has been identified with the interests of
Lawrence township for years, and is one of its most prominent citizens. He is a prominent local politician, identified
with the interests of the Democratic party. He is a notary public.
John Perry was born in Maryland about 1780. He married Druzilla Newhall when twenty-four years of age. He moved 
to this township in 1832 and entered the land on which John L. Brown now resides, one-half mile south of Lawrence.
Mr. Perry lived there until 1862, and died. His wife died in 1864. He and his wife were members of the Baptist Church
for more than fifty years. Mr. Perry owned a store in Lawrence for several years, his son, Aquilla D., attending to the
business for him. Mr. Perry was a useful member of society, moral, temperate, and upright. He brought seven children
to the township with him, and another followed him soon afterwards, viz., Thomas, died in township twelve years ago.
Ann died in Colorado in 1881; lived here until 1858, married Moses Winters; William was born in Hamilton County,
Ohio, Feb. 1, 1810. He emigrated to this township with his parents in 1832. At end of one year returned to Ohio,
remaining there five years, and then returned to this county and bought the farm on which he has since resided. He
was married Jan. 20, 1839, to Catharine Newhouse. He has been an industrious farmer all his life. John died in Iowa,
lived here twenty years; Rezen only lived here four years, lives in Pana, Ill.; Samuel lived in township about twenty-nine
years, died in 1863; James, never absent from township since 1832 but three years. He died in Marshall County;
Aquilla D. lived here four years, died in Pana, Ill., in 1873.
Thomas P. Silvey was born in Fayette County, Ind., Nov. 6, 1825, and moved with his father's family to this township 
in 1832, where he lived till his death, Nov. 13, 1881. He married Margaret J., daughter of Robert Johnson, Sr., in
October, 1846. She died Sept. 13, 1867. He had by this wife nine children, seven of whom, three sons and four
daughters, survive him. Two died in infancy. In June, 1868, he married Lauvina Johnson, daughter of James Johnson,
who died in March, 1869. In January, 1870, he married Elizabeth E., daughter of John Calvin Johnson, who lived till
June, 1875.  By her he had three children, all of whom died in infancy. He again married in March, 1876, to Sally Ann
Irwin, who survives, and by whom he had one child. When he was first married he lived on a rented farm near
Millersville, this county, where he lived till 1852, when he bought a farm of eighty acres near the same village. On this
farm he lived one year, when he sold it and bought what is known as the old Joshua Reddick farm, on Mud Creek.
Subsequently he purchased the Sheets farm, the Abe Anderson farm, and a part of the John Calvin Johnson farm.
He sold all of this to Elijah Fletcher in 1872, and in the spring of 1873 bought and moved to the Ozro Bates farm,
one-quarter of a mile east of Castleton. In 1874 he bought of David Macy the Gentry farm and Brown farm, in all
about three hundred acres. He was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and lived a consistent member
thereof. He was an industrious farmer and a useful member of society. By his death the church lost one of its most
prominent and valuable members. He was a member of the order of Odd-Fellows.
William McClaren, Sr., was born in Ireland about 1760. In the year 1831 he came from Kentucky to this township 
with his wife, five sons, and two daughters, and entered three hundred and twenty acres of land, where the McIlvains
and George G. Johnson now live. He lived there till his death, about the year 1850. He was a Universalist in sentiment,
and a farmer by occupation. His wife, two girls, and son, John, are dead.
William Hubbard was born in Morgan County, Ind., Jan. 25, 1839, raised upon a farm, and served in Company H, 
Eleventh Indiana Volunteers, till May 23, 1863, when he was discharged to receive promotion as captain of Company
B, Fifty-third United States Colored Infantry, he remaining in the service (participating in many engagements in and
around Vicksburg, Miss.) until August, 1865, when he was honorably discharged. He returned to his old home, and
engaged in the drug business. He came to Marion County in 1872, and at present is engaged in the drug business in
Lawrence. In politics he is a National, — a leader in this township.
Jesse Herrin was born in Pulaski County, Ky., March 10, 1801. He left home at the age of eighteen years, and from 
that time has made his own living in the world. He emigrated to Shelby County, Ind., with second wife and three
children, about the year 1831, and thence to this township in 1835. He moved on the McDonald land, now owned by
Mr. MoLain, and took a lease there, and cleared about thirty acres. He then entered eighty acres about one mile
southeast of where Castleton now is, and built upon it, cleared it, and improved it. He has been a farmer through life.
He has raised eight sons and two daughters to be men and women. Mr. Herrin still lives on the old homestead.
Cornelius Wadsworth was born in Harrison County, West Va., July 5, 1800. He lived on the farm with his father until 
near the close of the war of 1812, when he enlisted, served sixty days, until its close. He left his parental roof at the age
of eighteen years to seek a home in the far West. He went to Ohio, thence to Illinois, and thence to Missouri, but soon
came to Indiana, stopping in Indianapolis, and before there was a brick laid or a house of any importance on the
streets of Indianapolis, he cut cord-wood and helped to clear away the brush and trees off the ground where the
prominent streets and business-houses now are. At the age of twenty-three he married Cassandra Legg. He purchased
one hundred and sixty acres in this township, upon which he lived until his death, Aug. 19, 1882. There were born unto
him five children, two of whom, together with their mother, survive him.
Mr. Wadsworth was a man of good moral character, true to his convictions, and respected and liked by his 
acquaintances. He followed farming all his life, cleared a large tract of land, and, besides being a man of industry and
energy, was a truly good neighbor and friend and citizen. In politics he was a Democrat of the Jeffersonian faith. He
was elected and served three terms as justice of the peace of Lawrence township.
Christopher Apple was born in Clermont County, Ohio, April 28, 1807. At the age of twenty-two years he married 
Catharine Crumbaugh. Their parents were of German descent. He emigrated from Ohio to this township in 1837, and
entered eighty acres, the farm now owned by his son, John W., near Oakland. He cleared and improved the eighty acres,
and lived upon it until his death, Jan. 21, 1871. He was an honest, industrious citizen, and his good wife shared with him
in all the trials and hardships incident to pioneer life. For a number of years he was a member of the Methodist
Episcopal Church. In 1866 he changed his relation to the Christian Church, and aided largely in building a house of
worship in Oakland, Ind., for that denomination. He lived a consistent and faithful Christian until his death. In politics
he was a firm Democrat. His wife survived him five years, dying in January, 1876. Mr. and Mrs. Apple were the parents
of eight children, the youngest dying in infancy. The following are living in Marion County, except Mahlon, who lives
in Hancock County, Ind., viz.; Eliza J., Mary, Peter, Phebe, John W., Mahlon, and William M. John W. lives upon the
old homestead; has been a successful teacher in the public schools of Marion County for a number of years, and in
farming (which occupation he follows) has been very successful. He is elder, trustee, and clerk of the Christian Church,
and superintendent of the Sunday-school, and occasionally preaches very acceptably. He was born on the farm which
he now owns Sept. 7, 1841.
John L. Brown, born in Brown County, Ohio, April 20, 1816, is the son of George Brown and Mary, his wife, both old 
Virginians. They had eight children, the oldest a daughter, who was the wife of James H. Wallace. Mr. Wallace was
one of the leading men of Jefferson County, Ind. He was a member of the Indiana Legislature for several terms,
commencing about the year 1830; was regarded as the father of the "Internal Improvement System" of this State.
Their seven boys in succession grew to be men; their names were as follows: Thomas B., Lewis L., James W., George,
Richard II., John L., and Daniel R. The subject of this sketch is a first-class farmer, having two good farms, which he
works to good advantage financially. He was county treasurer of this county, and the county lost not a cent under his
faithful administration. His brother, Daniel R., the youngest of the family (a resident of Indianapolis), by his energy
and industry, has accumulated quite a fortune. He is a physician by profession, but has long since given up the practice.
He has served as clerk of the court of Hamilton County, also senator for the counties of Hamilton and Tipton in the
Legislature of this State. Richard H. was a hotel-keeper in the cities of Madison, Ind., and Covington, Ky. George was
a merchant; was a very ardent Odd-Fellow. George Brown Encampment, No. 44, I. 0. O. P., at Noblesville, Ind., was
named after him. James W., Lewis L., and Thomas B. were farmers, having cleared the forest and made their farms
in this county.
This was a very remarkable family, all large, healthy men, with about one hundred and ninety pounds average weight, 
and what is yet more remarkable, no death occurred in the family under forty-seven years. The father, George Brown,
was almost pure English. His father, Thomas Reeth Brown, was a native of Yorkshire, England, and came to Virginia
about the year 1774. When the Revolutionary war broke out he enlisted as a soldier of his adopted country. He married
Margaret Tacket, whose mother was a French lady and her father an Englishman. She was born and raised near Old
Point Comfort, Va. All of their children were born and raised in Loudoun and Fauquier Counties, Va. About the year
1800 they emigrated to Mason County, Ky., bringing with them their children. After a short residence in Kentucky they
moved across the Ohio River and settled in Brown County, Ohio, immediately opposite to Mason County, where they
remained the balance of their days. The father lived to the age of eighty-five years, and the mother survived him, and
lived to the great age of one hundred and four years. Mrs. Elizabeth Thomas, daughter of these old people, died only a
few years since, at the extreme age of one hundred and eight years. Mary (Lee) Brown, mother of John L. and the others
of this family, was a descendant of the celebrated Lee family, of Virginia, being a relative of Gen. Robert E. Lee, of the
Confederate army. Her father was Lewis Lee, a brother of Gen. Harry Lee and Peter Lee. Her father, with his brothers,
settled in Mason County, Ky., and for some time lived in a block-house, which was then called Lee's Station. They took
up large tracts of land, which were called surveys. Some of those old titles are yet in the hands of the Lee family. The
father and mother of the subject of this sketch were married in the year 1802, in Washington, Ky., and lived together
for twenty-eight years, when the mother died in Maysville, Ky. In 1832 the father sold his farm in Ohio and emigrated
to this county. The four unmarried sons, Thomas, Richard, John, and Daniel, came with the father, and settled in the
woods, three-quarters of a mile north of where Lawrence now stands, paying one dollar and twenty-five cents per
acre for his land. The next fall James came and settled near by. Lewis had preceded the family six years, and also
owned land adjoining. This family furnished seventeen good soldiers (their own sons) for the Union army during the
late Rebellion. Two of those lost their lives in battle. The father died in the spring of 1847. At that time all of his children
were living, but now all but three are dead, leaving Lewis L., John L., and Daniel R. living at this date (Nov. 11, 1883).
The wife of John L. was born in Brown County, Ohio. Her maiden name was Caroline D. Mason, daughter of John
Mason and Mary, his wife. The mother is still living at the home of her daughter, in the eighty-sixth year of her age.
Mary Mason was a daughter of Charles O'Connor, an Irishman by birth, who came to this country in the latter part
of the last century. He was educated for a Catholic priest, but never entered upon the duties of the priesthood. John
Mason was born in Adams County, Ohio; was of English descent. His father was a soldier in the Revolutionary war
under Gen. Francis Marion. John L. Brown and Caroline D. Mason were married in 1851, and are still living on one
of the farms in Lawrence township. They have five children, — Mrs. C. Martin, who is now living with her husband,
Reuben Martin, on their farm in Brown County, Ohio, the same farm where John L. and Daniel R. were born. Mrs.
L. Huff, the wife of A. M. Huff, living on their farm in Lawrence township. The other three — Clara, William, and Daniel
— are living at home with their parents. John L. and Caroline Brown have also raised six orphan children. In politics
the subject of this sketch is a Republican, as is also the whole family of Browns of this large relationship, most of them
have been active and very decided in their political views. Mr. Brown says his experience in clearing up this country
was a very laborious undertaking, but he has no regrets now. It is true, he says, they had many privations, but always
had plenty to eat, sometimes plenty of game, such as deer, turkeys, squirrel, and pheasant, and always certain of
plenty of pork, with turnips and cabbage, and, if the season was favorable, potatoes. In the summer wild plums,
roasting ears, and pumpkins generally in abundance, especially after the first year. Corn-bread always on the table,
for the best reason in world, — they had no wheat to make flour, and if he had there was no mill to grind and bolt it,
only on the regular corn-stone, and had to bolt by hand, that made the flour dark and clammy; but notwithstanding
all the hardships and privations, if he knew of a county as good as this, he would be willing to try the same over again.
The following is a list of early settlers, not previously noticed, who came to Lawrence township about the year set 
opposite their names, viz.:
Oliver Vanlaningham......................................................... 1825
Joseph Justice.................................................................... 1825
----- Angel........................................................................... 1828
----- Lamb........................................................................... 1828
James Sigmund.................................................................. 1830
Solomon Bowers................................................................. 1833
Richard Marshall................................................................ 1833
Benjamin Newhouse........................................................... 1828
Madison Webb.................................................................... 1834
William McKenzie.............................................................. 1834
Adam Miller........................................................................ 1834
Lewis Tilyer........................................................................ 1832
Benjamin Chapman............................................................1835
Paulser Sowers................................................................... 1865
Nathaniel Webber.............................................................. 1836
Reuben Hunter................................................................... 1836
George J. Baker.................................................................. 1836
James White....................................................................... 1836
Joseph Heltman................................................................. 1837
Isaac Murphy..................................................................... 1827
James H. Murphy.............................................................. 1837
Jonah F. Lemon................................................................. 1838
James Hunter.................................................................... 1838
Henry Klepfer.................................................................... 1838
Zachariah White................................................................ 1838
Mark Day........................................................... Date unknown.
William McKinster............................................. " "
Adam Clark........................................................ " "
Frederick Sheets................................................ " "
Conrad Fertig..................................................... " "
William Sigmund............................................... " "
James T. Wright came to the township with a large family at a comparatively late period, but it can be truly said of 
him that he accomplished as much for the morals of the people of the township as any other man that ever resided
within it. He was a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and for many years labored zealously for the cause
of Christianity and the welfare of his fellow-men. He was beloved by all who knew him, and the moral, temperate.
Christian influences by him spread among the people were lasting. He was the founder of the Castleton Methodist
Episcopal Church, and for many years preached "without money and without price" to the people at various points in
the townships of Washington and Lawrence.
The first two white children born within the limits of the township of Lawrence were William Perry Reddick and John 
Newton Reddiek, twin sons of Elisha and Margaret Reddick.  
The first marriage in the township was that of David Cothran to Lucinda Reddick. They were married in May, 1825, 
by William Rooker, in the log house of William Reddick.
The first white person known to have died in the township was the wife of a man named Canada, who had squatted on 
public land. She died and was buried on the farm now owned by Hettie M. and John E. Hunter. She was buried by
James Ellis, Robert Warren, and John Sellers in a piece of an old canoe on the top of the high hill just west of the
residence now upon the farm. This occurred in the fall of 1 823, and so frightened Mr. Canada that he took his departure
for Kentucky the day after his wife's burial.
Silas Ashley was the first white man and the second white person buried in the township. His grave was dug within ten
feet of the corner-stone now standing on the township line just west of the Millersville Flouring-Mill.
The first funeral sermon preached in the township was by a Presbyterian minister named Mooreland at the burial of 
Charles Johnson, in the Joshua Reddick graveyard, in 1827.
The first burial-ground in the township was upon the farm known as the Joshua Reddick farm, and the ground was 
set apart as a burial-ground by William Reddick. The place is still used as a burial-place, and is better known as the
Tom Silvey graveyard.
The first physician who practiced in the township was Dr. Isaac Coe. His route was up and down Fall Creek. In the 
early settlement of the township chills and fever were prevalent, and the doctor used to make the statement that
frequently in making his trips he would find whole families down at one time with the then dreaded disease. The
next doctors who came into the township were Drs. Jones and Dr. Stipp, who were successful practitioners.
The early roads of the township were almost impassable, and during the spring of the year many of the present ones 
are nearly so. The first road laid out in the township was what is now known as the old Pendleton State road, and which
was at one time a noted Indian trail. This route was used before the settlement of the township by people traveling
between Indianapolis and Anderson. It was "cut out" by the voters of the township during the winter of 1825-26. Before
that time it was simply a track that wound around between the trees and brush. Samuel Morrow was the supervisor.
Beginning at a point where the toll-gate stands northeast of Millersville, they worked in a northeasterly direction, and
meet a gang of men engaged in a similar work, from Pendleton, at a point on the county line west of where
Germantown now is. Several years ago the township received from the government what was termed the three per
cent, fund, and with it crosslaid the highways wherever needed.
The public highways of Lawrence have never been in good condition, though they have received great attention, and a 
very large annual outlay of money and labor has been made to maintain them in even a passable condition. There are
one hundred and eleven miles of public highway in the township, nineteen miles of which is turnpiked, and eight miles
of that is free. The levy for road purposes for the year 1883 is fifteen cents on one hundred dollars.
The water-power of the township is, and has always been, chiefly derived from Fall Creek, though many years ago 
three mills were erected and operated for some time on Indian Creek; but as the country became cleared the water-
power diminished until they could be operated only a short time during each year, hence the business proved an
unprofitable one, and the mills were abandoned.
John Cory built a saw-mill on Indian Creek in the year 1836, just west of where Oakland now is. It was operated until 
about 1850, and then allowed to go down. David Hoss built a frame saw-mill on Indian Creek, two miles southwest of
where Oakland now is, about the year 1836. It was operated about fifteen years, and then abandoned. About the year
1833, Samuel Williams built a log grist-mill on Indian Creek, upon the land now owned by Benjamin Smith. It had one
run of stone, upon which both wheat and corn were ground. Its capacity was two bushels per hour. The flour was bolted
by hand, and the bolt consisted of two boxes so adjusted that one would slide upon the other. Every man had to bolt his
own grist, and it required two hours' work to bolt the flour made from one bushel of wheat. Mr. Williams built the mill
and dressed the stone out of granite rock, performing all the labor himself For some time after the completion of the
mill nothing but corn was ground. About the year 1837, Mr. Williams sold the mill to Alexis Riley, who operated it
about ten years, and then abandoned it because of the lack of water in the creek in the dry season of the year.
A grist-mill was built in the fall of 1825 on the east bank of Fall Creek, just north of what is known as the "correction 
line," and owned and operated it about two years. It proved to be worthless, and he let it go down. He then hired
Messrs. Cooney and Van Pelt, two millwrights of Pendleton, to build another mill (grist-mill and saw-mill combined).
It was erected on the opposite side of the creek from the first one, and a dam seven feet in height with force-head was
built. The mill was operated by various parties for twenty-four years, and was destroyed by fire in 1851, and never rebuilt.
The capacity of the mill was eight bushels of corn and one thousand feet of lumber per day.
Fountain Kimberlain built a saw-mill, about 1835, on Pall Creek, upon the land now owned by his heirs. It was torn 
down prior to 1840.
Samuels & Son built a saw-mill, about 1837, on Fall Creek, at a point known as the Emery Ford. The fall being 
insufficient and the mill of not much account, it was torn down about the year 1842.
Abraham Sellers built a saw-mill on Fall Creek about 1853. He ran it two years, and sold out to James Hines. In 1855 
or 1856, Mr. Hines built a grist-mill on the west side of Fall Creek, opposite the saw-mill. About the time of the
completion of the grist-mill building Mr. Hines died. The property was then sold to Benjamin Chroninger, who in turn
 sold it to Leonard & Francis Chroninger. James Floor then bought the property, and completed the mill and put in
the machinery. He failed to pay for it, and the ownership reverted to Leonard & Francis Chroninger. They owned and
operated it till 1864, and then sold it to William Roberts, who has owned and operated it ever since. The mill is a good
one, and is supplied with improved machinery.
John Beaver, an old pioneer, erected a grist-mill in about the year 1832 on Fall Creek, about one-half mile below where 
the creek first enters the township. He owned it until his death, and his heirs sold it to William Bills about the year 1844.
He sold it to Philip Dresher and Baughman about the year 1862. Baughman lost his life by an accident received at the
mill. In the year 1873 the ownership became vested in Enoch Hanna, the present proprietor. It is known as the
Germantown Mill, and did a good business prior to 1873; at present the expenses of operating it exceed the income.  
The mill built by Seth Bacon and Peter Negley in 1824 on Fall Creek, near Millersville, also the mills on the same stream 
and near the same place owned by Daniel Ballenger, Noah Leverton, Jacob Spahr, William Winpenny, Tobias
Messersmith, and others, are mentioned in the history of Washington township.
Elections. — The Democratic party has ever held the ascendency in the township, and at present its majority is in the 
neighborhood of eighty. On the first Saturday in October, 1826, the first election was held in the township. A justice of
the peace and a supervisor were elected. The polls were opened at the cabin of John Johnson, on Fall Creek, a short
distance southeast of where the "correction line" crosses the creek. Thirteen votes were cast, and Peter Castater was
elected justice of the peace, and Samuel Morrow was elected supervisor. The following persons voted, viz.:  
Elisha Reddick.                                               Peter Castater. 
Joshua Reddick.                                             Samuel Morrow.
William Reddick.                                          Robert Warren.
Thomas North.                                              John Johnson.
Samuel North.                                              John Negley.
Daniel Ballenger.                                           John McConnel.
James Ballenger.
At the second election, which was held at the same place in 1826, there were present nearly forty voters[.]  Subsequently 
elections were held at Joseph Johnson's blacksmith-shop, near where No. 5 school-house now stands; at Fount
Kimberlain's residence for several years (it was held there in 1840); at Baker's school-house for several years (it was
held there in 1842 and 1843); at Andrew Bolander's blacksmith-shop and at his residence, situate on the east forty-
acre tract of land now owned by William K. Sproul (the election was there in 1849); and at Spring Valley school-house
No. 8, and was held there until three voting precincts were established. The election was then held at the residence of
Henry Cronk, one mile east of Castleton, at Spring Valley school-house No. 8, and at William Hoss' residence, at the
cross roads near the David Hoss farm, southwest of Oakland, until the township was divided into three precincts for
election purposes and polls established at school-houses Nos. 3, 6, and 9, which are the- present voting places, as
follows: Precinct No. 1, at Oakland; Precinct No. 2, at Vertland; Precinct No. 3, at Lawrence.
Railroads. — Two railway lines pass through the township. The Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad enters it, from 
the southwest, at a point about three miles south of the northwest corner, passing through the township in a
northeasterly direction a distance of three and one-half miles, and leaving it at a point one and three-quarter miles
east of the northwest corner. The road was completed through the township in the winter of 1851. Castleton is the only
station on the road in the township.  
The railway now known as the Bee Line was completed through the township in the winter of 1850. It enters the 
township two miles east of the southwest corner, and passes across the southeast corner, a distance of eight and
one-half miles, and leaves it at a point four and one-quarter miles north of the southeast corner. The towns of Lawrence
and Oakland enjoy the facilities offered by this railroad.
Minnewan Springs.— These springs, situate upon the farm of Hezekiah Smart, one and one-half miles northeast 
sof the town of Lawrence, are worthy of notice. These springs are situated in the midst of a grove. They came into public
notice about the year 1860, and were supposed to contain valuable mineral properties. Great excitement prevailed and
much comment was indulged in upon the first announcement of the wonderful curative power of these springs, but they
have long since passed from public notice. These springs, three in number, “rise perpendicular through blue clay to the
surface, one hundred and eighty feet above the water, in White River, at Indianapolis.” Abraham Vines, the owner of the
premises at the time of the discovery, sold them, on Aug. 27, 1863, to the Minnewan Springs Company, composed of
speculators in Indianapolis. The company erected a bath-house, fitted up the springs, and otherwise improved the
property so as to fully test the efficacy of the waters. Thomas D. Worrall was the manager. For several years thereafter
the place became a favorite resort for people from the city. The investment proved an unprofitable one, as the springs,
by careful chemical analysis, were found to contain but little if any medicinal virtues; hence, on the 22d day of April,
1871, the company — J. L. Hunt, James Maulsley, and Ruth Maulsley— sold the premises to Hezekiah Smart, the present
Post-Offices and Villages. — The following-named post-offices are located in Lawrence township, viz.: Castleton, 
Lawrence, and Oaklandon. At. and from each of these offices the mail arrives and departs twice daily. Mail matter
intended for Germantown is sent to Oaklandon, and that bound for Vertland goes to Castleton.
The township has five villages, viz.: Germantown, Lawrence, Oakland, Vertland, and Castleton. 
Germantown, situated in the northeastern part of the township, on Fall Creek, is the oldest, and was laid out by John 
Beaver, Solomon Beaver, and George Beaver, on March 1, 1834. A part of the town was in Hamilton County and a part
in Marion County. It contains a saw and grist-mill combined, and one country dry-goods store. Anthony Snyder is the
merchant, William Sala is the miller, and Harvey Smith the physician. The population is about thirty.
Lawrence was laid out Feb. 27, 1849, by James White, in the southeast corner of the northeast quarter of section 13, 
township 16 north, range 4 east, being south of the Pendleton road. Mr. White platted the town as Lanesville, and it was
sometimes called Jamestown, after Mr. White. North Lanesville was laid out by James White, Dec. 27, 1850. Reuben
Hunter laid out an addition June 14, 1852, and on Nov. 5, 1856, Samuel Records made an addition and subsequently
four more additions. William M. Voorhes laid out an addition north of the railroad, and Robinson & Co. laid out an
addition, just west of North Lanesville, containing three hundred and sixty-eight lots and four blocks. The latter addition
was made during the great real estate boom, and never benefited the town. A post-office was established at the crossroads
south of the present town in 1847 or 1848, and James R. Beard was the first postmaster. The name of the office was
Lawrence. Upon petition, the county commissioners about the year 1866 changed the name of the village from
Lanesville to Lawrence, so as to correspond with the name of the post-office. This action was taken to obviate the
difficulties continually experienced in mail matters. Mail intended for Lawrence would be taken to Lanesville, in Harrison
County, and the Lanesville mail would constantly be sent to Lawrence, thus continually creating a source of annoyance
and confusion. The first merchant in old Lanesville was Elijah Knight.
The town of Lawrence is situated nine miles from Indianapolis, in a direction north of east, on the Bee-Line Railroad. 
The streets are well graded and graveled; the buildings are in good condition, and the village is a lively little place, and
the prettiest in the township. No village of the size in Marion County outranks it in enterprising business men. The
Western Union Telegraph Company have an office there, and it has telephonic connection with all important towns in
Indiana. It has a graded school, a Methodist and Baptist Church, an Odd-Fellows' lodge, and a lodge of Knights of
Honor; two physicians (Dr. Samuel Records and Smith H. Mapes, M.D.); two general drygoods stores, conducted by
M. E. Freeman and H. M. Newhouse & Co., both doing a thriving business. William Hubbard has the oldest drug-store,
is a man of the strictest integrity, and has an extensive trade. Mapes & White carry a large stock of goods, and although
the firm is new, it is an enterprising one. Peters Brothers have a knife manufactory. M. C. Dawson manufactures
drain-tile, and does a business not surpassed by any firm in that line in the county. The population of the village is
about one hundred and fifty. M. E. Freeman is the postmaster.
The village of Oakland is situated thirteen miles from Indianapolis, on the Bee-Line Railroad. It was laid out June 18, 
1849, by John Emery. The name Oakland was suggested by Dr. Moore. The streets have never been improved and
many of the houses are in a dilapidated condition, and the village presents the appearance of age and decay.
Subsequent to 1849 John Mock, Andrew F. Cory, John W. Combs, and Enoch Hanna laid out additions. The first
merchants were the firm of John W. & William Combs; the first practicing physician was James W. Hervey. The town
has a population of about two hundred, and has a telephonic connection and a Western Union Telegraph office. The
railroad company recently completed a commodious depot, which adds greatly to the comfort of the traveling public.
The present merchants are David G. Hanna and Naaman G. Plummer, both of whom are dealers in general merchandise.
Andrew F. Cory and Jeff. K. Heltman are the physicians, and Naaman C. Plummer is the postmaster. The name of the
post-office is Oaklandon. The town has three churches, — a Methodist, a Christian, and a Universalist. The last two
named have a large membership and are well attended. The first Darned, however, is in a precarious condition. The
village contains a graded school, and the Masons, Odd-Fellows, and Grangers have lodges located there.
Vertland is situated eleven and a half miles north-northeast of Indianapolis, on the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific 
Railroad. It was laid out by Milford H. Vert, March 14, 1851, and given the name of Bellefontaine. It was so called
until June 13, 1853, when, upon petition of Milford H. Vert and seven other citizens of Bellefontaine, all voters of
said town, the Board of County Commissioners ordered “that the name of said town be, and it is hereby changed to,
Vertland; which name it shall hereafter bear." Originally the town contained thirty-three lots, but many of them have
been thrown back into farming land, and no business of any kind has been carried on there for many years. The first
merchants of the town were Hilary and Eaton Thomas. The Castleton Methodist Episcopal Church and the parsonage
of the Castleton Circuit are located there. No. 3 school-house is also located there and a graded school taught. James I.
Rooker is the only physician in the place. The population of the town is about twenty-five.
Eleven miles from Indianapolis, on the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railroad, is situated the lively little town known 
as Castleton. It was laid out Feb. 25, 1852, by Thomas P. Gentry, aud contained nine lots. On April 29, 1875, David
Macy laid out an addition east of the railroad, containing sixteen lots. Lewis Drounberger was the first merchant. The
present merchants are Peter L. Negley, Solomon Kleffer, and Wadsworth & Son, all of whom deal extensively in general
merchandise. Peter L. Negley is the postmaster, and A. W. T. Lyle and Hilary Silyey are the physicians. The town has
telephonic connection. The present population is about fifty, having improved considerably during the past eight years,
prior to which time no ground could be obtained upon which buildings could be erected and the village enlarged. It is
situated in the midst of a fine farming region.
Societies and Associations. — There are five active secret and benevolent societies in the township; one dormant 
and one defunct grange P. of H.; one fair association; and a horse company, as follows:
Oakland Lodge, No. 140, F. and A. M., was instituted under a dispensation dated Dec. 8, 1852, in Oakland, Ind. The 
following were the charter members : B. G. Jay, W. M.; John W. Combs, 8. W.; Nelson Bradley, J. W.; James A.
Harrison, Treas.; James Hinds, Sec.; Elias V. Kelly, S. D.; Elias H. McCord, J. D.; Enoch D. Hanna, Tiler; James W.
Hervey, Jacob Beatty, Clark Wait, and Nehemiah Brooks.
The lodge was chartered by the M. W. Grand Lodge May 25, 1853. The following officers were elected under charter: 
Barzilled G. Jay, W. M.; John W. Combs, S. W.; Nelson Bradley, J. W.  
The following persons have served as Worshipful Masters of the lodge the number of years noted, viz.:  B. G. Jay, 
1 1/2 years; Nelson Bradley, 1 year; John W. Combs, 2 years; James W. Hervey, 2 years; Thomas P. Hervey, 3
years; Harvey Colwell, 4 years; Joseph L. Harley, 1 year; Andrew F. Cory, 7} years; Naaman C. Plummer, 1 year;
Charles J. Negley, 2 years; George W. Bolander, 1 year; George W. Stanley, 5 years.
The following named have served as secretary the number of years noted, viz.: James Hinds, 2 years; B. G. Jay, 1 
year; I. N. Craig, 3 years; Jacob McCord, 5 years; A. F. Cory, 3 years; Martin V. McConnaha, 2 years; John W.
Combs, 11 years; Jonathan Conkle, 1 year; George W. Stanley, 2 years.
The lodge held its meetings in the attic under the roof of Enoch D. Hanna's store building until 1857. About that time 
the trustees of the lodge and the township trustee jointly erected the building now used as a lodge hall, and occupied
by the primary department of district school No. 6. The lodge has fifty members in good standing, and meets on the
Wednesday evening of or preceding the full moon of each month.
Oakland Lodge, No. 534, I. 0. O. P., was instituted by John W. McQuiddy, special deputy, on June 1, 1876, with six 
charter and six initiatory members. The following were the first officers:  F. Fellows, N. G.; G. W. Bolander, V. G.;
George W. Karer, Rec. Sec.; G. W. Teal, Treas.
The society meets every Thursday evening, and has about thirty-six members. The following officers were elected 
in June, 1883: Thomas Shafer, N. G.; Noel Bolander, V. G.; William F. Combs, Sec; Stephen P. Riley, Treas.
Castleton Lodge, No. 518, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted by dispensation at Castleton, Dec. 21, 1875, by J. W. McQuiddy, 
P. G. Rep., special deputy. In the summer of 1881 it was consolidated with Broad Ripple Lodge, No. 548. The event
was celebrated on Saturday, June 11, 1881, by a picnic in the beautiful grove adjoining Broad Ripple.
Lawrence Lodge, No. 375, I. O. 0. F. On the 28th day of June, 1871, W. H. De Wolf, Grand Master of the R. W. 
Grand Lodge of the I. 0. 0. F., granted a dispensation for a lodge at Lawrence, Ind., to be known as Lawrence Lodge,
No. 375, 1. 0. O. P., on the petition of the following-named persons, who became charter members: W. M. Babcock,
John Bills, William Morrison, Isaac Bills, and Sylvester Gaskins, formerly of McCordsville Lodge, No. 338.
The lodge was instituted by Grand Secretary B. H. Barry, as special deputy, on July 15, 1871. After the lodge was 
duly instituted the following persons were initiated: John McCormick, Thomas Spong, John Newhouse, Richard
Johnson, Henry Bell, John Delzell, Smith H. Mapes, George Springer, Henry C. Allen, John Shafer, and O. N.
Wilmington. No other signer of the petition for the lodge was present, except George W. Hunter, E. T. Wells, and
Abel Wheeler, and they could not be admitted on card, not having complied with the law. The first officers elected
were William M. Babcock, N. G.; S. H. Mapes, V. G.; 0. N. Wilmington, Sec.; Henry Bell, Treas.
The lodge has a membership of forty-three, and meets in Voorhis' Hall, in Lawrence, every Saturday evening. The 
following officers were elected in June, 1883: M. C. Dawson, N. G.; W. F. Landis, V. G.; W. H. Cruchfield, Sec.; Ezra
Hamilton, Treas.
Lawrence Lodge, No. 358, Knights of Honor, was instituted in Newhouse's Hall on Sept. 30, 1876, by George Hardin, 
of New Augusta, Deputy Grand Dictator, with the following charter members, viz.:  John Meldrum, Joseph W.
Church, Joseph Meldram, William S. Newhouse, William H. Wheeler, Thomas B. Speece, Millard F. Church, George
Newhouse, Christian Lout, James W. Jenkins, and A. J. Newhouse. There were other petitioners, but they did not
become members. The first trustees were A. J. Newhouse, George Newhouse, and Christ. F. Lout. The first officers
were Christ. F. Lout, D.; Millard F. Church, V. D.; John Meldrum, A. D.; George Newhouse, Treas.; Thomas B.
Speece, Rep.; J. W. Church, Fin. Rep.; Joseph Meldrum, G.; James W. Jenkins, Guard.; William S. Newhouse, Sent.
The lodge meets every Wednesday evening, in Voorhis' Hall, in Lawrence, and has thirty-five contributing members. 
Thomas M. Elliott, M. Black, and Paul Klepfer are the trustees, and the following officers were elected at the last
election, to serve one year, viz.: J. J. Marshall, D.; John Tharp, V. D.; H. B. Fisher, A. D.; William White, Treas.;
Thomas M. Elliott, Rep.; M. F. Church, Fin. Rep.; John Meldrum, G.; James W. Jenkins, Guard.; B. F. Marshall, Sent.
Indian Creek Grange, No. 828, P. of H., was chartered Dec. 27, 1873, and instituted the same day, by Abner J. Pope, 
with the following charter members, viz.: Charles J. Negley, M.; Lewis Hossan Jans, 0.; Stephen P. Riley, L.; Andrew
M. Huff, S.; John J. Snyder, A. S.; Pressly Silvey, Chap.; Joseph N. Day, Treas.; Solomon Klepfer, Sec.; A. J. Springer,
G. K.; Caroline Negley, C.; Nancy Smith, P.; Lizzie Riley, F.; Margaret Snyder, A. S. Also Taylor Corey, John J. Sharp,
John W. Kimberlain, and George W. Applegate.
The grange was in a flourishing condition at one time, with a membership of one hundred and eighty-four. The number 
of contributing members June, 1883, was about thirty.
Lawrence Grange was organized in No. 7 school-house, Germantown Grange was instituted at Germantown, and 
Castleton Grange was instituted at Castleton, during the great grange movement of 1874. These granges all flourished
for a while, but in a short time they ceased to exist. Germantown Grange and Lawrence Grange were consolidated with
Indian Creek Grange, No. 828. Castleton Grange became defunct after a short life. The present officers of Indian Creek
Grange are Stephen P. Riley, M.; Simon Klepfer, Treas.; Charles J. Negley, Sec. The grange meets in the hall of the
grange building in Oakland, on the first and third Saturday evenings of each month.
Highland Grange, No. 1182, P. of H., was organized Dec. 7, 1883, by J. J. W. Billingley, deputy. There were thirty 
petitioners and charter members, and the grange began its existence with seventy members. The first officers were
Samuel Cory, M.; Israel Pressly, 0.; L. Y. Newhouse, L.; Joseph E. Boswell, S.; Henry A. Newhouse, A. S.; John Mowry,
Chapl.; Benjamin Tyner, Treas.; William B. Flick, Sec.; Robert W. Cory, G. K.; Hanna J. Pressly, C.; E. J. Newhouse, P.;
Nancy Miller, F.; j Laura Cory, A. S. Samuel Cory served as Master until the grange became dormant. The grange
ceased to work in the year 1881, because of the non-attendance of the members, numbering at the time only twenty-one.
The grange can resume the work at any time, and probably will be resuscitated some time in the future.
The Lawrence Guards, of Indiana Legion, were enrolled and mustered during the late Rebellion, and held in readiness 
for several years for active service in the event they should be needed. At one time there were one hundred and six
members of the company. They were fully equipped, and provided with Austrian rifles. The company drilled every
Saturday, and often engaged in battalion drill. The company was in camp three days at Acton, this county. O. W. Voorhis
was the captain, James H. Thomas first lieutenant, and Robert Johnson second lieutenant.
The Lawrence Township Horse Company was first organized in the fall of 1845, in the Third Baptist Church of Jesus 
Christ, on Fall Creek. The object of the organization was "the detection and apprehension of horse-thieves and other
felons. ”The following persona became members at the organization, viz.: Smith Bates, Madison Webb, Elisha Reddick,
Joshua Reddick, and Moses McClaren. The first officers were elected at a subsequent meeting, when Madison Webb
was made president and Allen Vanlaningham was selected as captain. After the adoption of the new State Constitution,
in 1852, the company was reorganized in conformity to the new State laws enacted. The second charter expired in the
year 1862, and on the 26th day of July of that year the company was reorganized. The fourth charter was obtained upon
the expiration of the third, but for some reason the articles of incorporation were not properly filed and recorded, hence,
as soon as the error was discovered, the company again reorganized. On the last Saturday in February, in the year 1879,
the company was last chartered for a term of ten years under an act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana,
approved Dec. 21, 1865, and the Board of County Commissioners at their February term, 1879, granted thirty-two
members of said company “all the power of constables." The following officers were elected for one year on Oct. 27,
1883, viz.: Hezekiah Smart, president; Oliver W. Voorhis, secretary; Jonah F. Lemon, treasurer; William Apple,
captain; Solomon Klepfer, 1st lieutenant; George F. Merryman, 2d lieutenant; George W. Bolander, 3d lieutenant;
J. H. Herrin, door-keeper.
The company is in a flourishing condition, with a membership of seventy -seven. A large surplus remains in the 
treasury, and no property has been stolen from its members for some time, and every horse stolen since its organization,
in 1845, has been recovered. The organization has been instrumental in sending a number of thieves to the State's
prison, and it has recovered a large amount of stolen property. Its regular meetings are held on the last Saturday in
the months of January, April, July, and October of each year, at school-house No. 8, known as Spring Valley.
The Lawrence District Fair Association originated in Highland Grange, No. 1182, Samuel Cory, Worthy Master; 
W. B. Flick, secretary. After discussing the matter, arrangements were made, and the first exhibition, small, but
interesting and successful, was held at Highland school-house Oct. 1, 1877. There were about three hundred entries,
horses, cattle, farm products, women's work, etc. No cash premiums were given, but certificates of excellence only.
Mr. Kingsbury, of the Indiana farmers, delivered an address, “Beautify the Home," and about two hundred persons
were in attendance.  
In the fall of 1878 a corn show was held, and proved to be a good exhibition, but not very well attended. In 1880 a 
joint-stock company, named the Lawrence Township Agricultural Association, was formed, with O. W. Voorhis as
president, and W. B. Flick, secretary. The first exhibition was held at Minnewan Springs, the beautiful grounds of
Hezekiah Smart. No premiums were paid, and no admission fee charged. The show was good, and the attendance
large. The whole exhibition was a substantial success. Dr. R. T. Brown made a good practical address. The
encouragement received now determined the association to procure grounds of their own, improve them, and arrange
for annual exhibitions to which people might come for pleasant reunion, to compare products and ideas, criticise, and
profit by the result. The use of a beautiful grove and lands adjoining Lawrence was generously donated by President
Voorhis, which was tastefully improved at an expenditure of fifteen hundred dollars by the association. Owing to the
sickness of the superintendent, work was not begun in time, but by working hands night and day, and a cheerful energy
upon the part of all concerned, the work took shape for the fair held Sept. 22, 23, and 24, 1881. The entries numbered
eight hundred, and the attendance about twenty-five hundred. Receipts did not equal expenditures, but the association,
with commendable honor, resolved to pay all premiums in full.
The second exhibition, held Sept. 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16, 1882, proved to be a grand success, better than any one expected. 
The attendance on Thursday was over four thousand, the number of entries exceeded eighteen hundred, and in quality,
beauty, and excellence the exhibition is seldom excelled. In vegetable and farm crops the display was immense and
excellent. The show of stock, though not so large, was as good as the best. Again the premiums were paid in full. The
association resolved to carry a debt rather than discount the premiums. The improvements made this year were good
ones, and cost nearly eighteen hundred dollars. It having been ascertained that the State Board of Agriculture would not
recognize the association under the previous name, this was changed to the Lawrence District Fair Association.
The third exhibition was held Sept. 11 to 15, 1883, inclusive, and was the most successful one ever held, the entries being 
one-third more than at any previous one, and the attendance one-third greater than upon any former occasion in the
history of the association. The association paid nine hundred dollars in premiums, and expended thirteen hundred and
forty-one dollars in improvements, such as enlarging Agricultural Hall, straightening, widening, and otherwise improving
the track, erecting additional stalls, pens, etc. The receipts from all sources amounted to about twelve hundred dollars.
Again the receipts fell short of the expenditures, but the premiums were paid in full.
Aims of the association: 1st. To hold an annual fair at the cheapest possible rate, so the masses may receive the benefits; 
2d. To make this annual gathering second to none in the State.
To accomplish this they propose to spend every dollar they receive over and above expenses in beautifying the grounds, 
in comfortable improvements for man and beast, and paying premiums. In another year the association will probably
have forty acres of their own, which will give more room for improvements.
This, briefly, is a history of its rise and progress. President Voorhis has been prompt in helping the objects of the 
association, while Secretary Flick has been not only tireless in his efforts, but has shown rare and excellent judgment
in the discharge of his difficult and sometimes thankless duties.
The following are the officers of the association for 1883: 0. W. Voorhis, president, Lawrence, Ind.; John W. Apple, 
vice-president, Oaklandon, Ind.; Levi Bolander, treasurer, Oaklandon, Ind.; James H. Thomas, general superintendent,
Lawrence, Ind.; William B. Flick, secretary, Lawrence, Ind.
Schools. — Lawrence township has turned out many excellent school-teachers; it has the best public-school buildings, 
and it is one of the most  enterprisiog in all matters pertaining to schools, of all the townships in the county. The first
school in the township was taught by a man named Edmison, from Chillicothe, Ohio, in Elisha Reddick's cabin in the
year 1828. The teacher took the measles and spread consternation among the few scholars, and thus the school was
brought to a sudden termination. The first school building erected was in the year 1830, upon the northwest corner
of the Eddie Newhouse land, now owned by James W. Jenkins. The first school taught there was a subscription school,
and was taught by an old man named Lamb. The boys barred him out on Christmas day and asked for a treat. The demand
was acceded to and a gallon of whiskey purchased. The boys drank of it quite freely, and many of them became
intoxicated. The patrons held a meeting and discharged Mr. Lamb. Subsequently log school-houses were erected at
various points, notably on the east side of the land now owned by William B. Flick; on the northwest corner of the farm
known as the Smay land; on the northeast corner of Robert White's farm, and it was afterwards moved on to the
southwest corner of the eighty-acre tract of land now owned by Mrs. Mary Ann Negley; on Cornelius Wadsworth's land;
on the Bragdon farm, east of where Lawrence now is; one near where each of Nos. 4, 5, and 8 school-houses now stand.
School was taught at intervals for four years in a vacant house upon the farm now owned by John Johnson, south of
Castleton. In the year 1834 William Hendrick taught school in a small round-log cabin on Indian Creek, near Williams'
mill. Spelling-school was held there quite often, and the boys had to carry brush to throw upon the fire in the fireplace
in order to light the house. John Thomas taught the first school in the house on the Bragdon land in the year 1831. He
taught three terms. Cyrus Smith taught the first school held in the house on Robert White's land. In the year 1835,
Travis Silvey taught the first school held in the log house near where No. 8 school-house now stands. For many years
after the settlement of the township the schools were few and the terms of short duration, while a majority of the
teachers were of an illiterate class. Many of the scholars were obliged to travel long distances through the brush and
over swamps, often being obliged to “coon" logs for great distances.
The first public school-house was built of hewed logs, on the land then owned by John Bolander, and stood very near 
the spot upon which the new brick (No. 7) school-house now stands. Daniel Speece, if not the first, was one of the first
persons who taught there. After the organization of the Congressional township system the schools were placed upon
a solid and permanent basis, and their good effects began to be realized. The township system was adopted in 1853,
and immediately thereafter the township was supplied with ten schools, and about three years thereafter with ten
frame public school buildings, and the township ever since has had an excellent corps of teachers. The first teachers
after the adoption of the township system were: School No. 1, Aquilla McCord; No. 2, Henry Cronk; No. 3, Nelson Hoss;
No. 4, John Cory; No. 5, George Speece; No. 6, Cyrus Smith; No. 7, James McKean; No. 8, Gilbert Ross; No. 9, William
Young; No. 10, Nelson Hoss.
The term lasted sixty-five days, and they were paid as wages seventy-five dollars each. Cyrus Smith taught No. 6 in the 
Universalist Church at Oakland, and the trustees of the church were allowed nine dollars for the use of the building.
On April 29, 1853, the township trustees called “a special meeting of the voters of the township at usual places of 
holding elections on Saturday, the 28th day of May next, for the purpose of determining whether they will submit to
a tax for building, removing, furnishing, and purchasing sites for school-houses of said township. ”The result of the
election was : For tax, seventy-three; no tax, forty-four. The trustees then levied fifty cents on each poll, and thirty
cents on each one hundred dollars of taxable property, and built a new frame school-house that year, and afterwards
about four houses per year until the township was fully supplied with new houses. The estimated cost of eight school-
houses was thirty-two hundred dollars, and it was ordered by the trustees that sixteen hundred dollars be raised in the
year 1853 and sixteen hundred dollars in the year 1854. On June 21, 1853, the township trustees, Abraham Sellers,
Samuel Cory, and Moses Craig, “Ordered, that the school districts now expending the school funds which was in their
hands unexpended on the first Monday in April, 1853, be permitted to expend the same for tuition."
There are now twelve school districts in the township, distributed at convenient points. Districts Nos. 1, 2, 4, 7, 8, and 
10 are supplied with commodious brick buildings, each containing thirty-eight thousand brick. District No. 3 has a
two-story brick edifice, finished in modern style, and district school-house No. 9 is a beautiful two-story frame structure.
District No. 6 has two frame houses, and the school is a graded one. The remaining districts have substantial frame
buildings. The following is from the teachers' reports to the trustee for the term of 1882 and 1883, viz.: Whole number
enrolled, 626; males, 341; females, 285; average daily attendance, 413 number studying orthography, 578; reading, 625
writing, 605; arithmetic, 570; geography, 339 grammar, 367; history, 75; physiology, 125.
The trustee made the following school levy for 1883: Tuition school, seven cents on the one hundred dollars; special 
school, three cents on the one hundred dollars.
The school term now lasts six months, and the following are the teachers for the winter of 1883 and 1884, viz.: No. 1, 
Samuel Beaver; No. 2, A. E. Bragdon; No. 3, Principal, Marion Bell; No. 3, Primary, Annie Herrin; No. 4, O. H. Tibbott;
No. 5, James Watson; No. 6, Principal, William F. Landis; No. 6, Primary, Lou Abbott; No. 7, A. A. Johnson; No. 8,
F. A. Whitesides; No. 9, Principal, Samuel Bolander; No. 9, Primary, Jennie 0. Hensley; No. 10, Edward White; No.
11, Charles Bolander; No. 12, Belle Conkle. They are paid from $2.25 to $2.50 per day.
The township library contains about eight hundred volumes, some of them valuable works. They are about equally 
distributed: at the following convenient points, are in first-class condition, and in charge of the persons named:
Castleton, Mrs. Anderson; Lawrence, Grace Mapes; Oakland, Dr. A. F. Cory.
Churches. — The first preaching held in the township after its settlement was in the year 1825, on the farm entered 
by William Reddick for his son Joshua, and in his cabin, situated northwest of the mouth of Mud Creek. Preaching
was held there nearly seven years. The first sermon was delivered by a young man named Miller.
There are now ten church buildings in the township, under control of five different denominations, as follows, viz.: 
Five Methodist Episcopal, two Evangelical Lutheran, one Christian Church, one Baptist Church, and one Universalist
Oakland Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1852, with a membership of twenty-four. The, meetings were 
held two years in an old log cabin, one half-mile east of Oakland, on the Combs farm. Rev. Manwell and Rev. Gillum
were the first preachers. The present church building was erected in the summer of 1854. James Hines, Jr., was
accidentally killed in May of that year, while engaged in adjusting one of the timbers of the cupola. The church was
dedicated in 1855. Rev. M. Gillum was the first circuit preacher in the new building, and James W. Hervey, Henry
Whittiker, and Fountain Kimberlain were the first trustees. The present trustees are John Mock and Ephraim
Thomas. J. S. Ruggles is the circuit preacher. The church is on the Castleton Circuit. Paul Klepfer is the steward and
class-leader. This society was at one time in a flourishing condition, but not so now. Present membership, twenty-five.
Lawrence Methodist Episcopal Church was organized by Rev. Trusler, from Virginia, at the residence of Benjamin 
Newhouse, one and one-fourth miles west of where the town of Lawrence now is, about the year 1838, with the
following members, viz.: Benjamin Newhouse and Mahala, his wife, Henry Newhouse and Elizabeth, his wife, and
Edmund Newhouse and Sallie, his wife.
Preaching was held at Benjamin Newhouse's several years, and afterwards at Henry Newhouse's residence. About 
the year 1848 the class built a hewed log house on the farm of Henry Newhouse, three-fourths of a mile west of
Lawrence, Mr. Newhouse donating land for the site. This church was called Concord, and was used and occupied by
the class as a place of worship for twelve years. Concord was then abandoned as a preaching-point, and the ground
conveyed back to Henry Newhouse. The society then went to the present frame church in the town of Lawrence, which
was erected in the year 1860, the ground for the site and one hundred and fifty dollars in money being donated to the
society by Henry Newhouse. The frame church was dedicated in 1860. Frank Hardin delivered the dedicatory sermon.
The first trustees of the new church property were Amos Anderson, James Beard, and James Wheeler. The trustees of
the property at the present time are Matthew C. Dawson, John Smith, and Franklin Joseph Johnson. The stewards are
John Smith and Matthew C. Dawson. The present membership is seventy-five. The following ministers preached
regularly at Concord, viz.: Frank Hardin, Bernhart, Johnson, Martin, Manwell, Greenmund, and Burt. The church is
now on the Castleton Circuit, and Rev. J. S. Ruggles is the minister. The society is a strong one and in a good condition
Spring Valley Methodist Episcopal Church was organized as a class in Hilary Silvey's cabin, near the centre of the 
township, in the year 1832, with about eighteen members. The first regular preacher was Rev. Ellsberry, the second
Rev. Igoe, and the third Rev. Sullivan. Services were held there for five years, and then from house to house until a
preaching point was established at Spring Valley. A Sabbath-school was organized in district (log) school-house by
Abraham Vines, under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, in the spring of 1852, and carried on
successfully for two years. In about 1854 a preaching-point was established there, and the place called Vines' School-
House. Preaching and Sabbath-school were held there until the completion of the present frame building. In 1859,
Abraham Vines, John Stires, and other moral men concluded to erect a frame building, thirty by forty feet, and soon
succeeded in raising enough money to do so. The building was built in the years 1860 and 1861, near No. 8 school-
house. J. H. Thomas did the carpenter-work, John C. Thomas was the plasterer, and Isaac N. Thomas the painter.
The building was dedicated in 1865, the Rev. John V. R. Miller, the then presiding elder, delivering the dedicatory
sermon. At that time Rev. J. C. White was the circuit preacher. The first trustees were Joshua Huston, Thomas P.
Silvey, and J. H. Thomas. In 1837 the church had thirty-two members. The following pastors followed Rev. J. C.
White, who was on the circuit two years, viz.: Michael Black, 1 year; William Nichols, 2 years; Samuel Pinkerton,
2 years; Richard Osburn, 1 year; W. S. Falkenberg, 1 year; L. Havens, 1 year; Alexander Jamison, 2 years. The present
minister is J. 8. Ruggles. The church is attached to the Castleton Circuit. The present trustees are Hezekiah Smart,
Pressly Silvey, George G. Johnson, John W. Russell, and William T. Johnson. Martha Speece is the only person
remaining with the class who became a member in 1832.
Hopewell Methodist Episcopal Church edifice is situated on the west bank of Mud Creek, about one and one-half 
miles south of the Hamilton County line. It was built about 1850, by J. N. McCoy, Jacob Hoss, John Tate, Hiram
Simons, Alexander McClaren, and others, who banded together for the purpose. John Burt was the first preacher,
and Richard Hairgrave the first presiding elder. The church began with a membership of fourteen. The ground for
the church site was donated by Jacob Hoss, and a cemetery surrounds the building. The church was abandoned as
a preaching-point in 1878, but is kept in moderate repair and used upon occasions such as funerals or special preaching.
The first trustees were Jacob Hoss, James N. McCoy, and David Fee. The present trustees are Henry Cronk, James N.
McCoy, and C. B. Wadsworth. The church belongs to the Castleton Circuit. Alexander Jamison was the last pastor.
Castleton Methodist Episcopal Church was organized with fifteen members about 1843, by James T. Wright. Its 
meetings were held at the residences of James T. Wright, William Orpurd, Milford H. Vert, and others; also, in an
old log school-house in the north part of Vertland, just west of the railroad, and in Milford H. Vert's warehouse, for
twenty years. After which their meetings were held for twelve years in the new frame school-house. The present brick
edifice was built through the instrumentality of Rev. James H. Stallard. It was completed in the year 1874, but was not
occupied as a place of worship until the year 1876. The trustees of the church in their report to the Quarterly Conference,
Aug. 16, 1882, represented the title as being good, and placed the value of the property at three thousand five hundred
dollars. James T. Wright, the founder of the church, was its first minister and for several years its sole pastor. Thomas
Jones was the first preacher in the new brick. The church was dedicated in the summer of 1880, during the pastorate
of Harvey Harris. The dedicatory sermon was delivered by J. K. Pye, the presiding elder. The present minister; is J. S.
Ruggles. The present membership is about sixty. The stewards are John J. Johnson, Henry Cronk, and C. B. Wadsworth.
The trustees are as follows, viz.: Wilson Whitesell, John J. Johnson, Samuel T. Hague, Robert Johnson, John E. Myles,
Robert B. Smith, James I. Rooker, William F. Wadsworth, and Andrew Smith. Prior to the building of the new church
building the following circuit preachers were the most prominent: George Havens (3 years), John Burt (3 years), Wade
Posey (2 years), R. D. Spellman, J. C. White, D. C. Benjamin, Samuel Longdon, and James H. Stallard.
The following have been the pastors of this church since the completion of the new building, viz.: Revs. Thomas Jones, 
----- Thornton, Alexander Jamison, Austin Reek, Harvey Harris, and William M. Grubbs.
Camp-meeting was held under the direction of Rev. Alexander Jamison in the vicinity of Castleton, in July, 1878, and 
again in 1879 and 1880, lasting each year for several days. The church is in a prosperous condition, having passed
safely through a great financial strain, and its future prospects for accomplishing much good are very flattering.
The parsonage of the Castleton Circuit of the Methodist Episcopal Church is located at Vertland, and adjoins the 
Castleton Church building. The parsonage is under the control of the following trustees appointed by the Quarterly
Conference: Wilson Whitesell, John J. Johnson, Andrew Smith, and Henry Cronk.
Wesley Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church was organized as a class at the residence of Jeremiah Plummer, on Indian 
Creek, about the year 1835, and a circuit-rider preached there regularly every four weeks for two or three years. The
hewed-log school-house on John Bolander's land was then used for five or six years. About the year 1842 a hewed-log
church was built by the moral men of the neighborhood on the northeast corner of the eighty-acre tract of land now
owned by John Smith. John Shenkle donated an acre of land for the site of the church. The first trustees of the property
were George Plummer, William Lakin, and John Obrian. It was the first church building erected in the township, and
was commonly called the Plummer Church. The society numbered about fifty at the time the church was built. William
Lakin, James H. Murphy, Benjamin Chapman, John Obrian, Ephraim Thomas, George N. Plummer, Jeremiah Plummer,
and John Shenkle were the prominent members, and took an active interest in the building of the church. John B. Burt,
Charles Morrow, et al, were the ministers of the church prior to the erection of the church building. George W. Bowers
was the first preacher in the log church. Following him, the most prominent were Allen Beasley, L. M. Hancock, William
C. Smith, ----- Crouch, and Eli Rummel. The membership dwindled down to a few, the building became unfit for
occupancy, and the class was unable to build a new one; consequently about 1857 meetings ceased to be held there, and
the class disbanded. The building was left standing until the year 1867, when the crumbling structure was torn down and
removed from the premises. The old site has long been used as a cemetery, and is known as the “Plummer grave-yard."
The Pleasant View United Brethren Church was organized many years ago, and held its meetings at the cabin of William 
Hendricks, on Fall Creek, for several years. A hewed-log church was raised about the year 1845 on the east bank of Fall
Creek, on a high hill called Mount Holy, near the Emery Ford, and used as a meeting-house nearly thirty years. The
class disbanded years ago. The first preacher in the church was the Rev. Richardson. Amos Hanway was one of the
most prominent ministers of the church. William Hendricks and Charles Emery were two of the first trustees. The house
was built upon the farm of William Hendricks, now owned by Richard Johnson. The house has decayed so that it is in
a condition to fall at any time.
The Salem Lutheran Church was organized at the residence of Abraham Sellers several years prior to 1848. During 
that year a hewed-log church was built upon an acre of ground donated as a site for the church by Joseph Swarm. It
was built by donations from men of moral influence, and is situated on the Fall Creek and Mud Creek gravel road,
about one-half mile south of school-house No. 2. The church was dedicated one year after its completion, John A.
Myers delivering the dedicatory sermon. Hugh Wells was the minister in charge at the time of the dedication. The
present minister is Obadiah Brown. The first trustees were Joseph Swarm, Abraham Sellers, and Arthur Clawson.
The Upper Ebenezer Lutheran Church originated in 1824, in the old Ebenezer Lutheran Church of Washington 
township, which will be found fully mentioned in the history of that township. An account is there given of the
division of that church and the sale of the church building in February, 1868. In consequence of the sale of the
church building, about sixty persons were left without a house in which to worship. They resolved to build a new
frame church after the modern style, and appointed John Mowry, J. G. Marshal, and John C. Hoss as a building
committee, and selected John Negley as a suitable person to raise the funds. In due time the necessary money was
secured, and the building erected in the year 1868 upon seventy-two square rods of ground donated to the church
society by Hezekiah Ringer out of the southwest corner of his farm in Lawrence township. The church building was
dedicated in 1868 immediately upon its completion. The dedicatory sermon was delivered by Rev. Samuel Sprecher,
CD., of Springfield, Ohio, the then president of Wittenburg College. The Rev. Jacob Keller, the pastor at the time of
the separation of the church, went with the Upper settlement and continued their pastor two years, until 1870. The
old book of the original organization was kept by the congregation of the upper settlement. The congregation at
present numbers forty-one active members. The pastors since 1868 have been as follows: Jacob Keller, 2 years;
E. Fair, 1 year; J. Boone, 2 years; Wm. H. Keller, 5 years; and Obadiah Brown, 1 year. The last named is the present
minister. Harrison Ringer and George Mowry are the elders, and Elijah Mowry and George W. Pressly are the deacons.
There was no reorganization of this body after the division in the church; it was by the terms stipulated in the articles
of agreement a continuation of the original body.
The Oakland Christian Church was organized May 1, 1866, with a membership of one hundred and thirty-eight, and 
occupied the Universalist Church building one year thereafter. In 1868 the class erected the present frame building,
and dedicated it the same year. Rev. David Franklin, of Madison County, Ind., delivered the dedicatory sermon.
Christopher Apple took the most active part in the building of the church. He contributed all the material that went
into the building and three hundred dollars in money. The first preacher was W. V. Trowbridge, and the first trustees
were Christopher Apple, Sylvester Vanlaningham, and Daniel Jordan. Newton Wilson, of Irvington, is the minister
at present, and John W. Apple and Henry Apple are the trustees. The church has fifty-eight active members.
Sabbath-school has been held every Sunday during the past fifteen years, a most remarkable incident for a country
The Lawrence Baptist Church. The Baptists in the southwestern portion of the township held their meetings for a few 
years at the residences of various persons of that religious faith, notably at Milton Woolen's cabin, Parsley's cabin,
and George G. F. Boswell's cabin. It was at the cabin of George G. F. Boswell, on the third Friday in May, 1848, that
these people formed an organization and constituted themselves the Lawrence Township Baptist Church. About that
time the congregation built a frame meeting-house on the farm of Milton Woolen, one and one-half miles due west
of the town of Lawrence. Milton Woolen, the founder of the church, donated the ground for the site and obtained the
pastors. The following persons were very enthusiastic in the building of the church: Milton Woolen, George G. F.
Boswell, Wilson Hartsock, Moses Winters, and Moses Dunn. The following were the ministers in the frame church,
viz.: John S. Gillespie, Michael White, Madison Hume, ----- Stewart, and Josiah H. Razor. About the year 1860 the
congregation abandoned the church on the Woolen land and went to the town of Lawrence, and for several years
thereafter held their meetings in the school-house. A portion of the time they were without a meeting-place and
without a pastor. In the year 1872 the present brick edifice was erected in Robinson & Co.'s addition to Lawrence,
and on the opposite side of the Pendleton road from old Lanesville. When the congregation occupied the new brick
it had but five members that belonged to the church when its meetings were held in the old frame on the Woolen farm.
The new brick was dedicated in the year 1875, the Rev. John S. Gillespie preaching the dedicatory sermon. The Rev.
R. N. Harvey has been the pastor for eight years, and is in charge at the present time.
The Third Regular Baptist Church of Jesus Christ, on Fall Creek, was organized on Saturday, July 28, 1838, when the 
following delegates from the churches named met in council at the residence of Madison Webb, on the “correction line,"
one-fourth of a mile west of Fall Creek, and constituted themselves a regular Baptist Church, viz.: T. Woolen, from
Indianapolis; Elder Madison Hume, Thomas Oliphant, and David Stoops, from Crooked Creek; Harris Tyner, John
Griffis, and John Perry, from Pleasant Run, and adopted articles of faith and a constitution, and the following persons
declared members of a legally constituted regular Baptist Church, viz.: John Giilman and Mary, his wife, Madison Webb,
Webb, Nancy Morrison, and Elizabeth Hardin. Madison Hume was chosen moderator at the organization, and served
in that capacity for eight years and six months, and Madison Webb was selected at the same time as clerk, and served
for seventeen years, until his death. John Gilman was the first deacon. The church held regular services once per month,
as follows: from July, 1838, to August, 1842, and from September, 1843, to April, 1857, on the third Saturday in each
month; from August, 1842, to September, 1843, on the fourth Saturday in each month; and from April, 1857, to the
disorganization, on the first Saturday in each month.
The church held its meetings at the residences of many of its members, but principally at Madison Webb's, until 1844, 
when the congregation built a Hewed log house, costing one hundred and sixty-nine dollars and seventy-three cents.
It was erected on top of the Johnson Hill, on the land now owned by John E. Myles, and the members of the church
worshiped there until the dissolution of the church in 1859. Madison Webb and Jesse Herrin contributed sixty-seven
dollars and twenty-four dollars respectively; said sums being more than one-half of the building funds. Madison Webb,
Jesse Herrin, and Robert Stoops were the first trustees. The membership of the church increased rapidly from the first
organization. At one time there were ninety names on the roll.
In July, 1842, the church connected themselves with the Indianapolis General Association. From June, 1851, till May, 
1853, the church was without a pastor. However, W. M. Davis, of Bloomington, and John Jones, of Stilesville, preached
twice each. The following is a list of the pastors of the church from date of organization, with time of service: Madison
Hume, 8 1/2 years; E. B. Smith, 2 years; Michael White, 2 years; J. S. Gillespie, 2 years; H. Keeler, 1 year; D. S. Cothren,
1 year; E. B. Tomlinson, 1 year; and R. Vickers, 1 year.
On the first Saturday in October, 1859, the church was dissolved by a unanimous vote of the members, giving as their 
reason that the church was scattered and discouraged, and unable “to have preaching and keep up necessary expenses."
Letters of dismissal were granted to those who wished them, and it was resolved that when the house ceased to be used
for a good purpose that it, together with the furniture, be sold, and the proceeds divided equally between those accepting
letters of dismissal. On Saturday, March 30, 1861, the meeting-house and contents was sold by the trustees. Afterwards
the house was rented and occupied as a dwelling-house, and finally became a rendezvous for disreputable characters of
both sexes. They were notified by a gathering of more than one hundred persons to vacate the premises, and refusing to
do so, the citizens met at night, stoned the building, smashed in the windows, and battered down the door. They still
refused to leave, so one dark night about 1861 some unknown person set fire to the building, and it was totally destroyed.

The Oakland Universalist Church was organized in 1850, with twenty-five members. A frame church was built the same
year, and during the summer of 1875 the present brick structure was erected. The present membership is about one
hundred. The following have been regular pastors since the organization: ----- Longley, 1 year; ----- Oyler, 1 year; W. W.
Curry, 2 years; ----- Babcock, 1 year; ----- Mitchell, 8 or 9 years; B. P. Foster, 1 year; ----- Adams, 1 year; William
Chaplain, 1 year; ----- Cronley, 1 year; ----- Adams, 1 year. The following itinerant preachers have preached at the church
at divers times, viz.: Revs. Kidwell and J. D. Williamson. The church is without a regular pastor much of the time. The
first trustees were Charles McConnell, J. N. Reddick, and ----- McCord.
This denomination has the finest and best church building, the largest membership, and is in the most flourishing 
condition in every particular of any in the township.
The first Universalist society was formed in the township about the year 1838. 
Aged People of the Township. — In the year 1883 the following persons over seventy years of age resided in the 
township, viz.: William Horton, of Oakland, was born in North Carolina, and is the oldest, being 102; Lewis Griffith,
87; Edmund Newhouse, 85; Solomon Bowers, 86; David Clare, 83; Jacob Kesselring, 85; Benjamin Newhouse, 86;
Jeremiah Vanlaningham, 85; Robert White, 82; Jesse Herrin, 83; Elisha Reddick, 86; John Tate, 80; S. W. Crutchfield,
73; Daniel Fox, 70; Charles Faucett, 74; John Hughes (colored), 73; George Klepfer, 77; Jonah F. Lemon, 72; Simeon
Mock, 70; Granville Morgan, 77; John Newhouse, 76; William Perry, 72; John Plummer, 73; Samuel Plummer, 78;
John Smith, 73; Andrew Smith, 78; William S. Thomas, 77; John T. Thomas, 78; Clark Wait, 70.
Sulgrove, B. R., History of Indianapolis and Marion County, Indiana, Philadelphia:  L.H. Everts & Co., 1884, 785 pgs., pgs. 534-575