Map Of Ancient Mesopotamia

    ancient mesopotamia
  • Mesopotamia (from the Greek ??????????? "[land] between the rivers", Assyrian called "Bet-Nahrain", rendered in Arabic as ???? ???????? bilad al-rafidayn) is a toponym for the area of the Tigris-Euphrates river system, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq, as well as some parts of
  • (HEAR IT) a civilization between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which developed circa 5900 BCE and ended circa 600 CE; is considered by many experts to be the place where civilization began for the human race
    map
  • A diagram or collection of data showing the spatial arrangement or distribution of something over an area
  • function: (mathematics) a mathematical relation such that each element of a given set (the domain of the function) is associated with an element of another set (the range of the function)
  • a diagrammatic representation of the earth's surface (or part of it)
  • A two-dimensional representation of the positions of stars or other astronomical objects
  • A diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, etc
  • make a map of; show or establish the features of details of; "map the surface of Venus"
map of ancient mesopotamia
map of ancient mesopotamia - Ancient Perspectives:
Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome (The Kenneth Nebenzahl, Jr., Lectures in the History of Cartography)
Ancient Perspectives: Maps and Their Place in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome (The Kenneth Nebenzahl, Jr., Lectures in the History of Cartography)
Ancient Perspectives encompasses a vast arc of space and time—Western Asia to North Africa and Europe from the third millennium BCE to the fifth century CE—to explore mapmaking and worldviews in the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. In each society, maps served as critical economic, political, and personal tools, but there was little consistency in how and why they were made. Much like today, maps in antiquity meant very different things to different people.
Ancient Perspectives presents an ambitious, fresh overview of cartography and its uses. The seven chapters range from broad-based analyses of mapping in Mesopotamia and Egypt to a close focus on Ptolemy’s ideas for drawing a world map based on the theories of his Greek predecessors at Alexandria. The remarkable accuracy of Mesopotamian city-plans is revealed, as is the creation of maps by Romans to support the proud claim that their emperor’s rule was global in its reach. By probing the instruments and techniques of both Greek and Roman surveyors, one chapter seeks to uncover how their extraordinary planning of roads, aqueducts, and tunnels was achieved.

Even though none of these civilizations devised the means to measure time or distance with precision, they still conceptualized their surroundings, natural and man-made, near and far, and felt the urge to record them by inventive means that this absorbing volume reinterprets and compares.

Babylon, reconstructed walls (present day Al Hillah), Babylon Province, Iraq
Babylon, reconstructed walls (present day Al Hillah), Babylon Province, Iraq
Babylon (Arabic: Babil; Akkadian: Babili) was an Akkadian city-state, founded in 1867 BC by an Amorite dynasty of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babylon Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers (55 mi) south of Baghdad. All that remains of the original ancient famed city of Babylon today is a mound, or tell, of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The city itself was built upon the Euphrates, and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. The town flourished and attained independence with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in 1894 BC. Claiming to be the successor of the ancient Eridu, Babylon eclipsed Nippur as the "holy city" of Mesopotamia around the time an Amorite king named Hammurabi first created the short lived Babylonian Empire; this quickly dissolved upon his death and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian, Kassite and Elamite domination. Babylon again became the seat of the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 612 to 539 BC which was founded by Chaldeans and whose last king was an Assyrian. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the fall of Babylon it came under the rules of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires. Name The Greek form Babylon (???????) is an adaptation of Akkadian Babili. The Babylonian name as it stood in the 1st millennium BC had been changed from an earlier Babilli in early 2nd millennium BC, meaning "Gate of God" or "Gateway of the God" (bab-ili) by popular etymology. The earlier name Babilla appears to be an adaptation of a non-Semitic source of unknown origin or meaning. In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel; Tiberian Bavel; Syriac Bawel), interpreted in the Book of Genesis (11:9) to mean confusion, from the verb bilbel, to confuse. History An indication of Babylon's early existence may be a later tablet describing the reign of Sargon of Akkad (ca. 23rd century BC short chronology). The so-called "Weidner Chronicle" states that it was Sargon himself who built Babylon "in front of Akkad" (ABC 19:51). Another later chronicle likewise states that Sargon "dug up the dirt of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade". (ABC 20:18–19). Van de Mieroop has suggested that those sources may refer to the much later Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire rather than Sargon of Akkad. Some scholars, including linguist I.J. Gelb, have suggested that the name Babil is an echo of an earlier city name. Herzfeld wrote about Bawer in Iran, which was allegedly founded by Jamshid; the name Babil could be an echo of Bawer. David Rohl holds that the original Babylon is to be identified with Eridu. The Bible in Genesis 10 indicates that Nimrod was the original founder of Babel (Babylon). Joan Oates claims in her book Babylon that the rendering "Gateway of the gods" is no longer accepted by modern scholars. By around the 19th century BC, much of Mesopotamia was occupied by Amorites, nomadic tribes from the west who were Semitic speakers like the Akkadians of Babylonia and Assyria, but at first did not practice agriculture like them, preferring to herd sheep. Over time, Amorite grain merchants rose to prominence and established their own independent dynasties in several Mesopotamian city-states, most notably Isin, Larsa and Babylon. Ctesias, who is quoted by Diodorus Siculus and in George Syncellus's Chronographia, claimed to have access to manuscripts from Babylonian archives which date the founding of Babylon to 2286 BC by Belus who reigned as Babylon's first king for fifty five years. Another figure is from Simplicius, who recorded that Callisthenes in the 4th century BC travelled to Babylon and discovered astronomical observations on cuneiform tablets stretching back 1903 years before the taking of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. This makes the sum 1903 + 331 which equals 2234 BC as the founding date for Babylon. A similar figure is found in Berossus, who according to Pliny, stated that astronomical observations commenced at Babylon 490 years before the Greek era of Phoroneus, and consequently in 2243 BC. Stephanus of Byzantium, wrote that Babylon was built 1002 years before the date (given by Hellanicus of Mytilene) for the siege of Troy (1229 BC), which would dates Babylon's foundation to 2231 BC. All of these dates place Babylon's foundation in the 23rd century BC, however, since the decipherment of cuneiform in recent centuries, cuneiform records have not been found to correspond with such classical (post-cuneiform) accounts. Old Babylonian period The First Babylonian D
Saddams' Babylon Palace interior, (present day Al Hillah), Babylon Province, Iraq
Saddams' Babylon Palace interior, (present day Al Hillah), Babylon Province, Iraq
Babylon (Arabic: Babil; Akkadian: Babili) was an Akkadian city-state, founded in 1867 BC by an Amorite dynasty of ancient Mesopotamia, the remains of which are found in present-day Al Hillah, Babylon Province, Iraq, about 85 kilometers (55 mi) south of Baghdad. All that remains of the original ancient famed city of Babylon today is a mound, or tell, of broken mud-brick buildings and debris in the fertile Mesopotamian plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The city itself was built upon the Euphrates, and divided in equal parts along its left and right banks, with steep embankments to contain the river's seasonal floods. Available historical resources suggest that Babylon was at first a small town which had sprung up by the beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. The town flourished and attained independence with the rise of the First Amorite Babylonian Dynasty in 1894 BC. Claiming to be the successor of the ancient Eridu, Babylon eclipsed Nippur as the "holy city" of Mesopotamia around the time an Amorite king named Hammurabi first created the short lived Babylonian Empire; this quickly dissolved upon his death and Babylon spent long periods under Assyrian, Kassite and Elamite domination. Babylon again became the seat of the Neo-Babylonian Empire from 612 to 539 BC which was founded by Chaldeans and whose last king was an Assyrian. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. After the fall of Babylon it came under the rules of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid empires. Name The Greek form Babylon (???????) is an adaptation of Akkadian Babili. The Babylonian name as it stood in the 1st millennium BC had been changed from an earlier Babilli in early 2nd millennium BC, meaning "Gate of God" or "Gateway of the God" (bab-ili) by popular etymology. The earlier name Babilla appears to be an adaptation of a non-Semitic source of unknown origin or meaning. In the Hebrew Bible, the name appears as Babel; Tiberian Bavel; Syriac Bawel), interpreted in the Book of Genesis (11:9) to mean confusion, from the verb bilbel, to confuse. History An indication of Babylon's early existence may be a later tablet describing the reign of Sargon of Akkad (ca. 23rd century BC short chronology). The so-called "Weidner Chronicle" states that it was Sargon himself who built Babylon "in front of Akkad" (ABC 19:51). Another later chronicle likewise states that Sargon "dug up the dirt of the pit of Babylon, and made a counterpart of Babylon next to Agade". (ABC 20:18–19). Van de Mieroop has suggested that those sources may refer to the much later Sargon II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire rather than Sargon of Akkad. Some scholars, including linguist I.J. Gelb, have suggested that the name Babil is an echo of an earlier city name. Herzfeld wrote about Bawer in Iran, which was allegedly founded by Jamshid; the name Babil could be an echo of Bawer. David Rohl holds that the original Babylon is to be identified with Eridu. The Bible in Genesis 10 indicates that Nimrod was the original founder of Babel (Babylon). Joan Oates claims in her book Babylon that the rendering "Gateway of the gods" is no longer accepted by modern scholars. By around the 19th century BC, much of Mesopotamia was occupied by Amorites, nomadic tribes from the west who were Semitic speakers like the Akkadians of Babylonia and Assyria, but at first did not practice agriculture like them, preferring to herd sheep. Over time, Amorite grain merchants rose to prominence and established their own independent dynasties in several Mesopotamian city-states, most notably Isin, Larsa and Babylon. Ctesias, who is quoted by Diodorus Siculus and in George Syncellus's Chronographia, claimed to have access to manuscripts from Babylonian archives which date the founding of Babylon to 2286 BC by Belus who reigned as Babylon's first king for fifty five years. Another figure is from Simplicius, who recorded that Callisthenes in the 4th century BC travelled to Babylon and discovered astronomical observations on cuneiform tablets stretching back 1903 years before the taking of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 BC. This makes the sum 1903 + 331 which equals 2234 BC as the founding date for Babylon. A similar figure is found in Berossus, who according to Pliny, stated that astronomical observations commenced at Babylon 490 years before the Greek era of Phoroneus, and consequently in 2243 BC. Stephanus of Byzantium, wrote that Babylon was built 1002 years before the date (given by Hellanicus of Mytilene) for the siege of Troy (1229 BC), which would dates Babylon's foundation to 2231 BC. All of these dates place Babylon's foundation in the 23rd century BC, however, since the decipherment of cuneiform in recent centuries, cuneiform records have not been found to correspond with such classical (post-cuneiform) accounts. Old Babylonian period The First Babylonian
map of ancient mesopotamia
map of ancient mesopotamia
Explanation of Ur, Sumer, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Assyria and Akkad Artifacts, Architecture, Archeology, Seals, and Slabs. Vol.2 (Illustrated history of ancient civilizations, arts and languages)
Explanation of Ur, Sumer, Babylon, Mesopotamia, Assyria and Akkad Artifacts, Architecture, Archeology, Seals, and Slabs. Vol.2


Volume 2 from a set of 4 volumes.
It was said, "A picture is worth a thousand words." True, very true! But what if a picture is hard to understand or does not explain what we are looking at? This happens quite often in the vast literature and history of ancient civilizations. Especially, when the inscriptions on or under the pictures or illustrations are written in a language we do not understand, such as Cuneiform, Ugaritic, Akkadian, Sumerian, Phoenician, and similar writing systems of the ancient Middle and Near East. In addition, there are thousands of slabs, cylinder seals, tablets, and obelisks of ancient and/or vanished civilizations, which are hard to decipher. And in many instances, no pertaining inscriptions or texts were ever provided to explain what the statues, figurines, slabs and tablets represent. To fully understand the scriptures, texts, epics and literature of Mesopotamia, Sumer, Assyria, Chaldea, Phoenicia, Ugarit, and the Anunnaki, one must become familiar with the meaning (Hidden or revealed) of the inscriptions, the symbolism camouflaged in intricate details, and the religious-artistic-philosophical nuances of the art of the era.
This requires authentic description, translation and explanation of:
Ancient symbols
Archeological finds
Maps
Seals
Slabs
Cuneiform inscriptions and writings
Statues and figurines
Carving/Illustrations/Drawings
And above all, familiarity with historical sites, ruins, and cities, and knowledge of the various languages of the ancient civilizations.
This book was written in order to deal with and to explain all these concerns, and especially to provide the readers with sufficient guidance, translation and explanation of major archeological finds, ranging from a figurine to a massive monument.


About the Author:
Maximillien de Lafayette wrote more than 1,200 books and numerous encyclopedias; 800 books and 9 encyclopedias are published. He has been writing for the past 50 years.
He is considered as one of the world leading linguists (Ancient Languages) and historians of ancient civilizations. In addition, he wrote 14 dictionaries of various languages, to name a few: Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Aramaic, Latin, French, Hittite, Phoenician, Ugaritic, Greek, etc. He is an expert linguist in 26 languages (Ancient and modern).
In 2004, as an expert linguist and jurist, Maximillien de Lafayette was commissioned by Yale University, School of Law (New Haven, Connecticut) to translate from English to Arabic, The White House Draft of the New Constitution of Iraq, and which was submitted to the Iraqi Council, then the governing body of Iraq. De Lafayette is internationally known for his expertise in the history and languages of ancient civilizations, and social-legal studies of the Near East and the Middle East, with a strong emphasis on tribal dialects, comparative social systems and laws, and Islam.
Listen to his recent Radio show episode, hosted and produced by Dina Vittantonio. Click on link, or copy please: http://www.blogtalkradio.com/maximillien-de-lafayette-show/2010/12/20/maximillien-de-lafayette-show
Maximillien de Lafayette is the first and only scholar/historian/linguist in the eastern and western hemispheres who wrote a book on the
"Description, Translation, and Explanation of Babylonian, Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Ugaritic, Anunnaki and Phoenician Cylinder Seals, Slabs, Inscriptions, Tablets, Epics and Symbols."