For the the last 30 years, I have continued to discover and revalidate that everything done in the hospitality industry affects one of these three Ps in varying degrees.
Each of these 3 Ps -- or combination thereof -- will be influenced (affected) by one or more "players". So who are these "players"?
Immediately outside the hospitality operation there may be stockholders, owners, and corporate headquarters. These entities often carry the greatest amount of leverage when it comes to decision-making or policy changes.
From within the operation are the General Manager (GM) and the department heads. There is less likelihood that these players influence policy changes -- if anything, they are responsible for implementing policy. They probably exert the greatest amount of influence not directly to customers, but indirectly through their 1st line supervisors.
I believe it is the 1st line supervisors who influence the 3 Ps more than anyone else. The 1st line supervisors are in daily contact with the front line employees who have daily guest contact: the phone operator, reservations clerk, front desk staff, bell persons, waiter and waitress, bartender, housekeeping maid or houseman, gardener, and custodial worker.