Marine Engineering Knowledge


Welcome and Thanks


Now your search For


Marine Engineering


Knowledge is over


Now available Books 

For Class 4, 2, C/Eng





Click on the link below to  
Download the 




Function: Marine Engineering at Management Level


M.E.O. Class I




At Management Level

            Solved Past Paper 

Function: At Operational Level

Objective type Q&A 

Not uscg Q




Naval architecture Q & A

Marine Engineering  Practice Q & A

Electrical Q&A

Safety Q & A





International access code + country code + area code 

8-digit landline number/mobile no

International access code + 91+22+9867261732   




 Sample of point for orals







Site Meter

Hail Mary.




Pl Check out my new site

 Marine Engineering Knowledge center.




Engineering Knowledge General




Email id –

To buy this book pl contact.

676 Question and




Engineering Knowledge General




Report & Report writing



Steering gear, shafting & propeller












Air comp




Engine Room Systems




Freshwater gen














Ships hull/Fittings










UMS op



Fire & Safety
















Report & Report writing




The vessel of which you are 2nd engineer suffers grounding

Describe the survey and inspection which you will carry out at the next dry docking of the vessel in a foreign port.





As a Chief Engineer on a fully loaded ship you are stranded in an island near, the UK coast having no survey facility where the forepeak of the vessel is severely damaged. Explain your actions with reasons and the procedures to be adopted for making a safe return voyage to India.




Your vessel, which had recently been dry docked, is showing a significant increase in fuel oil consumption. Frame a report, in the format of an e-mail message, addressed to the Engineer Superintendent. Discuss the related inspections made, findings established and suggestions for repair, if any.




While approaching dock gates, the main engines refused to respond to bridge control, driving ahead instead of braking astern, until the bow made contact with the dock wall.

As Chief Engineer, report to head office why the engines failed to respond to Bridge control, the temporary measure instituted to avoid further trouble on this voyage and suggesting permanent measures to avoid repetition in the future.



You are the chief engineer of a vessel that has suffered a minor fire in the engine room that burned off the wiring to essential pumps. Temporary repairs were made to get the vessel underway. Write a letter to the company head office describing the incident as to how the fire took place and what corrective and preventive steps have you taken. What arrangements do you suggest to affect a permanent repair at the next port of call?



The vessel of which you are Chief Engineer suffers grounding. Write a report to be forwarded to the Superintendent of the company about the surveys and inspections subsequently carried out when the vessel was dry-docked in a foreign port.



As Chief Engineer Officer appointed to a newly acquired older vessel, compile a list of all the checks that would be required of the ships steering gear and associated equipment, given that no handover from the previous owners had taken place.




A propeller shaft bearing is found to be running hot whilst a vessel is on a long passage. As Chief Engineer write a report to head office outlining the actions that were taken to complete the voyage safely.





You as C/E are requested to inform your company with respect to inspection of propeller in drydock during which you noticed a surface crack on one of the blades.

State the steps taken by you as C/E for successful handling of the situation.





A Vessel Has Suffered a Complete Breakdown of propulsion and was towed into port.

The company wishing to avoid a repetition of such an incident has requested advice concerning the provision of ancillary get home facility for single screw vessel.

As chief engineer of a sister vessel write a report outlining possible solutions.





A company proposes to order a vessel with a main engine that is capable of being reversed and with a controllable pitch propeller. As Chief Engineer serving on a similar vessel write a letter to the company's Superintendent Engineer stating the advantages of the provision of a controllable pitch propeller compared with the added complication and expense.





Whilst on a vessel is on passage it is discovered that two coupling bolts on the main shaft line flange have broken due to fracture of the threads close to the flange. The nuts together with the broken thread ends are found lying in the bilge. The bolts are of the oversize, interference type fit.

Write a report to the Superintendent Engineer, outlining the possible causes and solution





A shipping company is investigating the possibility of converting a vessel from a traditionally manned engine room to UMS (Unattended Machinery Space) operations.

As Chief Engineer sailing of the vessel write a letter to the Superintendent Engineer listing the essential requirements for UMS classification and any additional work required.




As a prerequisite to its promotion programme, the head office of your company requests prospective Chief Engineer Officers to submit a letter, detailing the responsibilities of a Chief Engineer. As an aspiring Chief Engineer Officer compile such a letter.




It has been found necessary to completely replenish all of the oil in the lubricating system of a large motor ship (or steam turbine ship). As Chief Engineer, write a detailed report to the Superintendent





You have recently been appointed 2nd eng of a vessel and have experienced problems associated with the operation of oily water separator.

Write a report to the engineering superintendent covering the same 




Whilst on a passage a localized but intense FIRE IN THE MACHINERY SPACES irreparably damaged the power cables feeding certain essential pumps. Temporary repairs enabled the vessel to make port. As Chief Engineer write a report to the head office explaining the circumstances of the incident and outline the permanent repairs deemed necessary.




Complaints have been received by your shipping company from the charterers who are threatening penalties, concerning the SLOW RATE OF CARGO DISCHARGE at some ports.

The vessel is a chemical carrier with centrifugal cargo pumps.

(a) As Chief engineer, describe your investigation to determine the cause of the problem.

(b)  Assuming the pumps were found to be satisfactory condition, explain the most likely caused of the problem.

(c) What action would you take to prevent such problems arising in the future?




You have been appointed as Second Engineer to a new vessel that experiences severe aft end vibration.  The problem is thought to emanate from the propeller. The company, which is inexperienced in the operation of ships, requests you to investigate the problem. Describe the causes of the vibration and suggest remedies including the selection of a new propeller with a different number of blades.




You have been appointed as the Second Engineer of an eight years old vessel; recently purchased by your shipping company. Write a report to the engineering superintendent covering the inspection of main propulsion machinery carried out by you to ensure its trouble free operation.




You have been appointed as Second Engineer of an older vessel which is in dry-dock and recently been purchased by your shipping company. Describe, in detail about your inspection, to ensure that the equipments on board ship related to safety equipment (equipments related to fire fighting and life saving) survey are satisfactorily complied with.




Suggest a procedure to the chief engineer on how you propose to ensure that the engine room overhead crane is maintained and operated correctly

What test certificate is required for overhead crane and who is the issuing authority




You have been appointed as the Second Engineer-of an fifteen years old bull carrier, recently purchased by your shipping company. Exhaust and auxiliary boilers, are due for survey and requires extensive repairs.

Write a report to the engineering superintendent with respect to the inspection carried out and the defects observed, also give details of repairs to be carried out for the safe operation of the boilers.





You have recently joined a vessel as Second Engineer Officer. For the past several voyages it has been the practice on board to dispense with the use of the exhaust gas boiler and leave it to ran dry.

As part of an overall economy drive the company has requested you to re-commission the boiler.

Write a letter to the Superintendent Engineer stating how the boiler was brought on line and the safety valves adjusted




In view of the number of fatalities involving inert gas used for fire fighting purposes, your company is considering alternative methods of protection for the machinery spaces. As Second Engineer compile a letter to the company expressing your views for the retention or rejection of inert gas systems and   stating your opinions on viable alternative systems.




A new vessel exhibits severe after end vibration.

 (a)      As Chief Engineer, outline a procedure to investigate and; identify the source of the vibration.         

 (b)      Suggest possible remedies to obviate/reduce aft end vibration.  





The vessel on which you are serving as Second Engineer develops an oil leak from the stern tube aft oil seal whilst on voyage.   Write a letter to the owners of the vessel regarding the incident, describing the temporary emergency measures taken to stop the oil leak in order to allow the vessel to enter Indian territorial waters for cargo discharge and dry docking without contravening MARPOL 1973/78. Also information about the cause of the oil leak and the action to be taken in dry dock to rectify it may be mentioned.




A junior engineer has been badly burned by a "blow back" from the oil fired auxiliary boiler. As Second engineer, make a full report to Head office explaining the circumstances of the incident and the precautionary means now taken to reduce the possibility of a similar occurrence in the future.




During a loaded sea passage an unusual noise followed by excessive vibrations were experienced in the engine room of your vessel while she was underway. Vessel is fitted with a four bladed propeller directly coupled to a 2 stroke Diesel engine: Engine room is located aft. After preliminary investigation and from the engine parameters, you have come to the conclusion that propeller has sustained damage.

Write a letter to your company reporting this incidence and justification for your conclusion suggesting future course of action.




Marine refrigeration plant for ships provision has a breakdown due to the negligence during charging the system.

Give reasons for the breakdown, the method of repair and the action taken to prevent a recurrence.




The vessel upon which you are engaged as Chief Engineer is fitted with folding fin stabilisers. A similar vessel operated by the company has dispensed with the use of stabilisers and had plates welded over the fin boxes. The Superintendent Engineer proposes to carry out the same, procedure on your vessel. Write a letter to the company stating, with reasons, whether you agree or disagree with this proposal.



As Chief Engineer prepare Standing orders for working with gas cutting and gas welding equipment, including the storage of gas bottles.




As Chief Engineer serving on a vessel submit an overview in the form of a written report of the current status of the vessel regarding environmental pollution. The report should prioritise the factors that pertain to the vessel and outline possible solutions.




As Chief Engineer Officer, write a report to the Superintendent Engineer listing recommendation for the safety precautions to be adopted when serving accommodation lifts,     




The company that employs you is considering changing from a planned maintenance system at present on its vessels to a condition monitoring system. As Chief Engineer submit a report to the Engineering Superintendent outlining the advantages and disadvantages of this strategy             




You had to discharge to shore 200 tonnes of emulsified and contaminated fuel oil. 

You had attempted to regrevate and purify this oil but were unsuccessful. 

Write a report to your head office explaining the above, how the oil became emulsified and contaminated, and what steps have been taken to prevent a re-occurrence.





During a river passage the propeller of a light ship is rotating at dead slow revolutions ahead when it strikes a large floating object causing a momentary drop in engine revolutions. As the Second  Engineer of the vessel describe in report format the inspection of the vessel's propulsion and transmission system, that you would supervise to ensure it is safe for the vessel to continue its voyage   Assume that the vessel is anchored and that no outside assistance is available.




The vessel where you are posted as Chief Engineer is undergoing dry-docking and a serious fire occurs on the deck because of welding work. Illustrate the documented procedures to deal with such emergency and its advantage over non-documented actions? Explain the different ship related contingencies against which document procedures are maintained under emergency preparedness of ISM Codes. In case of a major pollution of oil from a ship how best the contingency plans in emergency preparedness help over other actions.




As a chief engineer Prepare a risk assessment for the task of overhauling of main engine unit in rough weather keeping in mind all the mandatory requirement.




As a Chief Engineer Officer write a report to a shipping company concerning the outbreak of a major machinery space fire. The report should include the cause of the fire, the actions taken to extinguish the fire and the measures to prevent a possible reoccurrence                                            




When a vessel is in dry dock, the possible risk of fire in the machinery spaces are heightened due to the nature of the work being carried out.

As Chief Engineer, compile a set of standing orders instructing ships staff on the actions to be taken should a serious fire occur in dry dock,




A machinery space fire has been extinguished and the vessel is now proceeding on voyage. As the Chief Engineer Officer of the vessel, write a letter to the company's Superintendent Engineer concerning the circumstances attending the fire.




As Chief Engineer, compile a set of standing orders instructing ships' staff on the actions to be taken should a serious fire occur in dry dock.



Oil spill incident took place in your last ship during bunkering operation. Write a report to your chief engineer 

Giving detail of the following

Description of the incident

Reason for occurrence.

Lesson learnt to avoid re occurrence.






You have been appointed as the Chief Engineer of an older vessel which is in dry-dock and recently been purchased by your shipping company.  Describe, in a letter to the Engineering Superintendent, your inspection to ensure that the conditions of assignment are satisfactorily complied with.




Back to top







State the indication that main boiler generating tube is leaking

When the amount is small.

When the amount is large.

If boiler tube failure is evident describe immediate action necessary to stabilize plant.





Discuss, with reference to the super heater outlet temperature of a main boiler operating at a constant load, the following statements:

An increase in excess air will tend to cause a decrease in super heater outlet temperature due to the cooling effect of more air being introduced.

A decrease in economizer inlet temperature will tend to cause a decrease in super heater outlet temperature due to the cooling effect of more water being introduced.

Badly fouled generating tube banks will cause an increase in the super heater outlet temperature.

Excessive amounts of total dissolved solids in the boiler water will cause variations in the super heater outlet temperature.






Describe with the aid of sketch the operation of Boiler feed water regulator controlled by at least 2 other parameter beside water level in the drum.

Give reason for the inclusion of the other element beside water level in controlling feed flow

Describe the possible effect when the drain valve on the constant head leg in the level transmitter starts to leak




Various tests are carried out on material used for boiler construction. With reference to these tests, explain the following terms (1) elongation (2) yield point (3) area reduction (4) ultimate stress.





a)     List SIX alarms/trips that are fitted on an auxiliary boiler, describing how each would be tested.

b)     Describe how the safety valves would be tested under working conditions.





Sketch and describe a cargo space inert gas system producing washed gas from either a main boiler or from an independent gas generator module.

Elaborate the alarms and cut-outs incorporated in the system to prevent any accident.

Explain the various protections for cargo tanks with respect to pressure vacuum build up inside the tanks.





a)    Sketch a line diagram of an autonomous inert gas generator. b)    Explain the operation of the system sketched.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of an inert gas smothering system from flue compared to an inert gas generator.

Explain why inert gas is more advantageous.

Why it is unsuitable for use in machinery spaces.





Describe how you would test boiler water for:



State the values obtained from the tests that would be considered suitable for a water tube boiler. 

If the test results were unsatisfactory, what remedial action would you take?





a)     State with reasons, why water treatment is used for auxiliary bolters, even when they make use of distilled feed water.

b)     Explain the possible consequences of excessive boiler water treatment.





Draw line diagram of a feed water system for an auxiliary boiler, labeling all the principal items and showing the direction of flow.

Explain how feed supply to the boiler is regulated? Explain rising water level characteristics of level control.

State what preventive and corrective measures may be taken if oil contamination of the feed water takes place?

State what means are provided to prevent oil contamination of the feed water.




(a)  State the standing instruction you, as Second Engineer, would issue with respect to the action to be taken in the event of a boiler uptake fire.

(b)  State how the incidence of uptake fires may be minimized.

(c) State the reasons for blow-back from the furnace of an auxiliary boiler.

(d)  State the standing instruction you, as Second Engineer, would issue with respect to the avoidance of boiler furnace blow-back.





Describe the boiler fuel burning system and indicate the effect of the following

Air supply insufficient

Air supply excessive

Presence of water in oil

Excessively high oil temperature





With regards to keeping the gas side of a boiler in good condition discuss each of the following

The mechanism of combustion stating the factors which are important for good combustion

Fuel oil treatment

Soot removal equipment.





Describe the following conditions are prevented in auxiliary boilers

Feed contamination by oil heating coil drains

Internal corrosion

Furnace blowback

Uptake fire

Furnace distortion

Difficulty in maintaining normal water level.





Explain why regular testing of water in auxiliary boiler is desirable

For each test i.e. is carried out

Reason for making test

Acceptable values for any particular type of boiler

Action to be taken if measured value differs from desired value.





State the risk from hard and soft water

Describe 5 test that are carried out on board

Why regular blow down and make up of content is essential





 (a) With respect to auxiliary boiler water level maintenance and indication, describe, with the aid   of sketches, the sensing devices for:

(i)     A feed pump control;                                                                                       

(ii)    Local water level;                                                                                           

(iii)  Remote water level,                                                                                         

(iv)   Low and high water level alarms.                                                                     





Sketch an auxiliary boiler 'blow down' valve.

Explain how it differs from its shipside counterpart.

Describe the sequence of 'blow down' procedure.





Where an inspection of steam drum of a waste heat boiler indicates pitting in certain areas.

State with reasons the possible causes of such pitting. Explain how a safe operating pressure might be determined if the boiler must be operated in such a condition.

State how the defect might be corrected and future incident minimised.





Describe how to 'blow down’ and 'open up' an boiler for inspection.

 Identify with reasons those parts which normally require especially close examination during internal inspection.





a. What type of valve are boiler feed check valves and why.

b. Action you would take as a watch keeping officer if there is no water in gauge glass after blowing down.

c. What type of water test would you do on a low pressure auxiliary boiler?





Explain the term water hammer indicating possible effect on the system

State how the risk of water hammer may be avoided

State with reasons why testing and treatment of boiler water is essential

State with reason how boiler problem may be minimized if no water treatment is immediately available and a stem supply must be maintained





A fire in the exhaust gas boiler on a motor ship may develop in two or three stages. With reference to such situations, discuss:

(a)The factors which could be a cause for initiation and development of:

(i)Ignition of soot

(ii)Small soot fires;

(iii)High temperature fires

(b)State the standing instructions you, as Second Engineer Officer, would issue with respect to the action to be taken in the event of a boiler uptake fire.





Give a description of an automatic soot blower system for a water-tube boiler. Show on a diagram the layout of the system and the order of operation you would expect the blowers to follow.





Describe three different types of tube used for exhaust gas boilers.

Give two reasons why a tube would be condemned.

How would a leaking tube to be rectified?

How can the operating efficiency of an exhaust gas boiler be maintained at an acceptable level?

Suggest with reasons the possible cause of allowing an exhaust gas boiler to run dry during full power operation of engine.





Sketch and describe a boiler water level controller of the float type

State the reason for having this mechanism on the boiler and using the controller and boiler for analogy explain the following terms

Desired value, Servo motor, Detecting element





An auxiliary boiler water level control system has a differential pressure transmitter as the detecting element for water level.

(a)  Sketch and describe such an arrangement.                                                                

(b) If the transmitter was damaged describe how a replacement unit would be calibrated.





With reference to an air operated fuel oil control valve for an auxiliary boiler combustion system:

 (a)  Sketch the valve, labelling the component parts;

 (b)  State the effect of air supply failure;

 (c) Describe how the valve can be operated manually; 

 (d) State the factors, which require a positioner to be fitted.





With regards to the safety valve fitted to a boiler

State why an easing gear is fitted

Discuss the conditions under which easing gear may be used

State the precaution that may have to be taken during the use of easing gear

State why an open drain from the valve is considered necessary

Outline the protection the valve has against being tampered.






With reference to feed and content of auxiliary boiler explain significance of hardness, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved solid.

State what are the likely consequences of neglecting any one of these factors.





With respect to main boiler super heater arrangements:

Compare the advantages and disadvantages of contra flow with parallel flow design

Describe how the element tube banks are supported yet allow for expansion

Describe how boiler carryover affects super heater effectiveness and condition.





Explain the concept of pH and the significance of its value in boiler water chemical conditioning.

State, why the pH value for the condensate is at a different value to that for the boiler.





Describe the effect of Fresh water feed on auxiliary boiler

Describe the measures taken to reduce Fresh water feed effects on auxiliary boiler.

Describe FIVE principle boiler water tests stating the reason for EACH;





 (a) Describe the procedure to be adopted for the inspection of a safety valve fitted to an exhaust gas fired auxiliary boiler stating, with reasons, which parts should receive particularly close attention.

 (b)Describe the procedure for the setting of safety valves of exhaust gas fired auxiliary boilers.

 (c) Explain the action taken after the setting of safety valves as in (b).





Sketch a high lift safety valve and seat detailing their special features

Describe how such a valve is overhauled and any clearance that should be measured and noted.






Sketch and describe an auxiliary boiler safety valve;

Explain which areas of the valve described above, require particularly close attention during overhaul;

Describe how the valves are set after overhaul





With reference to an air operated fuel oil control valve for an auxiliary boiler combustion system:

 (a)  Sketch the valve, labelling the component parts;

 (b)  State the effect of air supply failure;

 (c) Describe how the valve can be operated manually; 

 (d) State the factors, which require a positioner to be fitted.





Corrosion is a serious problem in a boiler.

Discuss various forms of corrosion & its effects on a boiler.

Describe treatments, which can minimize this phenomenon during service and during extended lay up.






Give reason why even moderately rated auxiliary boilers require regular attention to both feed and boiler water condition

Suggest with reason the possible consequences if this attention is neglected.





Describe how you as C/E would prepare an aux boiler for a class survey.





Give possible reasons for the following in boiler water test result and state what action should be taken

When total dissolved solids and chemical reserves are reducing

When phosphate reserve is reducing but chlorinity and TDS are increasing

When alkalinity reserve is only reducing

When oxygen level only is increasing.





With reference to auxiliary boiler describe the procedure which should be adopted in the under mentioned cases and in addition explain the possible consequences if certain incorrect actions are taken.

            a. Boiler oil burner found to be extinguished,

            b. Boiler water level not showing in gauge glass.





(a) With reference to boiler, enumerate general requirements for instrumentation and automation.

 (b) Describe in detail oil burner control system.





With regard to the membrane wall construction in main boilers

(a) State the reasons for its introduction

(b) State, with reasons, the main factors that govern the relationships between the pitch, diameters and thickness of the tubes used

(c ) Describe how large membrane panels are supported and prevented from vibrating

(d) Explain why the water treatment used in this type of boiler is considered to be more critical than in the tangent tube construction.





What parts of a boiler would normally be damaged first by shortage of water.

When fires are banked or dampers closed and

When boiler is raising steam.

Describe the portable damage and the method of repair to be adopted in each case.





With reference to cargo tanks of oil tanker

The purpose of pressure vacuum valve

Sketch a high velocity vent

Describe the operation of this vent and why such a device is used


The dangers of venting during the loading via open tank hatches

Why the pressure / vacuum valve is not used for venting





 (a)      Sketch and describe a cargo space inert gas system producing washed gas from either a main boiler or from an independent gas generator module.

 (b)     Why is the inert gas producing system you have described not suitable for a machinery space fixed fire fighting system?



Sketch an inert gas system for an oil tanker and explain its operation

Why is inert gas system you have described not suitable for machinery space fixed fire fighting system

Already done.


State how it is ensured that a positive pressure is maintained during cargo discharge.





Sketch a combustion gas system, suitable for inerting the cargo spaces of a vessel.

Describe the operation of this system.

State the percentage analysis by volume of the inert gas generated by the system in Question (a).




Sketch and describe a cargo space inert gas system producing washed gas from either a main boiler or from an independent gas generator module.

Elaborate the alarms and cut-outs incorporated in the system to prevent any accident.

Explain the various protections for cargo tanks with respect to pressure vacuum build up inside the tanks.




W.r.t. the carriage of crude oil and its associated products

Sketch an explosimeter or combustion gas indicator which can be used to check the atmosphere of a tank or pumproom.

ii) Describe the explosimeter and its operation

iii) State reason that may cause the explosimeter to give a false reading

b) For flammable mixtures, explain the meaning of the terms lower and upper flammable limits




(a)  State the advantages of using steam turbine propulsion power for vessels carrying L.N.G. cargo

(b)  With regard to the use of L.N.G. cargo as boiler fuel explain;

(i) The safety precautions relating to the gas pipeline supplying the boiler and burning the gas in the boiler;

(ii) The Means of getting rid of excess cases during loading or discharge.



With reference to LNG explain the inspection you will carry out on the following equipment

LNG Vapouriser

Regassification plant

Cargo Pump

Emergency discharge pump.



Identify the safety system and equipment installed on board LNG carrier for safe passage of LNG cargo

What is the test required

Identify at least two non standard operating condition

State remedial action you will take in a timely and safe manner.



With respect to tankers describe;

How cargo tanks are ventilated.                                                                                 

Additional alarms provided for inert gas systems of the 'inert gas generator’ type. 



With reference to Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Carriers, describe the following

 (a)  Emergency shut down system.                                                                                     

 (b)  Gas detection system-fixed and portable.



With respect to tankers describe.                             

(a)  How a pump room is ventilated?                                                                                        

(b) How cargo tanks are ventilated?                                                                                       

(c)  The main problem of carrying liquefied natural gas.                                                              

(d) How the boil off from liquefied natural gas is handled?



Discuss the use of waste heat boilers in motor ships.



Sketch and describe a Composite boiler suitable for producing low pressure steam for auxiliary purposes.



Sketch and describe a waste heat recovery system including an exhaust gas boiler, capable of supplying the auxiliary steam requirements of a motor ship.



Discuss the functions of drums and headers as used in water tube boilers.



Give the various types of tubes used in water tube boilers, together with their main functions.



Discuss with respect to the efficient operation of economisers the importance of maintaining both the gas and water temperatures at their correct values.



Enumerate the boiler mountings fitted to a water tube boiler. State the purpose of each fitting and any special design features involved.



Sketch and describe a water level indicator suitable for boilers operating at low pressures.



Describe how you would test a water level gauge of tubular type to ensure it is indicating a correct level. State the various causes for a false reading.



Enumerate the faults to which direct reading gauge glasses of tubular type are subject.

Explain the effect these faults will have upon the level indicated in the glass.



Sketch and describe a water level indicator suitable for boilers working in the medium pressure range.



Sketch and describe a type of water level indicator suitable for use on high pressure water tube boilers.



Sketch and describe a remote reading type water level indicator suitable for a high pressure water tube boiler.



Sketch and describe a low water alarm suitable for a water tube boiler. State the means of operation, and why these alarms must be fitted to water tube boilers.



Sketch and describe an electrically operated low/high water level alarm and cut-out



Describe the process by which a residual fuel oil is burnt in a boiler furnace.



Sketch and describe an air register suitable for the supply of combustion air to the furnace of a water tube boiler.



Describe a fuel oil system from the settling tanks to, but not including, the burners.



Discuss the use of refractory materials in boilers.



Sketch and describe a soot blower suitable for fitting to a water tube boiler. State why they are fitted.



Describe the process of raising steam from cold on a Scotch boiler.



Describe the procedure for opening up a Scotch boiler.

What inspections-should be carried out before the Boiler is again boxed up?



State the regulations concerning the hydraulic testing of a Scotch boiler.

Describe how you would carry out such a test.



Describe a procedure for closing up, and then raising steam on a water tube Boiler.



Describe the procedure for carrying out a hydraulic test on a water tube boiler. To what pressure would you subject the boiler for purpose of testing?



Give the basic survey procedure to be carried out on a marine boiler.



Discuss some of the common problems that can arise in the operation of marine Boiler



State a basic procedure to be followed for the cleaning of a boiler after a period of service.



What is the importance of controlling the hot well temperature   of an auxiliary boiler?

How are the auxiliary boilers cleaned on motor ships?



Explain the expression "turn-down ratio" of a boiler burner and its importance to automatic control of boilers.

Describe two methods of controlling the output of a burner and indicate the type of burner suitable for these methods of control.



a. What are the critical factors taken into consideration in evaluating the options of fitting either partial or total reliquefication plant in a large LNG carrier?

b. Sketch a partial reliquefication plant and explain why it is used on the ballast voyage?



With reference to Sea water contamination of a packaged system Boiler,

State two dissolved solids that are troublesome

What signs apart from internal inspection may indicate that a boiler is heavily scaled.

If, with a badly scaled boiler, operation is to be continued for a few days, suggest the means to reduce the danger.

What are the dangers of operating a boiler that is fully scaled?



Specify with reason the PRECAUTIONS TAKEN IN AUXILIARY BOILERS during:

Flashing up from cold.           

Blow up down the boiler and removal of the doors prior to internal inspection



How are the Auxiliary and exhaust gas BOILERS CLEANED on Motor ships?

On operational boilers, contamination can be grouped under:

(1) Oil and grease (2) Water scale (3) Iron and copper oxides.



Sketch and describe the operation of a reliquefication plant for an lpg carrier.

Enumerate the precaution and observation to be carried out before starting during running and after stopping the plant.



Back to top





Steering gear.


With respect to steering gear answer the following

Explain with a diagram a fail safe steering gear suitable for use on a tanker of more than 100000 t dwt.

Explain the sequence of event that take place when an oil leak takes place in one of the hydraulic pipe lines.






What provision is made to avoid damage to steering engines when they are situated adjacent to the rudder stock?

Describe a steering system showing how it is controlled from bridge

What is hunting gear?

Describe its action,’






Describe how you would remove air from a telemotor system. What are the dangers of air in a telemotor system?





With reference to ram type electro-hydraulic steering gears explain:

Why in electro-hydraulic steering gears four rams are provided in many instances.

With sketches the arrangement of the crosshead rapson slide and its principle of operation

Why the telemotor receiver is spring loaded and the effect on steering of spring failure






The steering gear operation of a vessel that recently experienced a heavy storm is found to be abnormally sluggish:

a)     State FOUR reasons for possible malfunction of the gear;

b)     State the corrective actions that may be carried out at sea that will allow the vessel to continue to the nearest port;

c)     Explain the tests that should be carried out prior to returning the gear to service.





State possible causes of EACH of the following faults that may occur during the testing of the steering gear:

a.     Rudder moves jerkily when stroked from port to starboard and visa-versa;

b.     Response is very slow;

c.     Rudder moves to full extent when swung to starboard but only 25 degrees to port and the relief valves lift:

d.     The gear operates noisily.





With reference to large rotary vane steering gear:

     Explain how the rotary vanes are fixed to the rotor;

     Explain how the fixed vanes are secured to the stator;

     Explain why there is a difference in the mode of fixture between fixed and moving vanes;   

     Explain how vertical movement of the rudder is accommodated.





With reference to large rotary vane steering gear:

a.     State the regulations pertaining to the main and auxiliary steering gear with reference to EACH of the following:

(1)        Rudder angle and time of operation; (2)       Electrical supply.

b.     Explain how the steering capability can be maintained following the loss of bridge steering control.






With reference to large rotary vane steering gear:

a)   State FOUR reasons why the temperature of oil in the Steering gear system may become excessive.

b)     State, with reasons, THREE desirable properties of a steering gear oil,

c)     Explain how the steering gear is recharged with oil.






With reference to a ram type steering gear, explain how it may be determined that defective steering gear may be due to EACH of the following, stating the immediate actions that should be taken to maintain steering capability:

a)     A twisted rudder stock;

b)     Worn pump in.

c)     Air in the system.






With reference to large rotary vane steering gear:

a.      Describe the testing of the steering gear systems prior to a vessel leaving port.

        State what other tests, in addition to those described could be carried out whilst at sea to comply with regulations.

b.     With reference to steering systems, explain EACH of the following:

(1)        Why rudder movement is restricted;

(2)       Why telemotor receivers are spring loaded;

(3)      Why spring links are incorporated between pump and rudder;

(4)       How the standby pump is prevented from motoring.






With respect to hydraulic Ram steering gears

 (a) What emergency locking device can be used in order to speedily bring the steering gear to rest? State one reason the best angular position to lock the steering gear.

Brake or locking devices. In the event of loss of electrical power the rudder may be locked hydraulically. If loss of fluid occurs then mechanical locking may be applied. The rudder is locked in mid ship position to allow the vessel to proceed.

 (b) Use a simple sketch to show where the Jumping (top) and wear down (bottom) rudder carrier ring clearances can be measured. Indicate what clearances you would expect with a new steering gear





In a steering system fitted with an electro hydraulic   steering gear and a hydraulic telemotor,  

Explain how the following are automat­ically accomplished:    

1) Replenishing leakage oil in the telemotor system; 

2) Replenishing leakage oil in the steering gear system;

3) Absorption of excessive rudder shock.






With reference to a hydraulic four ram steering gear;

a)     Sketch the hunting gear arrangement for a steering gear, explaining its operation.

b)     Explain how the hunting gear is protected from shock loading.






With reference to rudder actuating gears:

a)     State the advantages and disadvantages of a rotary vane type compared to a ram type;

b)     State why four rams or dual rotary vane units are fitted on some ships;

c)     Describe how the steering function is maintained in the event of loss of bridge control.






With reference to steering systems, explain EACH of the Following:

a)     Why rudder movement is restricted;

b)     Why telemotor receivers are spring loaded;

c)     Why spring links are incorporated between pump and rudder;

d)    Why hunting gear is provided

e)     How the standby pump is prevented from motoring.






With reference to ram type STEERING GEAR, explain the function of

(a) The Rapson slide     

(b) Why the minimum number of rams is two

(c) How the oil leakages from the system are compensated.

(d) How a four ram steering gear can be operated on two rams only.






Suggest four reasons why the temperature of the oil in the steering gear System may become excessive.

With reference to steering gears, explain how the ship may be steered in each of the following circumstances:                                                                                      

(i)     Destruction by fire of a primary electric supply cable;

(ii)    Destruction by fire of the telemotor oil lines;

(iii)   Bearing failure in the running hydraulic pump:

(iv)   Failure of one of the ram sealing glands.  





With reference to a hydraulic four ram steering gear;

a.     State the combination of ram and cylinder units that could be adopted for emergency steering if one unit failed;

b.     Describe how the hydraulic unit is set for emergency steering

c.     State what position the rudder would assume if the wrong combination of ram and cylinder emergency steering was set in Q {b);

d.     State the consequences of the trunnion bearing wear down being reduced to less than zero.





Sketch a 2ram type hydraulic steering gear with a single electro hydraulic pumping unit

Show the hunting arrangement and indicate valve position

State the purpose of and describe the operation of

Hydraulic shock \ buffer valve

Oil replenishing tank

Hunting gear






Draw a diagram of a 4 ram hydraulic steering gear showing

Pump isolating valves

Relief \ shock valves

By pass valve

Explain the operation of the system sketched

Indicate in the diagram the valve position for operation of the system when one pump is isolated and the unit is operating on 2 rams only.




With reference to electro-hydraulic steering gears:

Explain in terms of control parlance the function of the "Hunting gear"

Explain the consequences if the standby pumping unit is motored;

State TWO methods employed to prevent the standby hydraulic pump being motored by the operating unit.






Sketch a hunting gear as fitted to a hydraulic steering gear labeling the principle items

Explain the purpose of the hunting gear

State how worn pins in hunting gear affect steering gear operation.






State the advantages of swash plate pump compared to hele Shaw pump

Sketch a simple diagram of a swash plate pump

Describe its operation.






Sketch in a simple form a constant speed Hele Shaw pump suitable for hydraulic steering gear

Describe the pump and its principle of operation.

What characteristics of pump make it suitable for use in steering gear. 





State why each of the following are fitted to ships steering gear system

Brake or locking devices.

Shock buffer relief valve.

Steering gear stops or cut-outs.

Rudder stop.

Describe the routine testing of steering gear.






With reference to Electro-hydraulic steering gear:

Discuss the possible reasons for and effects of EACH of the following faults:              

Excessive hunting; Sluggish operation

(b) Explain any precautions that may be necessary when operating a four ram steering gear on two rams only.

(c)Explain the reasons for the special properties required for the hydraulic oil in electro hydraulic steering gears





Sketch a four-ram steering gear arrangement capable of 100% redundancy.

Describe the operation of the arrangement sketched in (a).





With reference to hydraulic steering gear, explain the purpose of EACH of the following elements;

a)     Rapson slide mechanism;

b)     Rudder carrier bearing;

c)     Pump locking gear;

d)     Hunting gear                                                   

e)     Telemotor local control.




W.R.T rotary vane steering gears:

a)      Describe, with the aid of a sketch, how such a unit incorporates an integral rudder carrier;

(b)      Explain how vertical rudder movement is accommodated.



With reference to 4 ram hydraulic gear having duplicate pumps

Sketch an arrangement of relief; make up, isolating and bypass valve

Explain the use of isolating and bypass valves if one of the cylinders has fractured

Describe the arrangement to indicate the loss of hydraulic fluid due to leakage.




Casualty and pollution caused by grounding and STEERING GEAR FAILURE. What are the causes of failure? How you will prevent it from design point of view-Steering gear tests to prevent it. Precautions necessary in the design, operation and maintenance of these systems.

Describe with sketches an electro hydraulic steering gear having telemotor control. Indicate how the rudder is relieved when struck by a heavy sea and how it is automatically returned to its former position.

Sketch a four ram hydraulic steering system which can be operated even if a section of piping ruptures.

How the electric supply is ensured?

State the international regulation regarding EMERGENCY STEERING of deep draught vessels.





With reference to hydraulic steering gear

Briefly define each of the following

Single failure concept

100% redundancy

Sketch a line diagram of the actuator and their associated hydraulic system for a hydraulic steering gear capable of 100% redundancy.








With reference to rotary vane steering gears, state;

a) How the fixed vanes and moving vanes are attached to the cylinder and rotor respectively

How many set of vanes are provided

What is the limitation factor to number of vanes?

How strength is imparted to the moving vanes to enable them to act as rudder stops

What is the material of vanes and how the vanes are sealed at the tips

What features in the design allow the rudder stops to be separated when they have made contact?

What features in the design allow the rudder stops to be separated when they have made contact?

How rudder uplift is accommodated






Describe with the aid of sketches where necessary a vane type steering gear showing how the weight of the rudder stock are carried and the arrangement that allow wear down.

State how vanes are secured and method of sealing the edges.

State how the steering gear is locked for maintenance





With respect to rotary vane steering gears

a) Why are they not normally fitted to large vessels;

b) The purpose of the telemotor limit stops and the angle from mid-position that the stops should be set

c) What acts as rudder stops, their purpose and the angle from mid-position that the rudder stops should

Be set;

d) What features in the design allow the rudder stops to be separated when they have made contact;

e) How is the weight of the rotary vane unit, rudder stock supported and how is the stator prevented from rotating.





a) Describe, with the aid of sketches where necessary, a rotary vane type steering gear showing, how the weight of the rudder and stock are carried and the arrangement that allows for wear down?

State how the vanes described in a are secured and the method of sealing the edges

Explain why the stator pressure chambers are usually duplicated.

State what considerations determine the number of vanes.





With reference to a STEERING HYDRAULIC SYSTEM.                                    

(A)   Explain the factors that could contribute to failure of a connecting flange leading to total loss of oil from the system.                                           .

(B)  Describe an arrangement designed to ensure that the problem would not cause steering failure






Describe with the aid of sketches where necessary a vane type steering gear showing how the weight of the rudder stock are carried and the arrangement that allow wear down.






With reference to the 1978 SOLAS protocol which outlines mandatory requirements for steering gear tests and drills:

Describe the test procedure to be carried out within the 12 hours before departure on a sea voyage;         

Describe the emergency steering drills that must take place at least every 3 months; 

State how often the tests in Q. (a) and the drill in Q. (b) should be carried out for ships which regularly engage on voyages of short duration.       






You have recently joined a vessel as junior watch engineer and have been requested to inspect the steering system

Describe the detailed inspection you would carry out to ascertain that the system is in good operation condition.






With reference to rotary vane steering gear


i) State the symptoms that would indicate leakage across the vane seals

ii) Explain how movement of the helm on the bridge results in rudder movement

b) State the steering gear tests that should be carried out before a voyage begins.





With reference to positive displacement piston type pumps, explain how unacceptable fluctuations in the output pressure may be avoided?

b) Sketch and describe a radial, rotary, unidirectional, reversible flow pump, suitable for steering gear applications;





a) State the requirements of the regulations relating to the main and auxiliary steering gear with reference to each of the following;

i) Rudder angle and time of operation

ii) Electrical supply

b) State why each of the following are fitted to steering systems

i) Brake or locking devices

ii) Shock buffer relief valve

iii) Steering gear stops or cut outs

iv) Rudder stops





a) Sketch a simplified arrangement of a swash plate hydraulic pump

b) i) describe the pump sketched, making reference to it's principal of operation

ii) State the design feature of this pump that allows it to be smaller in size than the Hele-shaw pump and still have the same or greater rated capacity.





a) Sketch and describe a hunting gear as fitted to a hydraulic steering gear, labeling the principle components.

b) Explain the purpose of the hunting gear.





SWASH PLATE PUMPS are used for deck machinery.

(A) Sketch and describe the pump.

(B) State its advantages over Hele-shaw pump.






(i) Sketch and describe a Pilgrim Nut for securing a propeller to the screw shaft.

Describe how this device is used to loosen the propeller on the shaft when removal or inspection becomes necessary.
(ii)Give four (4) reasons why this method is considered to be superior to all other methods.





While In dry dock it is found impossible to disconnect the shaft coupling for the removal of the tail-shaft. The coupling is of the muff type consisting of two tapered sleeves that are fitted and removed hydraulically.

As Chief Engineer outline FIVE actions that may be taken to facilitate the removal of the coupling.





Sketch a transmission shaft coupling that enables the propeller shaft to be withdrawn outboard, labeling all main components.

Describe how the coupling sketched is tightened correctly.





With reference to sleeved keyless propeller assemblies:


(1) State, with reasons, the metals used in the manufacture of the sleeve and tail end shaft;

(2) State the type and thickness of material used to bond the sleeve to the propeller boss.

(b)     When removing the propeller from the tail end shaft, state why the following procedures are not recommended:

(1) Application of push off force by means of wedges or jacks and draw off force by strong back; (2) Expansion of propeller boss by concentrated local heating with gas torches

(c)     State the correct procedure for removal of the propeller from the tail end shaft.






Use of Controllable Pitch Propellers (CPP) is on the increase for main propulsion.

What advantages this has over fixed pitch propellers.

Discuss the principles involved in CPP propulsion naming important components of a hydraulically operated system.

What fail safe & alarm systems are provided.





With reference to oil lubricated stern tube

Sketch a system suitable for a ship with large changes in draught

State why the system is necessary

Describe emergency method of stopping or reducing an oil leak from the outboard seal during a sea voyage

State why the system is necessary

Describe emergency method of stopping or reducing an oil leak from the outboard seal during a sea voyage.





Describe the hub mechanism for a hydraulically operated controllable pitch propeller.

(b)        Effects of loss of hydraulic pr:




With reference to main transmission shaft alignment:

 (a) State the various factors which affect shaft alignment during the service life of ship;

 (b) State the principle of the fair curve method of alignment;

 (c) Describe the fair curve alignment method.





Describe the method of checking main transmission shaft alignment which does not involve the removal of coupling bolts. a simple sketch may be used to illustrate your answer.

Why is it better to check the shaft alignment when the ship is floating in the light condition?

(b)  A shaft system is excessively misaligned so as to cause serious bending of the shaft, what effect could this have on:

(i) Shaft coupling bolts (ii) Shaft bearing

(c)  State which of the effects described in (i) and (ii)   would cause you more concern.  Give reasons for your concern.





Sketch an arrangement of propeller and stern tube in which the tube is filled with oil and Suggest a method of repair when rubbing surfaces of the oil seal gets badly worn out

State the defects that you would look for when the shaft is withdrawn in the dry dock.



(a) Describe a transverse bow thrust unit using a controllable pitch propeller. Mention should be made of how it is supported and how the strength of thrust and reverse thrust are achieved.

 (b) State with reasons, a suitable prime mover for the controllable pitch propeller.

 (c) State whether the thrust unit delivers a relatively low pressure head with high volume output or high pressure head with low volume output




With regards to main transmission shaft flange coupling arrangements:

Sketch a hollow type coupling bolt and the hydraulic head/nut and loading rod which are used to fit it;

Hydraulically fitted bolts.

(b) Describe how the bolt is fitted.




Sketch an outboard type oil seal suitable for an oil filled stern tube, indicating the principle components

Explain how the seal above compensates for wear of the seal faces and maintains oil tightness




Explain reason for using CP propel

With diagram explain how pitch of propeller is controlled





With regards to main transmission shaft flange coupling arrangements:

 (a) Sketch a hollow type coupling bolt and the hydraulic head/nut and loading rod which are used to fit it;

 (b) Describe how the bolt is fitted.,

 (c) State the advantage of the hollow coupling bolt as compared to the traditional type of coupling bolt.




Sketch a section through a keyless propeller

State the advantages of using a keyless sleeved propeller

State with reason which metal sleeve should be made for contact with forged mild steel tail shaft

State with reason the material used to bond the sleeve to the propeller and the general thickness of the bonding material.





Explain the ideal design requirements of a ship propeller

Briefly describe the propeller maintenance that should be carried out to prevent fuel being wasted.




Explain how the ingress of sea water is prevented in an oil lubricated stern bearing system.  Should the system fail describe the corrective action possible while the vessel is afloat.  State why two stern bearing oil header tanks are fitted in some instances.





a)  Sketch a diesel electric propulsion arrangement, which uses the cyclo converter methods of speed control.                         

b)  Describe the operation of the propulsion arrangement sketched






Misalignment of main shafting bearing engine and propeller causes bearing overload and shaft stress.

State the difficulties associated with checking shaft alignment and the reasons why result are unreliable due to external factors.

Explain with a simple sketch how a bearing load is assessed

Explain how uneven loading could be rectified.





(a)  State why fixed pitch propellers have a poor efficiency when going astern.

(b) With reference to controllable pitch propellers, state:

(i) Why is it preferable that the main servomotor be housed in the propeller hub rather than in the shafting forward of the propeller shaft?

(ii)What regular maintenance and checks should be carried out to ensure maximum - reliability of the gear at all times;







With reference to keyless propellers

a) make a sketch showing how a propeller is mounted using the Pilgrim method

b) Explain the advantages of the Pilgrim method.





State what effects lengthy voyages in ballast condition have on propeller shaft condition and on its life.




Describe the procedure for withdrawal of a propeller shaft from a single screw ship.




How astern thrust is accommodated in the design of muff coupling?




Examine the problems involved when seeking to improve the reliability of propeller shaft bearings.

State why roller bearings have no clear advantage over plain bearings for this duty.




"Aft Engine Configuration" imposes additional stress in main gearing and crankshaft - Comment.




a) How propeller pitch can be altered in detachable blade propeller?

b)  How propeller pitch is measured?




With reference to main thrust block arrangement-

If upon inspection the pad faces are found to be scored, describe the action to be taken.





Sketch a SEALING ARRANGEMENT FOR AN OIL LUBRICATED STERN TUBE and identify the common forms of seal failure.

State how oil loss due to seal failure can be prevented whilst on passage.

What is the material used for sealing ring and propeller shaft liner.





 (a) Explain the uses, construction and location of THRUST BEARINGS.

(b) What are the clearances provided in a thrust block?

(c) What are the indications and causes of improper running of thrust block?

(d) How Clearances are checked and adjusted.





VIBRATION ENCOUNTERED IN MAIN PROPULSION SHAFT SYSTEMS, can be categorized as Torsional, Axial and Transverse.

Give a Simple explanation how each of these defined forms of vibrations are induced and manifested in main transmission shafting, inclusive of reduction gears, main engines, and propellers.

Explain which one of these forms of vibration is generally dominant and how the deleterious effects of each can be mitigated in practice.





Describe with the aid of a sketch; a shaft bearing of the roller type.

Explain why lubrication of the shaft bearing must be limited.

State how slight variation in shaft alignment is catered for.




 (a) Sketch a spade rudder arrangement with upper and lower rudder stocks, showing in detail the rudder carrier ring, entry of the rudder stock into the ships hull and the upper and lower rudder stock coupling.

(b) Explain the function of the rudder carrier ring.



Identify the chief causes of overheating in tunnel bearings and of vibration in main shafting. 

Explain why the seating of the engine room amidships enhances these tendencies. 

State how overheating and vibration may be reduced or eliminated.




Examine in detail three common but entirely different reasons for loss of steering gear systems. 

State how failure is inhibited in the design, operation and maintenance of steering gear systems

Describe how a vessel may make port upon irreparable failure of the steering telemotor.



What are the effects on following on the sluggishness of steering gear operation?

Air entrapped in hydraulic oil

Worn pins and weak spring in hunting gear

Shock valves leaking




With reference to hydraulic steering gear.

Sketch and describe

Single failure concept

100% redundancy



Outline the procedure for the inspection of the rudder and shaft in every dry dock

State the requirement with respect to steering gear as per SOLAS

Relief valve

Steering gear control

Electrical power circuit



Back to top







Sketch and describe a main lubricating oil pump. Which are the clearances to be checked?

The most common type used fur lubrication systems is the rotary positive-displacement type of pump.






With reference to centrifugal pumps:

a) Explain the function of the volute shaped casing.

b) Explain what is meant by cavitation and state its effect on pump performance.

c) State the effect of:

(i) Negative suction head. (ii) Suction temperature.

d) Explain how cavitation may occur in the discharge line remote from the pump.

e) Sketch a suitable priming system.




Performance of Fire pump has deteriorated and is not developing required head. Describe the following;

The procedure for dismantling the pump                  

The likely defects and remedial measures to be taken           

Which all Clearances are to be checked?       

Precautions during assembly. 

Checks for alignment of motor pump coupling.        




a) i) Sketch a simple cross section through a single stage centrifugal pump with a fully shrouded single entry impeller naming the component parts and indicating the direction of fluid flow.

          2) Describe:

1)      The function of the impeller and how suction is created by it;

2)      The function of the volute casing;

        b) State the suction lift that may be expected from the type of pump sketched in a).

        c) State why some centrifugal pumps have:

                1) A double volute casing:

              2) A diffuser ring.



Ships are provided with an independent diesel or electric or air operated emergency fire pump

(a) State three areas in which emergency fire pumps are commonly installed and give reasons why

(b)  Describe with aid of a simple sketch an air pump or primer used to initiate suction when the fire pump is situated above sea water level. What suction lift would you except from a single stage pump system?

(c) State the water jet output capacity that the pump must be capable of

(d) State how it can be ensured that the fire pump is kept in good working order

(e) State what precautions must be taken in sub zero temperatures?




With reference to centrifugal pump state why

Pump fails to deliver water.

Pump vibration.

Reduction in capacity.



With reference to centrifugal pumps:

1)                         Sketch typical discharge characteristics showing variation of throughput as discharge head and speeds are altered.

2)                         State the relevance, of the discharge characteristics for the selection of an emergency fire pump.



How does the cargo pumping system of a chemical product carrier differ from that of crude oil a tanker?

Sketch the cargo pumping system of a chemical product carrier.



W.R.T. centrifugal pumps

Sketch a typical discharge characteristic showing variation of through put as discharge head is varied

Explain W.R.T. pump characteristic curve the effect of the following on pump performance

Pump started with delivery valve shut

Pump started with suction valve shut

Cooler division plate carried away

Reduction in cross sectional area of the discharge pipe to half its nominal area

Discuss why centrifugal bilge pump differ from centrifugal seawater pump.

Explain the function of wear ring.



Sketch a double acting reciprocating positive displacement pump. Indicating on your diagram the direction of flow of liquid for one stroke of the pump.



What checks would you carryout on a positive-displacement lubricating-oil pump when it is dismantled and opened up for examination and survey?



With reference to carriage and pumping of liquefied cargo:

a)         Sketch \ Explain a suitable pumping system.

b)         (i) Why are submerged hydraulically-driven pumps not used for liquefied gas cargo?

(ii) How is overheating of pump shaft bearing avoided?

c)         State how risk of fire and explosion in cargo tanks is obviated both in loaded and discharged condition.



(a) Explain why centrifugal pumps cannot handle air or vapours to effect priming yet turbo-blowers operating on the same principle can.                      

 (b) If a vessel is fully laden, how may it be ascertained that the fire pump    priming arrangements would operate satisfactorily in the ballast condition.

 (c) Explain a method of priming suitable for a centrifugal pump.



With reference to a CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

a)   Sketch a typical discharge characteristic showing variation of throughput as discharge head is altered.

b) Explain the method by which the discharge characteristic may be obtained.

c)  State the relevance of the discharge characteristic in relation to selection of the fire pump or cargo pump for a ship.

d) Some engine room circulating pumps of the centrifugal type are arranged for variable speed operation.

e) Sketch the characteristic curves for such a pump indicating the effect of varying speed. State the reasons for using such a pump.



With reference to chemical tankers

Sketch a suitable cargo pumping and stripping system labelling the component parts and indicating the direction of fluid flow

State the requirement of the regulation evolved to reduce pollution of the sea by chemical tanker cargo.



(a) Sketch and describe a gear type pump indicating the flow of fluid.

 (b) State the materials that gear type pump components may be manufactured from.

 (c) Specify THREE applications that are suitable for the employment of gear type pumps.




Compare   the   capabilities   &   limitations   of positive   displacement  and ' rotodynamic pump.

Explain why running clearances are not so critical in gear pump  as  in centrifugal pump.



Identify with reasons which are or combination of the following conditions contribute most to erosion of centrifugal pump casings -

a) High impeller speed,

b) Restricted water passage,

c) High suction head, 

d) Low delivery head.



If you have opened up a main sea-water circulating pump (centrifugal type) for survey or examination, describe the checks you would make, and state your conclusion regarding any faults found.



A single forged shaft for a small gear pump is broken in the middle

Suggest some emergency repairs to the shaft to enable run the pump


Back to top





Write short note on the following.

Metal locking.

TIG and MIG welding.







Describe in detail each of the following processes and give an example where each is likely to occur in marine engineering:

State how in each case the initiation of the process is prevented or minimized.

a) Corrosion fatigue

b) Stress corrosion

c) Creeping cracks

d) Casting cracks




Explain the action of the following METALLURGICAL MECHANISMS:

(1) Fatigue

(2) Creep

(3) Brittle fracture.

Describe the following types of CORROSION:

(1) Corrosion fatigue

(2) Fretting corrosion

(3) Stress corrosion.



(a) State, with reasons, the causes of fatigue cracking of engineering components.         

(b) State, with reasons, how material and design defects can influence fatigue life.

(c) With reference to engine bed plate transverse girders explain how the incidence of fatigue cracking can be minimized.



Outline the tests that are carried out on specimens of steel for ships plate.

Explain the significance of each of the tests described in above.




A rudder of a vessel requires extensive welding repairs and as Second Engineer you are requested to supervise.

Suggest a suitable type of welding_ process.

State, with reasons, FOUR common welding defects

State what tests may be carried out before returning the rudder to service.



Discuss the causes of corrosion and the means by which corrosion of the following may be limited by manufacturers and ship's personnel respectively: -

Internal and external surfaces of auxiliary steam lines.

External surfaces of auxiliary boilers.

Water boxes of seawater coolers and condensers.

Main sea water inlet pipes.



Explain the action of each of the following metallurgical mechanisms.




Fretting corrosion. 

b)      State with reasons where each of the mechanisms in a) may occur in a ship propulsion system.       



Explain the following terms and give examples of where each condition might occur

Stress Corrosion

Corrosion fatigue

Creep cracking



With reference to electric arc welding

Draw a labeled sectional sketch of a satisfactory butt weld

a.c. supply is usually more popular than d.c.



Write short notes on:

Induction hardening

Fatigue test

Dye penetrate test

Creep test




With reference to pipe system

Enumerate the various material used and the type of deterioration likely

Describe how corrosion is reduced

How erosion minimized



Briefly explain the term fatigue and explain how fatigue failure occur

State the difference between high stress / low cycle and low stress / high cycle

State how defect in metal can influence the expected safe life of a component

State how fuel timing and cylinder power balance can influence the possibility of fatigue crack.



Compare the following methods of crack detection, defining their advantages and limitations:

 (a)  Radiographic,                                                                                                                               

 (b) Ultrasonic,                                                

 (c)  Magnetic,

 (d) Dye penetrant



Explain why steel is used extensively in marine machinery outlining the properties influencing its choice.

State the stresses allowable in crankshaft, piston rods, boilers and pressure-vessels and-discuss the type of failures that may occur. 



Explain the causes of the formation of mill scale on steel plate.

Explain the preparation   necessary before the application of conventional paints to the under water surface of the hull

Describe a coating scheme for the underwater hull using conventional paints.



(a)  State the effects of varying the percentage of Carbon in steel.                                  

(b) Explain the significance of alloying iron with Chromium, Molybdenum, Nickel and Silicon separately.



Shock loading, wastage, corrosion and erosion can be a problem in Bilge, ballast and sewage circulating systems. 

Explain how these factors are taken into consideration-with regard to each of the following:                

a) Materials used for ship side seawater inlet valves

b) Materials used for pipe systems.                                                

c) Pipe-system design-and installation.



The pipe work of the sea water circulation system for a passenger ship has to be completely renewed. The company contracted for the work has no previous experience of marine, installation.
You as the Second engineer have been requested to write the specification for manufacture and installation of the steel pipe.       

Outline your proposal for manufacture of the pipe.      

State the necessary requirements for approval.



Discuss the following type of material failure. Fatigue, Creep.

And describe how a material is tested to assess it resistance to these types of failures

Give two examples of each type of failure and explain as to how in these cases the likely hood of failure is reduced.



Discuss the effects of variation of carbon percentage in steel.

Illustrate your answer by a diagram showing the effect of this variation on tensile strength, percentage elongation and hardness of steel.



Define the metallurgical composition, mechanical properties and the reason for selection in a specified marine engineering application of the following metals :       

 (a) Nodular cast iron, 

 (b) Titanium.



Give a reasoned opinion as to the validity of the following assertions concerning ship structure:

Development of Cracks in the vicinity of propeller shaft ‘A’ brackets or spectacle frames is indicative of inadequate scantlings and strength of the vessels stern section;  

The adequate provision of deck scuppers and freeing ports is as critical to seaworthiness as watertight integrity of the shaft and possible uneven loading of gear teeth.



(a) Surface preparation and painting of new ship plates

(b) Design of the ships structure and its maintenance

(c ) Cathodic protection by sacrificial anodes, of the internal and external areas of the ship.



What general effects might continued running at service speed in heavy weather have on marine machinery? What abnormal stresses may be imposed on to the following:-

(a) Intermediate shafting,

(b) Propeller Shaft,

(c) Coupling bolts,

(d) Engine supports &

(e) Thrust Pads.



With reference to the corrosion of metals, write notes on electrolytic corrosion the precaution necessary when using

(i) Aluminium and steel in the same compartment, (ii) ammonia.



Give reasons for corrosion in each of the following instances: i) Connection between Aluminium superstructure and deck, ii)    In crude oil cargo tanks

iii)   Explain how in each case corrosion can be inhibited.



a) Explain why the properties of the mild steel make it suitable for many applications in marine engineering.

b) State the effect of the increasing Carbon content in plain carbon steel.

c)      Give two instances where the physical properties of steel are modified by alloying and give reasons for the modification;



Nature of steel used for ship's hull - special properties and why - Tests and their relevance for SHIR QUALITY PLATES.



State the nature of the stresses to which crank, thrust, tunnel, and "propeller shafting are subjected respectively.  Is it usual to make these shafts of the same diameter through out ? The answer should include a reasoned statement. What considerations govern the dia of the crank pin.



State a suitable material and the physical properties which influence its  selection for the following piping systems.

 a) Telemotor transmission

b)  High-pr carbon dioxide

c)  Large diameter-sea water circulating line Sketch and describe suitable in each case.




Briefly explain the term fatigue and explain how fatigue failure occur

State the difference between high stress / low cycle and low stress / high cycle

State how defect in metal can influence the expected safe life of a component

State how fuel timing and cylinder power balance can influence the possibility of fatigue crack



Cast iron is most widely used metal after steel in marine engineering

Most cast iron consist of graphite in steel like matrix.

Discuss the variation of properties that may arise with reference to pearilitic grey cast iron and spherical grey cast iron.




(a) Outline the manufacturing processes for the production of steel suitable for ships' shell plating.

(b) (i) Sketch a simple iron-carbon, equilibrium diagram and indicate a typical composition of ships1 steel-(ii) Sketch the micro-structure of this steel.                                                                               



Suggest a typical shipboard machinery application for each of the following metals and explain how their properties make them particularly suitable for the stated purpose.

a) Stainless steel

b) Grey cast iron

c) Aluminium bronze

d) Cupro nickel

e) Spheroidal cast iron



Write notes on the suitability of each of the following materials for sterntube bearings

a) White metal. b) Wood. c) Rubber. d) plastic. e) Steel



a) Explain why the properties of mild steel make it suitable for many engineering purposes;

b) State the effects of increasing the carbon content of plain carbon steel;

c) Give two instances where the physical properties of steel are modified by alloying, giving reasons for this modification;



Describe each of the following MECHANISMS OF FAILURE mentioning the effects of notches, surface finish, loading and environmental conditions:

(a)  Ductile fracture

(b)  Brittle fracture

(c) Corrosion fracture.

Suggest where each of these phenomena may occur in a marine plant.



Describe each of the following NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTS.

(1) Liquid penetrant (2) Magnetic flux (3) Ultrasonic.

State why non-destructive tests are carried out on components and not on test pieces.

State one shipboard use for each of the test described.



(a)State the laboratory tests that may be carried out on specimens of steel for ships' plate giving reasons for the tests.                                                                       

(b)The basic compositions of two ships' plates are given in Table below One is an example of modem practice whilst the other is a specification of a 1940's tanker that   split in two due to brittle fracture. Compare these two specifications critically and explain which of these two steels would be most resistant to brittle fracture. 

                   C             M             SI                S               P                AI                 N

Steel 'A'      0.18%      0.70%        0.30%        0.04%        0.04%        0,015%       0,005%

Steal 'B'      0. 19%   0.57%       0.03%       0.029%       0.042%       0.005%       0.008%





Write brief notes on each of the following.

Work Hardening. NITRIDING. Cold Working


Back to top








For an expansion valve as fitted in a refrigeration system name the operational circumstance that may cause a high pressure cut out to operate.

Describe the preventive maintenance schedule to avoid reoccurrence of the situation.




With the aid of a simple sketch explain the operation of a basic air conditioning unit. Explain the trouble spot in a basic air conditioning unit.

W.R.T your sketch explain the following

How the problem of increase in humidity of cooled air is overcome

How discomfort caused by the excessive drying effect of heated air is over come

Explain how a psychometric chart is used to check condition.




W.R.T lubrication of reciprocating Freon refrigerating compressor,

State with reason the characteristic of the lubricating oil in use in such a system,

Discuss each of the following W.R.T., Cause effect and remedy

1)                   Copper plating     

2)                   Freon cloud point                                         

3)                    Freon floc point

Sketch a ship indirect refrigeration system arranged for cooling containers stowed in stacks in the hold.




With reference to refrigeration systems

Explain the purpose of Condenser, Evaporator.

Explain why the refrigerant temperature changes from one side of the expansion valve to the other side.

With reference to thermostatic expansion valve

Explain what is meant by super heat setting.



(i) Describe an air conditioning system for a passenger car ferry.
(ii) Explain in detail how the humidity of the air is measured and controlled.



With reference to a REFRIGERATING SYSTEM, state:

(a) What may happen if oil is carried over into the evaporator.

(b) How oil is removed from the system.

(c)  The symptoms of undercharge.

(d) The effect of ice on evaporator coils.

(e) The meaning of short cycling.




With respect to the LUBRICATION of a Freon refrigerating compressor

(a)  State with reasons the characteristics required by a lubricating oil.

(b) Discuss each of the following with respect to the cause, effect and remedy: (c) Copper plating (2) Freon cloud point (3) Freon Floc point.

(d) Explain in detail the reasons for oil carry over.

(d) State how flocculation of oil in the Freon system is prevented.

(e)  Sketch and describe a device which returns oil from the system to the sump.

(f)  Sketch and describe a thermostatic expansion valve.




State how legionnaire disease is contracted and the effects.

Describe the condition that could lead to legionella bacteria being harboured in the air conditioning system.

State the precaution necessary to reduce risks.




 (1) Describe a CARGO REFRIGERATION SYSTEM.                                         

(2)  Discuss CFC CONVERSION alternatives.

(3)  Discuss the probable return of AMMONIA for shipboard refrigeration.

(4) Describe a system for cooling CONTAINERS on board.



(a) For Freon-22 vapor compression refrigeration machine, state how each of the following faults arc indicated and how they arc remedied;

(i) Air in the system

(ii) Moisture in the system

(iii) Undercharge

(iv) Overcharge

(b) Describe with a diagram detailing the devices incorporated into the refrigeration system to protect the machinery and equipment against malfunction.



Sketch a ship's indirect refrigeration system arranged for cooling containers showed in stacks in the hold.

Describe the refrigeration system sketched in (a)

State the advantages of the system described in (a) compared with containers with their own refrigeration self-contained units.




With reference to brine indirect refrigerating system, state (i) What brine consists of, (ii) a satisfactory specific gravity or degree of twaddle, (iii) how it is to be kept in non-corrosive action and (iv) how any.



a) Sketch a fully automated air conditioning system.  With reference to an air conditioning system

1)                         Describe how conditioned air is maintained within the comfort range and state the effects on the crew of air which is too dry

2)                         State how the harmful bacteria are eliminated from this system.



W.R.T lubrication of reciprocating Freon refrigerating compressor

State with reason the characteristic of the lubricating oil in use in such a system

Sketch a ship indirect refrigeration system arranged for cooling containers stowed in stacks in the hold.



a) Sketch and describe a high pressure cut-out in a refrigeration system.

b) The refrigeration compressor has stopped due to operation of the h. p. cut-out. Explain

 (i) The possible causes.

 (ii) How these causes would be found and possible remedies.

 (c)  What steps are taken if the compressor "short-cycle" on low pressure cut-out?



 (a) List the materials which are used for the insulation of refrigerated cargo spaces.             

 (b) Describe a typical insulation structure for a bulkhead.




Draw a detailed sketch of direct expansion two room refrigeration system and explain its operation.




With regard to a reciprocating refrigerator compressor:                                                  

(a)  Sketch the mechanical shaft seal showing its component parts and how it is lubricated.

(b) Describe the sealing arrangement, stating what materials you would use for the component parts.

(c)  State why the seal is fitted and what factors can cause its failure.

(d) What is the effect on the environment of the release of refrigerants into the atmosphere?



How would you know a refrigeration system is under charged?

What is the primary function of the expansion valve?

What type of pumps are used for pumping bilges in emergency.

Give reasons why engine room bilge pump may not be able to empty bilges.

What is the correct method of starting and stopping a centrifugal pump?



With, reference to main refrigeration plant give reason for each of the following operational irregularities and state how these are dealt with: -

 (a) Rapid loss of lubricating oil from the crankcase of a " vee " block compressor, 

(b) Steady “fall off" in refrigeration effect over a comparatively short period of time; 

(c)  Excessive " icing up " at compressor suction;

(d)  Shore cycling



(a) Draw a block diagram for a fully automated accommodation air conditioning unit, labelling the   component parts and indicating the directions of air flow.

(b) Explain why the unit includes means of dehumidification and humidification.

(c)  A chart is used for ensuring the accommodation conditions are within the so called Comfort Zone: what useful information does the chart give.



Give reasons for each of the following conditions in a domestic refrigeration unit:-

Excessive high pressure at compressor discharge,

Heavy 'icing up' of the crankcase,

Excessive vacuum at compressor suction,

Continual starting and stopping of the compressor,



With reference to a typical shipboard refrigeration system; 

 (a)  Sketch the arrangement which controls superheat temp of refrigerant gas leaving the evaporator                                                                                               

 (b)  Describe the operation of the arrangement sketched in (a) assuming Freon 22 is the working medium                                                                             

 (c) Explain the purpose of the equalizing connection.




 With reference to main refrigeration plants state how:

‘Vee" block compressors are lubricated,

Overpressure on the discharge side is prevented,

Refrigeration load is controlled.



 (a)  Sketch and describe a centralized indirect refrigerating plant used for bulk cargo cooling.                                                                                     

(b)  With reference to brine used in an indirect refrigerating system, state:

What brine consists of;                                                                                                                                                        

How it is kept in a non-corrosive condition;                                                                                                

How any tendency to acidity is neutralized.



Give a general description of the systems of ventilation of the machinery spaces of 

a)    A steam ship


b)    A motor ship, and explain the considerations on which the system is based.




Sketch and describe the purpose of an expansion valve as fitted in a refrigeration system.

With reference to H.P cut out state four operational circumstance that may cause a H.P cut out to operate.




Explain the functioning of the control mechanism for a fully-automatic domestic refrigeration plant having one compressor and which maintains a vegetable room at 5° C and a meat room at -12° C. State the routine maintenance required for the whole refrigeration plant.




With reference to air conditioning units

a) With the aid of a sketch, explain the operation of a unit which includes means of dehumidifying, Humidifying and refrigerated cooling.

b) i) Describe the conditions that could lead to legionella growth.

ii) List the precautions necessary in the maintenance of air conditioning systems to reduce the Risk of legionnaires disease being contracted.



a) Sketch a line diagram of a high pressure cut-out of the type fitted in a refrigeration system.        

(b)   (i) Describe the operation of the high pressure cut-out sketched in Q. (a).



With reference to refrigeration systems

a) State three functions of the compressor

b) Describe the safety head and state it's function

c) State the main function of the condenser

d) State the primary function of the expansion valve

e) State the possible effect of water in the system



Give reasons why the bore/stroke ratio has been increased in current practice in between 1 & 2, in refrigeration system using reciprocating compressors.



With reference to the bulk carriage of perishable fruit cargo, explain why

Apples & pears are sometimes spoilt by core putrefaction.



With respect to refrigerating compressor-  

Explain lubrication in V-type compressor.

How compressor is protected against high discharge pressure,

Explain Capacity Control.





For a fully automated provision refrigeration system incorporating a number if rooms.

Explain how each room temperature is set.

Describe the sequence of events following a demand for increased refrigerant flow from one room.

State with reasons the devices incorporated into the system to protect the machinery and equipment against malfunction.

State how satisfactory operation of the plant can be established.




Back to top






Air comp


Briefly describe how the performance of a 3 stage air compressor is assessed and what are the methods for ensuring optimum performance with justifcation on each such methods.




Describe the construction of a 3 stage air compressor

Give the temperatures and pressures at each stage

Where are the drains

What type of oil is used and why

Why inter cooler are used in multistage compressor.



Explain why it is necessary to have intercoolers on a multi-stage compressor.

What attention do these require to keep them in a good and safe working condition?

Sketch and describe the construction of a multi-stage compressor intercooler suitable for a working pressure of 2400 kpa? State materials.

What attention is needed before opening up for inspection?

What faults are likely to develop in an air compressor and how are they remedied.




State why compressor suction and delivery valves should seat promptly.

Explain the effect on the compressor if the air induced into the cylinder at a temperature higher than normal.

What would be the effect of the suction valves having too much lift?

Explain why pressure relief device are fitted to the water side of cooler casing.



State the considerations governing main air receiver capacity.

Explain why the internal surfaces of air receivers are coated with clear copal varnish

Explain the importance of regular maintenance of air receiver drain valves.



Sketch a reciprocating air compressor incorporating a first stage rotary compressor

State the reason whether the advantages claimed for the design justify the added complexity.




Why piston ring freedom and condition is important

Why correct clearance volume is critical to performance

Why suction and delivery valve are maintained in good condition

Suction filter should be of large size and kept clean.  



With reference to main air reservoir

Sketch in detail the manner in which mountings are attached to the shell

Explain why regular inspection is advisable

Differentiate between the specific functions of relief valves and fusible plugs



Explain why each of the following features is considered desirable for air compressors:

(a) A single-throw crank for a multi-stage compressor;                                                   

(b) Minimum clearance volume;                                                                                    

(c) Multi tubular inter-stage cooler,                                                                                 

(d) Generous size of suction filter

Smooth air passages with minimum obstruction at valves,



With reference to main air compressor

(a) Describe the method of control used when a compressor is running continuously.

(b) Describe the principle of operation of automatic drains fitted to air compressor

(c)  Describe the effect of leaking suction and delivery valves in an air compressor.




Sketch and describe, a valve suitable for reducing air pressure and maintaining the reduced pressure within close limits. Describe the processes through which air from the starting air receivers should be treated before it is used in a pneumatic control system.




Sketch and describe a 3 stage air compressor.

How cylinder end clearance volume is measured and adjusted.

Which parts are cooled and why.

State the pressure and temperature at each stage.



What is the purpose of a fusible plug on an air receiver and at what temperature is it designed to melt.

What inter locks are there on the starting air system

What is the pressure of a starting air receiver?

Explain how would you start an air compressor and stop it after overhaul.

What safety devices are fitted to a start air line?  



Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a two stage air compressor

Draw a set of typical indicator diagram and insert the various pressure and temp

Indicate the effect of a leaking H.P. suction valve and excessive H.P. clearance volume 



What are the advantages and disadvantages of the single-coil type and the straight-tube type of intercooler for air compressors?

Why are the tubes and coils generally made of copper?



With reference to multi stage, single crank, air compressors, explain why

 (a)  (i) 'Bumping' clearances are checked.                  

 (ii) Bottom end adjustment does not affect 'bumping' clearance,

 (iii) The clearance is not adjusted on one stage alone.                              

 (b) Describe how bumping clearances are corrected.



With reference to air compressors, explain why;

a) The clearance volume should be as small as possible;

b) Intercoolers are required;

c) Intake filters should be cleaned regularly;

d) The oil should be changed regularly;



 (a). Explain how and why the performance of reciprocating air compressor tends to "fall off’ in service,

(b) State how "fall off' is indicated and to what extent permissible before correction.

(c) Describe how optimum performance is restored.



Explain why it is essential to ensure adequate cooling of air compressor cylinders inter cooler and after cooer

State with reason the possible consequence of prolonged operation of the compressor if these areas are not adequately cooled.



With reference to reciprocating air compressor explain why.

Clearance volume is critical to efficiency.

Spring loaded Plate type valves are invariably used.

Compression is accomplished in apparent unequal stages.

Inter cooling is used between stages.



Describe the term volumetric efficiency as related to air compressor

Describe the effect of the following faults in multi stage reciprocating air compressor.

Inter stage cooler starved of cooling water.

Worn crank shaft bearing

Broken or worn scarper ring

Suggest a failsafe arrangement in the event of inter stage cooler water loss.



Define the consideration governing main air compressor

Give reason why internal surface of air receivers are frequently coated with clear copal varnish.

Explain why air receivers drain valves should be overhauled at every available opportunity.



Sketch a reciprocating air compressor incorporating a first stage rotary compressor

Explain the motive behind such an arrangement.

State the reason whether the advantages claimed for the design justify the added complexity.



(a)  Define the essential conditions, which must be satisfied by the air supply for a pneumatic control system.

(b)   Sketch a control air supply arrangement and give a reasoned explanation for positioning of dryers and filters.



(a) Discuss the possible problems associated with air compressor which operate automatically.

(b)  State the standing orders you, as Second Engineer, would issue regarding the maintenance and safe and efficient operation of air compressors.

 (c)  Outline any problems common to air receivers and machinery space/ship compressed air systems.



 (a) Explain how oil carry over occurs in starting air compressors.

(b) State how the problems of oil carry over are minimized.

(c) State THREE factors that contribute to air start line explosions in diesel engines




With reference to large air starting receiver

List the mounting

Routine checks carried out by a watch keeper

Explain where corrosion is likely to occur and state why it occur in these region.

State how the incidence of corrosion in air receiver might be minimised.







W.R.T air receivers and bottle explain with reason

Why regular systematic internal inspection is advisable

Which internal areas of large receivers should receive particular close examination?

How bottles are inspected internally and what parts should be closely examined

How condition of a bottle or receiver that cannot be inspected internally is checked




Give reason for each of the following

Excessive high pressure at compressor discharge,

Suction pressure too low

Continual starting and stopping of the compressor

Compressor runs continuously

Compressor abnormally noisy






Back to top



Engine Room Systems


Describe a bilge system suitable for a ship with cellular double bottoms. By means of a simple sketch, show the positions of pumps, manifolds, suctions, etc.



Sketch a low sea suction sea water inlet chest complete with filter and other fitting




(a) Draw a line diagram of the engine room section of a bilge system for a passenger or cargo vessel including the connection of oily-water separator; label the principal items.         

(b) State-

(i) What type of valves are fitted in the bilge system and why?  State the material of construction of the valves.                                                                                       

(ii) The means used in passenger vessel-to reduce flooding risk by way of bilge system in the event of collision,  

(iii)The type of pump ideally used to discharge through the oily-water separator.



a) Draw a line diagram of a fuel transfer and preparation system from bunker tank to boiler burner or engine fuel pump. Labeling the principal items and the direction of flow in all lines.

b) State why fuel is usually not transferred direct to service tanks from bunker tanks.

c) State the safety features incorporated if the system in Qa is to be operated in the UMS mode.



Give a line diagram of the ballast system in a dry cargo vessel and state with reasons where

Main and branch lines run in relation to the ships side and tanks respectively.

Air and sounding pipes are located in the tanks

State reasons as to why a centrifugal pump is considered suitable for use as ballast pump.



Referring where necessary to design, construction and operation, outline the measures to prevent fires caused by spillage of fuel, lubricating and hydraulic oil, involving EACH of the following:

Oil units, pumps and fittings;

Overflow arrangements;

Sounding arrangements;

Thermometer fittings;

Heated surfaces;

Electric cables. 



Explain why weighted cocks fitted on tank sounding pipes,

Remote operated gear for bilge valve

Ventilation pipe

Explain why gauze is sometimes fitted



Wrote short notes on

The sitting, fitting and use of thermometer pocket.

Methods of measuring fluid flow.

Thermocouple for measuring temperature above and below 400degreeC.

Air distribution for control system. 



Write short notes on

High sea suction.

Low sea suction.

Steam traps.

Anti vibration mounting on A/E.

Flexible coupling of pump. 




Describe the procedures for maintaining the below mentioned filters;

(a)  High pressure oil supply lines to fuel valves.                                                           

(b)  Oil fuel line to purifiers.                                                                                        

(c)  Diesel engine air induction line.

Discuss the reasons for fitting these appliances, the nature of the material removed and any special arrangements for cleaning.




Differentiate between a gate valve and a globe valve with the help of a simple sketch. State their applications on board.



Where and for what purposes are heat exchangers used in associa­tion with main propulsion engines? Describe the type of heat exchanger used for each purpose and the coolant used.



How does air locking occur in the heaters and coolers in a marine diesel machinery installation?



Sketch and explain the parts of a shell and tube type lubricating oil cooler showing how the oil and water flow path and material for each part

Explain how expansion and contraction of the tube stack of the cooler is accommodated



Explain three methods used for protection of heat Exchangers tubes.



With reference to heat exchangers using steam as the heating medium, what is the advantage of under cooling and explain how it is controlled.



(i) In plate type heat exchanger, fluid press. & temp, do not normally exceed 10 bar and 150°C respectively.

(ii) Titanium & stainless steel finding increasing acceptance,

(iii) Carrying bar & clamping bolts are often much larger than pack thickness.

(iv) State how it can be ascertained that plate stack is correctly tightened and the likely result of excessive tightness.



With reference to multitubular heat exchangers explain:

How and where impingement attack is likely to occur in the multitubular heat exchangers tubes

Why is it desirable that coolant flow rate should not exceed that required to maintain correct fluid temperature

Ample well-shaped water boxes and smooth tube inlets are desirable in multitubular heat exchangers

Partial obstruction of tube bore is a common cause of multitubular heat exchangers tube failure





With reference to sea water cooled multi-tubular heat exchangers state -

(a) The materials used for the construction of the tubes, tube plate, and water boxes.

(b) The various types of corrosion that the parts in (a) are subjected to.

(c) Measures employed to reduce or prevent above corrosion.



(a) Draw in detail a tubular type lubricating oil heat exchanger showing how longitudinal expansion between tube stack & shell is accommodated? Show flow pattern for lubricating and coolant.

 (b) Explain how control of temperature is regulated:                                                                 






Separation rate is inconsequential in oily water separators

Discuss with reasons the one statement that is not correct regarding oily water separators.

a) Test cocks are situated to locate the oil-water interface

b) Separation rate is inconsequential

c) Overboard discharge is inconsequential

d) Rise in temperature assist in the separation process

e) Rate of separation is unrestricted



With reference to static oil / water separation

a) State the forces that contribute towards the total force available for oil and water separation

b) Describe the passage of oil / water flowing through the separator discussing how the separators design is adapted to utilise the forces stated in above.

c) State how oil density and temperature relate to the ease of separation



With reference to oil monitoring of bilge and tanker ballast discharges                                                

 (a)  Describe with the aid of a sketch, the general arrangements of an oil monitoring system;

 (b)  State the inputs that are recorded;

Explain the difficulties encountered with the efficient operation of the oil monitoring.

Describe with the aid of a sketch, an oil content meter, suitable for limiting the oil discharge to 15ppm.



The reasons why, in the separation of oil and water, static means are used for bilge and ballast water, and dynamic means for fuel and lube oils.



With reference to engine room bilge systems:

a)     State with reasons the type of pump used as an oily water separator pump;

b)     State FOUR possible causes for an engine room bilge being unable to pick up suction from a bilge well;

c)     Describe how a hole in a bilge main may be located.



For oily water separator, single stage gravity type units offer a distinct advantage over multi-stage counterparts - comment.



With reference to oily water separators, explain each of the following:

a.     Why the supply pump should be carefully selected and matched to the separator, stating the most suitable type;

b.     How the internal construction of the separator achieves effective separation;                                              

How the physical properties of each of the fluids to be separated affects the rate and effectiveness of separation.



Describe with the aid of a sketch an oil content monitoring system that employs optical fibre technology.



a) Describe with the aid of a sketch, a sewage treatment system that requires the maintenance of a healthy colony of bacteria to ensure it's efficient operation.

b) State, with reasons, four operational circumstances that may adversely affect the quality of the output of the system described in the sketch.



i) Describe with the aid of a sketch, an aerobic sewage treatment plant

ii) State the effect, if any, of change of temperature and regularity of flow on the system.

b) Explain the significance of Biological Oxygen Demand



a) With the aid of a sketch, describe a vacuum sewage system.

b) State three advantages possessed by vacuum sewage systems.

Explain why untreated sewage should not be allowed to stagnate.



What are the safety devices fitted to an air compressor

What is the purpose of scum vale on a boiler.

What is the function of an evaporator in a ref system

Regarding the emergency bilge injection valve what is its relevant size compared to the main sea water injection valve.



 (a)  Describe the principle of a coil-operated brake suitable for winches and other deck machinery

(b) Explain with suitable sketches how the windlass is relieved of strain when riding at anchor



a)     With reference to shipboard sewage plants, describe the principle of operation of each of the following:

(i)             Biological;

(ii)            Chemical.

b)     Explain why sewage systems involving aerobic action are to be preferred to those with anaerobic action.

c)     Explain the meaning and significance of the term biological oxygen demand.

d)     Explain TWO situations that can occur in an aerobic sewage treatment plant that may induce the system to revert to an anaerobic system.

e)     State with reasons operational circumstances that may adversely affect the quality of the effluent discharged from a biological sewage treatment Plant.




A large biological sewage plant develops a fault which necessitates opening the unit for repair.

a)     Explain the risk associated with opening the unit

b)     Explain the precautions to be taken to reduce the risk if the unit has to be entered.

c)     Routine Checks

d)     State the hazards that may be present when entering a sewage treatment tank for maintenance



Describe with the aid of a sketch, a biological sewage treatment system that; employs membrane technology for the effluent.




(a) A biological sewage system develops a fault, which necessitates opening the unit for repair, explain the following.

(i) The risk associated with opening he unit.                                                             

(ii) The precaution taken to reduce the risk.                                                               

(b)Explain the significance of biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.).                                





Back to top





Freshwater gen


Describe a treatment scheme to improve potability of water obtained from a low pressure evaporator

State how it is ensured that water from shore source is fit for consumption.

Describe the care necessary for domestic water tank




Explain the principles of osmosis and reverse osmosis   

Describe how reverse osmosis is used for production of fresh water on board ship     

State the limitation of the quality of the permeate in a single pass reverse osmosis system, describing how the quality of the permeate could be improved




Explain the advantages and disadvantages of producing F.W. by reverse osmosis

State the pre and post treatment required during the reverse osmosis process




The fresh water heater in the domestic hot water system shows poor performance

Suggest some measures you would initiate to rectify the problem and improve maintenance.




Sketch and describe Low pressure evaporators for the production of water

Explain how scale can be formed

State measures to reduce or remove scale.



Draw a line sketch of a system used as an alternative to low pressure evaporator for producing water on board ship?

Explain its working principle.

What are its inherent advantages & limitations?




(a) Make a line diagram of domestic fresh water purification system from the evaporator to taps.

 (b) State the purposes of the following in the system.                                                  

(i)   Neuralite unit                     

(ii) Hypo chlorinator unit

(iii) Sand bed filter unit                                                     

(iv) Carbon filter bed unit



With regard to evaporators for low temperature production of water for domestic consumption, state:                                             

Why they should not be operated in costal waters.

Reasons for sterilization of the product.

The usual treatment to make the water potable.

Reason why scale formation is not a major problem.                                                 

Ways of minimizing scale formation or otherwise dealing with it.



Name method of F.W. generation on board ship

Sketch and describe any one method

What treatment is give to render it fit for drinking?



Sketch and describe a fresh water system of a ship

What provision is made to make water portable?




Reverse osmosis is the modern alternative for shipboard production of drinking water

Describe using simple diagrams if necessary, the principle of reverse osmosis.

Sketch a line diagram showing a single pass system for producing fresh water from seawater

Describe such a system

Advantages Claimed For Reverse Osmosis Plants.

Pre-treatment and post treatment.

Safety features.



In a fresh water generator the brine density should be prevented from falling below a particular value to minimise one or a combination of the following:

Scale formation on the tube nests

Loss in capacity and economy

Corrosion in the evaporator

State the correct answer supporting it with adequate justification.



With regard to the fact that bacteria harmful to humans can exist in drinking and washing water

a)               state the constraints placed on the installation and use of systems for shipboard production of fresh water            

b)               state the maintenance and treatment recommended for fresh water tanks.                                                                                                                       

c)               Describe the care and attention required for fresh water calorifiers, shower heads and their flexible pipes.                                                                      

d)               State the treatment required for fresh water from shore sources.



A company circular draws attention to the fact that bacteria harmful to humans can exist in drinking and washing water.

State the constraints placed on the installation and use of the systems for shipboard production of fresh water.     

Describe a system to improve the portability of the fresh water produced by the plaint in Q. (a), identifying the associated quality tests conducted.                                                                                                                               

State the maintenance and treatment recommended for fresh water tanks.




Explain why each of the following faults in a fresh water generator may occur:

(i) A tendency to prime;

(ii) A gradual reduction in continuous blow down;

(iii) A tendency to over pressure.



In fresh Water Generator, the brine density should be prevented from falling below a particular value to minimize one or combination of the following:-

(i) scale formation on the tube chest,

(ii) Loss in capacity & economy &

(iii) Corrosion in the evaporator,

State the correct answer providing it with adequate justification.



Compare advantages and disadvantages of the different methods used to deal with or prevent scale in L.P. Evaporators and draw conclusion as to the best procedure.




Back to top





A heavy Oil purifier vibrates badly when just shutting down and coming to a stop. Suggest some reasons for this vibration problem, when you have already made an inspection of its drive mechanism and casing and found nothing unusual.




With reference to centrifugal separator, give reasons for:

Vibrations, Inclusion of clutch in bowl drive

Contamination of gear case oil, Desludging operation not taking place, Inclusion of clutch in bowl drive, Desludging operation not taking place.



Explain the operation of automatic self cleaning centrifuge. Detailed sketches should be used for your explanation. Labeling principle component and indicating directional flow of all fluid. 

Explain how dam ring contribute to efficient centrifuging with reference to oil of different specific gravity.



Describe an automatic self-sludging centrifuge suitable for dealing with fuel of density up to 1010kg\m3 at I5deg C.

Explain how the centrifuge described in Question. (a) is able to remove water from a fuel, which has a density that is higher than that of water, and state any factors that may assist the operation.

Write out the start up procedure for the centrifuge described in Question (a).



Explain how each of the following conditions contribute to the satisfactory performance of oil centrifuges;

a) Correct bowl speed

b) Cleanliness of bowl

c) Low rate of feed to the bowl

d) Contaminated oil preheated prior to centrifuging

e) Contaminated oil allowed to stand for an appreciable time prior to centrifuging




 a) Difference between roles of purifiers and clarifiers

b) Explain, with the aid of sketch, how fluids of differing characteristics and degrees of contamination can be handled by one machine.



With reference to self cleaning centrifuges;

a) Describe with the aid of a sketch, such a centrifuge;

b) Explain how oils of different specific gravity may be treated;

c) State the safety devices that may be fitted;



Sketch and describe a purifier showing the construction and operation. Explain the start up procedure, the purpose of the gravity disc and what happens when the gravity disc is change?




Back to top




With reference to hydraulic powered deck machinery systems using constant speed, constant delivery, positive displacement, unidirectional pumps:

a)     State four types of pump design.

b)     Describe how the flow rate is varied.

c)     Describe how direction of flow may be reversed.



a) Describe the construction of a hydraulically operated valve suitable for ballast duty                                            

b) A hydraulically operated valve, situated in a duct keel has failed to close. Outline the procedure for each of the following:

(i)       Safe entry into the duct keel by engine room staff, stating where guidance on this may be found         

(ii)       Ascertaining the cause of the malfunction   



What will be the effect on the performance of deck machinery, if hydraulic oil has the following problem?

Fresh water contamination

Sea water contamination

High temperature

Air in the system

Dust in the system



With reference to hydraulic system for deck machinery identify:

The types of contamination likely to be found in hydraulic systems for deck machinery

The sources of such impurities;

Means used to prevent problems with contamination.

Possible effects of the oil contamination on the system.




With reference to hydraulic deck machinery:

(a)State the sources for contamination of the system;                                                      

(b) Describe possible effects due to contamination,                                                         

(c) Explain how the oil can be monitored by ships staff.



Describe with the aid of a line diagram the layout and component of a hydraulic system suitable for operation of deck machinery

Explain how the hydraulic system pressure is controlled assuming the use of a variable delivery pump

State which design of hydraulic motor is used in the system described



 (a) Explain why pressure transients, in excess of relief valve settings, sometimes occur in hydraulic systems and suggest how these may be controlled or reduced.

(b)What adverse effects do these pressure waves have on the system.





Back to top



Ships hull


Describe the hull examination that should be carried out on a ship in dry dock.

Making special reference to essential maintenance and repairs that can only be carried out in dry dock. 

Construct a list of the item in order of importance that are required to be surveyed in the dry dock




Describe the in-water survey to classification society requirements of the external underwater structure of a very large crude carrier.




Sketch and describe an electro hydraulic stabilizer

Explaining how it restrains the rolling action of a vessel in heavy seaway

What structural parts of the vessel are most affected by this restrain?




With reference to activated fin stabilisers give reasons why:      

For large vessels such units arc preferred to passive tanks;

These units are preferred for passenger and fast cargo ships;

Partial rather than maximum damping of ship movement in heavy weather is advisable for reasons other than overstressing of fin stocks and activating gear




(a) With reference to the underwater surface of the hull:

(i) describe a hull plate roughness analyser system;

(ii) State the significance of the roughness profile and compare the typical roughness values for a new ship and a ship eight years old;           

(b) With reference to the application of self polishing paint in dry dock:

(i) describe the plate preparation necessary;

(ii) State the defects that may occur in the paint coating if it is not correctly applied;                     




 (a) Describe the routine maintenance required for a watertight door, which has provision for remote closure from the bridge and local operation.                                               

(b) State the source of power for closure of electrical and the source of power for alarm and indicator.                                                                                                               

(c) What routine checks are carried out, to ensure trouble free operation?



With reference to impress Current method of protecting ships hull form corrosion

Sketch and describe a fully automated impress current

Sketch a simple transverse section of the hull and show direction of current flow through the system

How are the propulsion and manoeuvring system protected from carrion in the arrangement?

Advantages and disadvantages of this system over sacrificial anode system




 (a)  Sketch a watertight door and frame showing the manner of attachment to the bulkhead and the   additional reinforcement carried by the bulkhead to compensate for the aperture.                   

(b) Explain how water tightness of the door and frame mating surfaces is ensured with an hydrostatic pressure tending to force the faces apart.

(c)  (i)  Describe the means of closing the door;                                

State the number of closing stations and the position of each.




 (a) The 'Potentially Hazardous Situations' when every watertight door in a passenger ship must be closed except when a person is passing through it.    

(b) Watertight Doors are assigned categories, which govern their operation. State the 'Normal Condition' operational instruction which are issued for the following categories of watertight door: 

(i)  Type A:                 

(ii) Type B:                             

(iii)  Type C:

(c) With reference to watertight doors, state:            

(i) The test drills that must be carried out;

(ii) The speed of closure of power operated doors.

(d) State where, the information asked for in (a), (b) and (c) can be obtained.



Describe the operating mechanism for a water tight door which has provision for remote closure from bridge and local operation.

State the source of power for closure of electrical and source of power for alarm and indicator.




To ensure that a ship remains worthy of its 100 Al classification, annual and special surveys are carried out by classification surveyors. Detail the parts of the ship that should be examined during EACH of the following:

Annual survey;           

Special survey.           



Explain how EACH of the following hull defects should be dealt with:

A cracked weld;         

A severe indentation in way of a frame:    

Surfaces suffering from general corrosion although the extent of the wastage does not warrant plate replacement;           

A bilge keel fractured at the forward end.    



(a)      Explain the reasons for the adoption of the following features in propellers:

(i)      Six or more blades;       

(ii)      Highly skewed blades;

(iii)     Variable angle to the blades.   

(b)      Explain with the aid of a sketch how the propeller curve varies from the chosen design curve under the following conditions:

(i)       Hull fouling;    

(ii)      Ballast condition with a clean hull.     



(a) Describe how propeller wake occurs.

(b) Explain the influence of wake on:

(i)       Propeller efficiency

(ii)      Hull induced vibration.



With reference to arresting the headway of vessels of considerable mass, give reasoned opinions on EACH of the following statements:

Full power availability for astern running of the propeller is inconsequential;      

Results have been disappointing in those instances where rudders have been adapted to act as retarders; 

Discreet use of transverse thrust units may reduce stopping distance.



Describe how a ships structure withstands the forces acting on it:

When floating;           

When in dry dock.  



Describe a procedure for the repair of paint damaged areas on a vessel's hull.  

State FOUR methods for dealing with surfaces usually inaccessible for painting due to the hull blocks in dry dock.           

Outline the problem that occur with self polishing copolymer paints when a vessel is at anchor for long periods or proceeding at reduced speed.




A vessel is required to undergo dry docking for inspection of underwater hull / fittings

State the precautionary / action to be taken prior to vessel entry in dry dock

Describe the checks to be done on commencement of flooding of the dry dock



Back to top




Sketch and describe a pneumatically operated control valve

Explain how the valve is operated if the controller fails.       

Discuss the routine maintenance required for these valves



With reference to pneumatic differential transmitter

Sketch and describe a transmitter.

State the duties they may perform.



Describe with a sketch a pneumatic relay and show how feed back can be achieved when such a relay is used in conjunction with a flapper mechanism.



Sketch and Describe 2 Methods that employ Man METRIC Means for Measuring Tank Contents

State What Corrections are to be made to the Reading Obtained by the Methods Described?

Explain how Bunkering Requirement May Be Estimated When no Records of Main engine Fuel Consumption are available 





Sketch, and describe, any two of the following instruments :                                                        

(a)  Continuous liquid level indicator

(b) Direction indicator and wrong-way alarm

(c) Fluid flow meter

(d) High temperature pyrometer

Comment on the features that make them suitable for their selected duties.



The following components may be found in a control system.



Orifice plate or venturi tube.

Change over valve.


Explain the functions of each component in relation to the system and describe, briefly, any two.



What different methods are used for preserving ship's hull during service

In pneumatic control system control valve are used to regulate the flow of cooling water

Explain in this connection

The advantages of double ported valves as against single ported valves

The importance of correct valve spindle packing

The meaning of fail safe

The meaning of the term linerarised.



Sketch and describe a method of sensing temperature change giving details of how the signals are converted and fed into a temperature control system.



a) Sketch a torsion meter for measuring the power transmitted between the main engine and the propeller.

b) Explain how the torsion meter sketched works and how power is transmitted.



Describe one method by which each of the following can be measured;

a) Liquid level

b) Rotational speed

Describe one method by which temperature can be measured.

Describe one method by which pressure can be measured.

Describe one method by which flow can be measured.



What is the range of control valve setting?

Advantages & disadvantages of soft valve seats.



 (a) Describe with the aid of sketch a pipeline mounted differential pressure device for fluid flow measurement.

(b) Explain what other devices may have to be employed in addition to the one described in above question (a) in order to measure fluid flow.





State why the temperature of lubricating oil supplied to an engine needs close control. 

Sketch and describe an arrangement and explain the principle of operation of instrumentation and control equipment for automatically maintaining the temperature of lubricating oil supplied to an engine at its desired value.



Back to top






Describe the means of protection against EACH of the following engine faults in a vessel operating with UMS:

Crankcase explosion; 

Scavenge fire;        

External fire on the engine;        

Loss of lubricating oil pressure;         

Engine overload.




Values of some main engine exhaust temperatures displayed in the engine control room differ from those displayed on the engine for the same cylinders.

i)            Explain how it may be determined which readings are inaccurate

ii)          State possible reasons for these inaccurate readings

iii)         Explain how the location of the faults may be detected 

b)           State the periodic checks which should be carried undertaken to ensure that remote engine Instrumentation is readings accurately



Describe the checks you would make while taking over a E\R. watch at sea

Under what condition would you refuse to?

Take over

Hand over



(a) The UMS monitoring and control system of your ship has recently started to give false alarms and incorrect data printouts. State, with reasons, possible causes if the false alarms and reading are:

(i) Localized to a particular area of engine operation;

(ii) General to the engine room.

(b)  State, with reasons, the action you, as Second Engineer, would take to ensure continued safe operation of the vessel if the defects are general to the engine room.

(c)  Explain the procedure you, as Second Engineer, would adopt in order to locate and rectify a general fault in the UMS system.



In Engine room that is operated under U.M.S. condition, describe with the aid of sketches how the Following are monitored.

The Perforation of high pressure fuel pipe.

The imminence possibility of scavenge fire.

Condition that may be conducive to a crank case explosion.



A ship operating on U.M.S mode must have an automatic fire detection system for machinery space

Sketch a line diagram of the system showing how shipboard main supply is fed through battery charger and emergency battery to fire detector heads and fire zone indicator panel and alarm

In the event of the main supply failure state the length of time for which the emergency battery should be capable of operating the system

Sketch and describe a line termination or other method of monitoring the integrity of the system.



An auxiliary engine exhibits a tendency to hunt to such an extent that the engine speed varies and prohibit the connection of the machine to the switch board

Discuss the possible causes of hunting

Explain how the problem of hunting may be rectified.



With reference to U.M.S. operation.

State with reason the essential requirement for U.M.S.

As 2nd engineer describe how you would respond to the irretrievable failure of the machinery space fire alarm system whilst the ship is on voyage.





With reference to UMS engine remote control and monitoring system:

(a)        In the event of complete failure of such monitoring and; control systems state, with reasons, how you; as Second Engineer, would organize the engine room Staff to ensure safe operation of the engine during:

(i) Normal deep sea conditions,

(ii) Maneuvering,

State, with reasons, SIX important engine parameters which should be manually
monitored following failure of the UMS system

Explain how the cause of failure of the UMS system may be traced.




W.R.T the adoption of UMS describes suitable automatic control and alarm system to deal with

High bilge level

Fuel oil tank overflow.

Bearing overheating

Fire detection

Comment on the method and frequency of testing the equipment and the energy supply source to ensure unfailing continuous operation.





Back to top


Fire & Safety


What is understood by risk on board ship?

As a 2nd engineer discuss various methods for hazard identification and assessment of risk available on board.




You are the Chief Engineer of a ship with four engineers and six engine crew members. How would you set up a fire-fighting team & verify its effectiveness



What preventative measures should be taken against the out-break of fire in an oil burning vessel?  How would you proceed to subdue such an oil fire? 

Describe with the aid of a sketch, a foam type portable fire extinguisher.




With reference to emergency generator.

Its location

Method of automatic starting.

The time available for starting and connection of power to switch board

Angle of heel and trim up to which it must be capable of operating.

The length if the time it must be capable of supplying emergency power.




a) Explain how and when fire pump should be tested what are the requirement as per SOLAS 74 as amended

b) Describe routine maintenance to be carried out on the various fitting on a fire line giving testing pressure where appropriate

c) Describe briefly how you will dismantle a fire pump for survey give details of factors which will decide on replacing the parts



Define briefly the construction details peculiar to each of the following types of closure that enables their primary function to be fully realized

Watertight doors

Fire proof doors

Gas tight doors

State why (a) can perform and function of (b) as well as of (c) whereas function of (b) and (c) are restricted solely to their primary function.



You are the Chief Engineer of a vessel which is about to be subjected to a survey by a MMD surveyor, For the fire appliances in a vessel of your choice, plan a survey route, listing the statutory items to be examined, the tests required and the relevant information needed to facilitate the work of the surveyor.




With reference to fixed firefighting systems employing water in fog or mist form

a)     Explain how the fire is extinguished;

b)     Explain why particle size and flow rate are essential characteristics.



Describe the items and examinations that are carried out during a safety equipment survey with regards to fire safety.



As Chief engineer, you are responsible for the SAFETY OF PERSONNEL ENTERING AND WORKING IN ENCLOSED SPACES.

State the precautions you would insist on being observed during the complete operation, and any action you would take if the precautions were not being observed.



a)     With   reference   to   portable   fire   extinguishers,   describe   the   routine maintenance carried out on EACH of the following:

(1)       Water;

(2)       Dry powder;

(3)       CO2

b)     State why CO2 extinguishers are not allowed to be stowed in accommodation spaces.       



1.   With respect to Carbon dioxide installation, state the procedure or arrangements that you as CEO would adopt, for the following:

(a)  Contractors working on the Carbon dioxide system.                         

(b) Understanding between the bridge and the engine room in the event of a fire.

2.   Explain how provision is incorporated in the Carbon dioxide system for machinery space fire fighting to prevent malicious or inadvertent-release of the gas.

3.   Explain how the carbon dioxide system is protected against over pressure.

4.   If the carbon dioxide room temperature rises marginally above the critical temperature, explain the consequences.

5.   As CEO state how you would assess when it is reasonable to attempt access to the engine room, after Carbon dioxide flooding.

6.   Explain how the carbon dioxide room itself is protected against fire.               

7.    Explain how leakages from one or more carbon dioxide bottles is catered for.



A new EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP is to be fitted in a different location from the old pump which was in the steering compartment. Performance of the latter had been unsatisfactory when the ship was in ballast.

(a) Suggest with reasons possible new locations) for the pump. 

(b) State specifications for the new pump.     

State where these specifications may be obtained:

(c) Stale the criteria- for selecting a pump manufacturer.



Sketch EACH of the following fire detector heads, giving for EACH type a brief description of its operation.

a.         An ionisation chamber smoke detector;

b.         An optical smoke detector.

Explain why reliance cannot be placed on a single type of fire detector.

Outline the factors that influence the type and location of fire detector heads in machinery spaces.




 (a) With reference to the structure of a large passenger vessel describe how the spread of fire and smoke is prevented.

(b) Describe the standard fire test for a Class A-60 division material.




Sketch an automatic sprinkler system for combating fire in passenger spaces on a ship and state –

 (a)  The safety devices incorporated in the system.

 (b)  How the system is charged?

 (c)  The parameters governing the volume of the pressure tank.

(d) Means provided to prevent the passage of seawater into the pressure tank.



With reference to sprinkler systems for the protection of accommodation spaces:

a)     Sketch a section head associated with a stop valve;

b)     Explain how expansion of the liquid is accommodated from the hydrophore tank when proceeding from a temperate zone to a tropical region;

c)     Describe how to test a sprinkler systems section head.



Explain in detail how you would isolate one of the section of a sprinkler system for routine maintenance. Describe all tests and inspections you would make and how you would return the system to service.    



State with reasons the principal causes of fire in accommodation and service spaces while at sea and in port. Also;

(a) Sketch a fire detector suitable for use in accommodation. Explain why fire hazards in a ship under repair in a yard are more than when At sea?



During routine soundings it is found that leakage into a cofferdam is occurring from an adjacent deep cargo oil tank.

As Second Engineer state the procedure for directing safe entry by the engine room staff to ascertain the cause of the leakage.

If the leakage persists discuss EACH of the following options as a possible remedy:

(i) Leave the cofferdam to flood with oil

(ii) Flood the cofferdam with sea water

(iii)Seal the cofferdam and pressurize with air

(iv)Pump the leakage to bunker tanks.



With reference to an emergency source of electrical power in a passenger ship

Describe a typical power source;

Give a typical list of essential services which must be supplied simultaneously.

c)       Explain how the emergency installation can be periodically tested.



Describe the changes which take place within a lead-acid battery during discharge and when charging is taking place.


 (i) Why the rate of charge will affect gassing.

 (ii) The risks associated with gassing and safeguard in battery compartments.

(iii)The reasons for distilled water top up.

 (iv)The remedy for spillage of electrolyte on the skin.

 (c)     List the electrical system on board the ship where continuity of supply from emergency sources of power is essential in the event of main power failure.



With reference to lifeboats, describe with the aid of sketches:

The handbrake used for lowering and state how it may be tested;

The centrifugal brake and state the method of testing;

 (i) A roller ratchet and state the method of testing;

 (ii) Explain why the ratchet is incorporated into the system;



W.R.T. Fixed installation for dealing with machinery space fire

Describe with the aid of sketch a typical installation

Explain the testing procedure for the equipment

Out line the testing procedure for

Remote shutdown

Other equipment to be used in the event of engine room fire.



Sketch the arrangement of a set of gravity lifeboat davits with boat- lowering winch.  State in detail, the routine attention that should be given to

the davits, falls and winch to maintain efficiency at all times.



a) Sketch a bulk carbon dioxide fixed fire fighting system suitable for machinery spaces and for the cargo spaces of a dry cargo ship.


i) describe the system you have sketched above, and it's method of operation.

ii) State the advantage this system has over multi-bottle carbon dioxide fire fighting system.



a) Describe the pre-use checks required for self contained breathing apparatus sets

b) Describe the procedure that should be adopted to find missing personnel in a smoked filled Accommodation area.



a)     List the essential items that make up a fireman’s outfit.

b)     Describe the checks that should be made before a fire fighter enters a smoke filled atmosphere.




Describe, with the aid of a sketch, an explosimeter for the detection of combustible gas in cargo tanks and other enclosed spaces.

Describe how an explosimeter would be used to test the atmosphere of a double bottom tank that previously contained fuel oil.

State what can cause an explosimeter to give a false reading.

Explain the meaning of the term lower and upper flammable limits for flammable mixtures.




A i) Sketch an infra red flame detector, give a brief description of it's Operation;

A ii) Sketch a light scatter smoke detector, give a brief description of it's operation;

b) State what type of fire the infra-red detector is used to sense, and why it must always be used together with a smoke detector.



a) State where information can be obtained with regard to the safe carriage of hazardous substances as cargos.

b) For a hazardous substance of your choice as a cargo, discuss each of the following;

i) Storage and transport

ii) Hazardous properties

iii) Fire fighting techniques

iv) Medical effects and treatment after physical contact with cargo




With reference to water sprinkler fixed fire fighting systems suitable for accommodation spaces;

a) Sketch such a system and explain it's method of operation

b) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of such a system



a) Sketch a line diagram of a pressurised water spraying fixed fire fighting system suitable for machinery spaces.

b) Describe the system that you have sketched

c) State why a high pressure water spray is a potentially good fire fighting medium.



a) State why oxygen deficiency may occur in certain spaces onboard ship.

b) Describe the precautions taken before entry to any recently opened space


i) Describe, with the aid of sketches, a self contained breathing apparatus.

ii) State why a bottle is checked before use and how warning is given that the bottle contents are nearly exhausted.



a) Sketch and describe a C02 fixed fire fighting system for the machinery space.

b) State the requirements that determine the amount of gas carried in a C02 fire fighting system.

c) Explain how the system fixedCO2 is protected from over pressure;




Describe an emergency generating plant for use in the event of complete failure of the main electrical installation and make particular reference to :-

Starting arrangement.

Cooling systems.

Fuel and its supply.

Periodic attention required.





1) Describe the braking arrangement fitted to the lowering of the lifeboat.

2) State the periodic attention required by the wire rope falls.

3)  In a life boat davit with power hoisting arrangement, what prevents the life boat falls from being unduly strained.

4) At what lowering velocity does the centrifugal brake operate?




With reference to equipment supplied to detect and combat hold fires in dry cargo ships:

Describe for a ship that carries dangerous cargo the bridge based detection system

State how fires are dealt with bearing in mind that cargo quantity varies.



a)     Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a CO2 bottled gas system suitable for the protection of machinery spaces.

b)     Describe the procedure for releasing CO2 into machinery spaces



With reference to a major fire in the machinery space:

a)     Explain why each of the following equipment is shut down remotely, stating how it is achieved:

1. Settling and service tank valves; 2. Fuel transfer and supply pumps; 3. Mechanical and natural ventilation,

b)     State how the fire is brought under control using the facilities available outside the affected machinery space.




As 2nd engineer of a new ship prepare standing order for all future bunkering operation

The taking of bunkers is an important aspect of a Senior Engineer's responsibility.

(a)  State the safety precautions that should be observed when bunkering. 

(b) Explain the importance of taking samples when bunkering.         

(c) Explain a preferred method of taking samples,                             

(d) State the effect of EACH of the following in a fuel oil:

(i) High density;                                                                                      

(ii) High pour point;            

(iii) High water content.

(e) What information is provided in Bunker Delivery Note (BDN)



 (a) Sketch a simplified circuit that may be incorporated in a control panel for an array of fire detectors.

 (b) Describe the following features that may be found in a control panel for fire detectors:    

c) Audible fire alarm circuits;

(ii) Identification, of zone of fire:

(iii)Automatic change, over from normal power supply.

Outline the factors that influence the type and location of fire detector heads in machinery spaces.



a)     Sketch a typical ships firemain system.

b)     Describe the system sketched in Q(a) making reference to the number of isolating valves ans how the system can be operated.

c)     Describe the international shore connection.



a)     Describe, with the aid of a sketch, a bulk, mechanical foam fire fighting system.

b)     Describe the maintenance and checks of the a bulk, mechanical foam fire fighting system  to ensure the equipment is fit for purpose.



With reference to CO2 fixed, bottled gas systems for fire fighting purposes:

a)     Sketch an individual bottle head arrangement showing how the gas is released;

b)     Explain where the gas is discharged to in the event of a bursting disc operating;

c)     State TWO methods of determining the content of the CO2 bottles.



With reference to fixed CO2 smothering systems for machinery spaces, state the regulations with respect to EACH of the following:

1.           Location of main bottle storage;

2.          Quantity and time taken for release.

b)    Describe the procedure for release of CO2 into the machinery space.



a)     Sketch and describe a mechanical foam, portable, fire extinguisher.

b)     Explain how it may be ascertained that the extinguisher sketched in Q(a) may require recharging.



(a) Distinguish between 'fixed temperature' and 'rate of temperature rise' types of fire detectors and state with reasons where they are likely to be located.

(b) Sketch and describe a fire detector of the 'rate of temperature' type, 

(c) Explain how compensation is made for a slow rise in ambient temperature

(d)  Describe how to verify that the fire detection in machinery space are in working order



Accidents have occurred due to premature or accidental release of CO2 into the machinery spaces. State the safety procedure that the Chief Engineer should adopt with respect to maintenance being carried out on the system

State the procedure prior to the safe release of Co2 into the machinery space in the event of fire

Describe the factors that should be considered prior to re-entry of the machinery spaces after the release of Co2 gas.



Describe a procedure for testing the operation of the machinery space CO2 smothering system.



Describe a low pressure bulk CO2 storage vessel arrangement for an engine room fire extinguishing system.

With reference to the low storage temperature of CO2, state each of the following

(1)    The pressure vessel material;

(2)   The safeguards against the loss of cooling.



With reference to health hazards from inhaling asbestos dust.

a)   Name one publication which gives guidance on the hazard.

b)   State where Asbestos may be found on board

1)    Ships now being built for Indian Registry.

2)   Ships built before asbestos health hazards were recognized.

c)   State the health risks from contact with asbestos.

d)   Outline the precautions necessary to minimize exposure to asbestos during an emergency repair.




a) Sketch simple outline of a steam garbage incinerator type auxiliary boiler and show in some detail steam raising and adjoining pyrolyzing furnace for garbage, sewage and oil sludge disposal.

b)   Describe the pyrolyzing process.



Fixed fire protection provided for the propulsion motor and generator of diesel electric drive vessel is usually one of the following methods:

a)   Fixed Foam Extinguisher;

b) Fixed Co2 System;

c) Steam smothering system;

d) Dry chemical powder.

Briefly state in a comparative analysis how each one of these methods has some disadvantages when used with propulsion system as stated above.



Considering that the engine room is the most common single space on board ship for fires to break out, discuss the merits and demerits of the following fixed fire fighting systems.

a)   Carbon-dioxide;

b) Pressure Water Spray;

c) High expansion foam.



Sketch a line diagram showing a typical 'Inert Gas System' used for inerting oil tankers labelling the component parts.

Describe the system.

State the advantages and disadvantages.

State what alarms are fitted to the plant

State what Oxygen content you would expect in flue gases.



What gases are present in oil tanks after pumping out?

How would you remove these gases and what are the dangers of these gases.




Sketch and describe the construction and operation of a life boat winch handbrake and centrifugal brake.

What maintenance do the brakes require?

At what lowering velocity does the centrifugal brake operate?




State the regular routines carried out on the following system:

CO2, total flooding system of engine room,

Sprinkler system.




Describe systematically how a vessel which has had a black out on full ahead is restored to full steaming conditions.




When carrying out welding in the engine room of a tanker in case of an emergency what specific precaution would you take if the

Tanker was fully loaded with crude oil

Fully loaded with vegetable oil

Was partly loaded with kerosene

Tanker in dry dock



Back to top








Define the responsibilities of a 2nd engineer in respect of the following.

Immediately prior to dry docking.

Whist the dock is dry.

Immediately prior to and after flooding.

Leaving dry dock.   

Draft a list of standing orders to the engine department for that period that the vessel is on the blocks




State why the temperature of lubricating oil supplied to an engine needs close control. 

Sketch and describe an arrangement and explain the principle of operation of instrumentation and control equipment for automatically maintaining the temperature of lubricating oil supplied to an engine at its desired value.




What gas would be found in the following compartments and how could their effects be minimized?

Battery room, ships refrigeration chamber, in empty ballast tank, in ships paint store room, in ships fuel tank?




Sketch and describe a stockless anchor illustrating the method or device used to attach it to the chain cable. 

When the anchor and cable are ranged during the ships underwater survey what parts require special attention and what defects are likely to be discovered?




Foreign going vessels are required to possess a valid safety equipment certificate renewed at intervals after survey of the safety equipment. 

(a)        Compile a list of items that are contained in the safety equipment survey.  

(b) From the list compiled in (a) above select TWO ship systems, explain how they would be examined and identify possible defects:         





(a)      An M. notice draws attention to the need for adequate support, of engine room gantry cranes.

(i)       Sketch sections' through the engine room casing showing how the crane is supported by the ship structure

(ii).      State what restricts the forward and aft limits of the crane and what is fitted to prevent the crane damaging the forward and aft bulkheads of the casing 

State the Chief Engineers responsibilities for the engine room gantry crane as laid down by the Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seaman.




(a)        With reference to the membrane tanks for the carriage of liquefied gas at very low temperatures: 

(i)       describe with the aid of a sketch ONE method of building up the insulation;           

(ii)       State with reasons the alloy which is used for the membrane;           

With the aid of a sketch, describe how free standing tanks for the carriage of liquefied gas are located and supported.




 (i)       Define the'-meaning of the term "conditions of assignment" as applied to ships.     

(ii)      State how conditions of assignment contribute towards the watertight integrity of ships.    

(iii)     Give reasons why conditions of assignment need periodic inspection, giving specific instances where they can be found to be less than fully effective.



Write an account of the methods employed, for ventilating large turbo-alternators.



State what is meant by machinery condition monitoring.

With reference to machinery condition monitoring:

State the means available for gathering the data required;

Describe how the data obtained is used to indicate machinery condition trends.

Explain the relevance of condition monitoring to approved planned maintenance schemes.



a)     State the advantages of machinery condition monitoring.

b)     Explain how condition monitoring is carried out



What is PORT STATE CONTROL INSPECTION OF SHIPS and why it is conducted?

What are the applicable international conventions which contain control provisions for these inspections?

State your views on the principle of Port state control and mention the features of a ship which could be cause of concern and likely detention of a ship in port during PSC inspection.



Explain the meaning of and discuss four of the following with reference to the lubrication of the marine machinery

a) Lacquering                                             

b)  Scuffing    

c) Detergents -

d) Floculation                                                                                                            

e) Anti-oxidant properties                                                                                          

f)  Demulsification



Define the significance of pH value in relation to lubricating oil.

Describe how this value is measured.

State what are the consequences of altering the pH value of lubricating oil to deviate from closely defined limits.



Discuss the properties required by L.O for use in;

1 hydraulic steering gear system

2 refrigerating machinery

3 bearing lubrication in high speed machinery

4 gear case

5 Oil lubricating stern tube.



Electrical power is provided from an alternator driven by a main engine, which is coupled to a controllable pitch propeller.  Using a sketch to illustrate your answer, describe a suitable governor for the main engine.

Give an account of the governor action to increase the power delivered by the engine in response to a large electrical load increase while also restoring and maintaining the correct frequency.

The electrical load is transferred to auxiliary diesel driven alternators when necessary, by paralleling. Explain the necessity for droop being incorporated in governors and how this is effected

Explain each of the following:

The necessity for droop;

How droop is affected.



 (a)  Describe CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE using VIBRATION signal analysis and compare with breakdown maintenance and scheduled maintenance.

(b) Describe, critically, the system used on your last vessel to ensure adequate performance of machinery.



Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of adopting the following

Planned Maintenance

Condition Monitoring

Breakdown Maintenance.



It is important to maintain the quality of lubricating oils in main and auxiliary diesel engines.

a)  Discuss critically the methods used to maintain crankcase oil on various ships in which you have served.

b)  Drawing conclusions from a) state, as chief engineer, your intended method of maintaining crank case oil quality.




Explain how analysis of used lubricating oil can be used as a health monitoring tool for diesel engine

Describe how vibration measurement can be used with a main engine turbocharger

For fault analysis

For condition monitoring for maintenance

As a substitute to opening up machinery for survey.



Explain the term Continuous Survey of Machinery (CSM); (2) 

(b) What is the interval of survey, and its advantages?

(c) Explain the term "condition of class" imposed by classification society, state your answer with examples.




 (a)  State, with reasons, THREE properties required of a crankcase oil which is to be used for a trunk piston main engine.

(b) Explain how a representative sample of crankcase oil would be obtained from a trunk piston engine.

(c) Briefly describe the action to be taken if the crankcase oil charge cannot immediately be replaced and analysis shows:

(i)   Water is present;

(ii)   Alkalinity has fallen;

(iii) Viscosity has changed appreciably;

(iv) Carbon content has increased.



 Legislation framed at preventing the emission of black smoke sets limits on the length of time of such emission.

(a)  Discuss the reasons for setting time limits rather than imposing a complete ban on emission-

(b) State why different times are quoted, giving examples.

(c)  State the likely constituents of black smoke from the combustion of residual fuel in a boiler

(d) List the contaminants likely to be found in the clear exhaust from a diesel driven alternator burning gas.



 (a) With the aid of a block diagram describe the operation of an electronic governor for an internal combustion engine.

(b) State THREE problems to which such a governor is prone and explain how EACH becomes evident.

(c) In the event of the governor on a direct drive engine becoming inoperative state the action you, as Chief Engineer, would take in order to ensure safe operation of the engine.



Describe the possible faults which may be found during a dry-dock inspection of the following:

(a)  Stern frame

(b)  Sea chest

(c)  Bilge keel

(d)  Anodes

(e)  Rudders   



Why is a pressure relief valve used in a hydraulic system?

State the basic types of pressure relief valve.

What is a check valve?

Show various uses of a check valve in the hydraulic circuit

How does pressure relief valve differs from a pressure reducing valve

How does pressure reducing valve work

What is pressure compensated flow control valve ‘how does pressure compensation takes place.



a) Make a detailed sketch of a tilting pad type thrust block.

b) Describe the operation of a tilting pad thrust block.

c) State four probable causes if the temperature of the oil in a tilting pad thrust block were to rise.



a) State four operational conditions that may lead to vibration of main transmission shafting.

b) Suggest methods to reduce the vibration levels that occur in main transmission shafting.



Define the significance of pH value in relation to Lube Oil.

Describe how this value is measured.

State what are the consequence of allowing the pH value of Lube. Oil to deviate from closely defined limits.



With reference to Crankcase lube oil -

Explain why the use of oil as a piston coolant presents problem and how these may be minimized.

State why and how the oil used for crankcase lubrication of a trunk piston engine may differ from that used for a cross-head engine.



 (a)  Give REASONS for the Main sea water pump emergency stop switch is provided outside the machinery space.                                                                            

(b) Relief valve from fuel oil pumps do not have open ended discharge - also sketch a relief valve arrangement                                                  

(c) Water distillers are fitted high in the engine room.

(d) Auxiliary steam lines are fitted with connections to atmosphere.




What are the conditions required in the cylinders of a marine diesel engine for good combustion. 

Under normal working conditions state how the following may occur:

Black smoke, White smoke, Blue smoke.





A large fuel oil settling tank is found to persistently to contain copious amounts of water.

Outline possible causes for this situation and the actions taken when this occurs

List the precautions to be undertaken if it is deemed necessary to enter the tank



With respect to refrigeration gases used on board vessels answer the following.

Explain ozone depleting potentional of conventional ref gases.

Name alternative refrigeration  gases available and being used on board

Explain the steps you will take to ensure that release of refrigeration gases from the plant is minimised during normal operation and during maintenance activities.






With regard to care of lubricating oils on board answer the following.

Microbial degradation of lubricating oil and measures to prevent the same.

Method of ensuring correct sampling is done for the purpose of shore based testing.

If shore based testing results show abnormal value of water content and TBN for crank case lube oil of a slow speed main engine, what will be interpretation and subsequent action?   




Back to top