SUGARS

maltose,fructose,dextrose,maple syrup,maple sugar,lactose,levulose,sucrose,invert sugar,raw sugar,demerara sugar,molasses,treacle

SUGAR IF YOUR QUESTION IS HERE THE ANSWER IS DOWN THE PAGE


 

1 Where did sugar come from?

2 What type of sugar is most recommended for making Kombucha Tea?

3 Should brown sugar be used to make Kombucha Tea?

4 Can honey be used to make Kombucha Tea?

5 What is the sugar content of Kombucha Tea after fermentation?

6 What is glucose?

7 What is maltose?

8 What is fructose?

9 What is dextrose?

10 What is maple syrup?

11 What is maple sugar?

12 What is lactose?

13 What is levulose?

14 What is sucrose?

15 What is invert sugar?

16 What is raw sugar?

17 What is demerara sugar?

18 What is molasses, ( treacle) in the UK?

19 What is sorghum?

20 What is cane syrup?

21 What is golden syrup?

22 What is corn syrup?

23 What is high fructose corn syrup?

24 What is brown sugar?

25 What is honey?

26 What is jaggery?

27 What is rock sugar?

28 Does temperature affect how much sugar is used during fermentation?

29 Do sugars cause tooth decay?

30 Do sugars cause weight gain?

31 Do sugars enhance physical performance?

32 Do sugars cause diabetes mellitus?

33 Do sugars cause hypoglycemia?

34 How does the sugar content in KT compare to fruit juices?

35 What is the sugar content of Kombucha Tea compared with fresh fruit?

36 Can I use Stevia  as source of sugar when making Kombucha Tea?

SUGAR

1 Where did sugar come from?

A Brief History of Sugar

According to information presented in Encyclopaedia Britannica, sugar was known in India as early as 3000 BC. Gaura, an old Indian word for sugar, was apparently derived from the name Gur, an ancient monarchy in Bengal. A crown made of sugar cane is described in the Atharaveda, a sacred book of the Hindus, written about 800 BC or earlier, and the Greek general Nearchus, who accompanied Alexander the Great to India in the 4th century BC, tells of a reed that produced "honey" without the aid of bees.

2 What type of sugar is most recommended for making Kombucha tea?

Pure refined white sugar is the sugar most recommended to use when making Kombucha Tea. White sugar produces a Kombucha Tea that tastes like Apple Cider and it is completely fermentable.

3 Should brown sugar be used to make Kombucha Tea?

Brown sugar contains molasses. While some people consider molasses to be a contaminant, many others still use brown sugar with excellent results. They also report that brown sugar produces a very tart Kombucha Tea, tasting strongly of vinegar.

4 Can honey be used to make Kombucha Tea?

Honey can be used to make Kombucha, however, it should be pasteurized first to kill any wild yeast cells as well as the enzymes which are responsible for the production of hydrogen peroxide in honey.

5 What is the sugar content of Kombucha Tea?

In response to the query about the carbohydrate content of Kombucha, the following was found in Christopher Hobbs book: In tea made with 1 cup of sugar to 3 quarts of water, fermented for 7 days -- there are about 4 grams of sugar in a 3-1/2 oz. glass. That's about a teaspoon or 16 calories. The analysis was done by a certified food lab.

A test done by Kappa Labs in Miami Florida, for John M. Novar of "Kombucha Power" was as follows:

Amount of sugar found in 1 fluid ounce (29.573ml) Kombucha Tea.

Ferment time: 15 days

Sucrose  .22 g
Glucose  .78 g
fructose .65 g
         --------
            1.65 g

6 What is glucose?

Glucose is a monosaccharide. This simple sugar is derivable from converted starches such as what happens when mashing malted grain. Sugar processors can make this sugar from a variety of sources-corn (maize), wheat, rice, potatoes, in short, anything with cheap starch can be input into the process. However, if not completely refined down to simple sugars, some of the origin can be discernible. The most common form of this sugar is dextroglucose, a naturally occurring form commonly referred to as dextrose (also called corn sugar and grape sugar ). This form of glucose has many sources including grape juice, certain vegetables and honey. It has about half the sweetening power of regular sugar. Because it doesn't crystallize easily, it's used to make commercial candies and frostings, as well as in baked goods, soft drinks and other processed foods. Corn syrup is a form of glucose made from cornstarch.

7 What is maltose?

Maltose, also called "malt sugar," is a disaccharide made up of two glucose molecules. Because it is completely fermentable this sugar plays an important role in the fermentation of alcohol by converting starch to sugar. It also occurs when enzymes react with starches, (such as wheat flour) to produce carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which is also what makes most bread dough rise.

8 What is fructose?

Levulose or "fruit sugar" a ketohexose, CH2OH. (CHOH)3.-CO.CH2OH, (f.diphosphate, f.1.6-diphosphate, the Harden Young ester. f.6-phosphate, the Neuberg ester). It is an extremely sweet substance which is a natural by-product of fruits and honey. Fructose is another monosaccharide which yeasts rapidly ferment. Fructose tastes much sweeter than glucose or even the combination of fructose + glucose = (sucrose), even though it contains only half the calories, while unlike glucose, it can be used by diabetics. It is also more water-soluble then glucose. Fructose comes in granulated and syrup forms. Except in the case of some liquids, such as a sauce or beverage, it should not be substituted for regular sugar (sucrose) unless a recipe gives specific substitution. When heated, fructose loses some of its sweetening power.

9 What is dextrose?

Dextrose is a naturally occurring form of glucose, which is also called corn sugar and grape sugar.

10 What is maple syrup?

Maple syrup is made from the sap of the sugar maple tree. After collecting the sap, it is boiled until it's thick and syrupy. Maple syrup is graded according to colour and flavour. Generally, US grades are: Fancy or Grade AA, a light amber coloured syrup with a mild flavour; Grade A is medium amber and mellow-flavoured; Grade B is dark amber and hearty flavoured; and Grade C is very dark with a robust, molasses-like flavour. Since the processing of maple syrup is labor-intensive, pure maple syrup is quite expensive. Pure maple syrup should be refrigerated after opening.

11 What is maple sugar?

Maple sugar is also made from the sap of sugar maple trees. It's about twice as sweet as granulated white sugar.

12 What is lactose?

Lactose is a sugar which occurs naturally in milk and is called "milk sugar." It's the least sweet of all the natural sugars and is used commercially in foods such as baby formulas and candies.

13 What is levulose?

Fruit sugar, a levorotatory ketohexose, in the form of colourless, syrupy liquid from fruits and honey. It occurs also in the intestines, and is sometimes found in the urine. Ordinary cane sugar is changed into dextrose and levulose by digestion. Levulose is also called fructose.

14 What is sucrose?

Sucrose is also called "table sugar" and "cane sugar." It is a disaccharide which is composed of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose. More precisely, it is dextrose plus levorotatory fructose. It must be broken apart before the yeasts can use it. When heated in an acidic solution the sugar is inverted to make D (+)-glucose and D (-)-fructose. Yeasts will invert the sucrose if it is not already in that form before using by using invertase. It is derived from sugar beets or sugar cane which are crushed and dissolved in water. The raw syrup is boiled down to concentrate it to a point where some fraction crystallizes. The remaining heavy syrup (see molasses) is separated from the 95+% pure sugar. The crystals are then further processed several times to increase its purity which eventually yields the pure white crystals we commonly use. Some other commonly used sugars are also produced during the processing. This simple colourless sugar can be completely fermented.

15 What is invert sugar?

This is simply sucrose (table sugar) that has been subjected to hydrolysis which breaks down the disaccharide sucrose into its constituent sugars. The fructose is inverted (made into its optical isomer). The inversion process involves adding acid and is usually done at high temperatures to speed up the process. Alternately, the invertase enzyme can be used.

16 What is raw sugar?

The only unrefined sugar available to the average consumer seems to be Sucanat ™, an evaporated sugar cane syrup. Raw beet sugar is reputed to be unsavory. It may be possible in some markets to get other raw sugars. In Hawaii, pineapple sugar may sometimes be found.

17 What is demerara sugar?

This is crystalizable sugar from the first step of refinement. It has a tan to brown colour from the residual impurities. Some food faddists attribute beneficial results from using this, but unless a lot is consumed, the potential benefits are very low. Demerara is also called "turbinado" and "raw sugar". Demerara is the United Kingdom term, turbinado the American term. Demerara is usually a dark brown shade, while turbinado is lighter, more of a tan or taupe colour. It is about 98% sugar with some residual carbohydrates present.

18 What is molasses?

Molasses: During the refining of sugar cane and sugar beets, the juice which is squeezed from these plants is boiled to a syrupy mixture from which sugar crystals are extracted. The remaining brownish-black liquid is molasses. The choice of names for this sugar syrup seem to reflect regional language preferences rather than any major differences. In the United States, molasses is the preferred term, while in the United Kingdom, treacle is used. Whether or not molasses is sulfured or unsulfured depends upon whether sulfur was used in the processing. In general, unsulfured molasses is lighter and has a cleaner sugar-cane flavour. Light and dark molasses are available in supermarkets, while blackstrap molasses is more readily found in health-food stores.

  • Light Molasses is roughly 90% sugar. During sugar processing it comes from the first boiling of the sugar syrup and is lighter in both flavour and colour. It is often used as a pancake and waffle syrup.
  • Dark Molasses comes from a second boiling and is darker, thicker and less sweet than light molasses. It's generally used as a flavouring in recipes such as "Boston Baked Beans," "Gingerbread," etc.
  • Blackstrap Molassesis about 50% sugar and comes from the third boiling and is what amounts to the dregs of the barrel. It's very thick, dark and somewhat bitter. Though it's popular with health-food followers, it's more commonly used as a cattle food. Contrary to what many believe, blackstrap molasses is not a nutritional panacea. In truth, it's only fractionally richer than the other types of molasses in iron, calcium and phosphorus, and many of its minerals are not assimilable.
  • Sorghum Molasses is the syrup produced from the cereal grain sorghum.
  • Regular Treacle is an inverted sugar produced from the residue of refinement. The acid treatment darkens it. Molasses is filtered and may have a sulfur compound added to sterilize and stabilize it.
  • Black Treacle is roughly the same flavour as "blackstrap" molasses, however treacle may be produced differently. While there are differences between the differently made syrups, there is also a wide variability within syrups of the same name.

19 What is sorgum?

This cereal grass has broad, corn-like leaves and huge clusters of cereal grain at the end of tall, pithy stalks. Sorghum is a powerhouse of nutrition, but, though it's the third leading cereal crop in the United States, almost all of it is used for animal fodder. Around the world however, it's the third largest food grain. A few US mills do sell it by mail order. One sorghum by-product the United States does use for human consumption is the sweet juice extracted from the stalks, which, like that from the sugarcane, is boiled down to produce a thick syrup called sorghum molasses (also sorghum syrup or simply sorghum.) It's often used as a table syrup and to sweeten and flavour baked goods.

20 What is cane syrup?

Cane syrup is made from sugar cane. This thick, extremely sweet syrup is used in Caribbean and Creole cookery and is available in shops specializing in those cuisine's.

21 What is golden syrup?

Like molasses, this is a syrup that remains after the crystallizable sugars have been removed. However, since the syrup is removed later in the refinement process, it doesn't have as heavy a taste or colour as molasses. It's made from evaporated sugar cane juice and has a rich, toasty flavour unmatched by any other sweeteners.

22 What is corn syrup?

Corn Syrup is a thick, sweet syrup created by processing cornstarch with acids or enzymes. It comes in light or dark forms. Light corn syrup has been clarified to remove all colour and cloudiness. Dark corn syrup, because it has caramel favor and colouring added to it, has a deeper colour and a stronger flavour. Corn syrup is particularly popular as an ingredient in frostings, candies, jams and jellies because it inhibits crystallization. It's also used as a pancake syrup.

23 What is high fructose corn syrup?

HFCS is a liquid mixture of about equal parts of glucose and fructose from cornstarch. Same sweetness as sucrose.

24 What is brown sugar?

In the US, this is just refined sugar with some molasses added back in. The US food law says that only refined sugar (no raw components) can be sold with this name. This law may actually have more to do with enforcing a similar taste for both sugar beets and sugar cane, since the beets, when unrefined, have a poorer taste than cane sugar. Another type of brown sugar is called "Piloncillo," a Mexican brown sugar which is semi-refined granulated sugar.

25 What is honey?

Honey is a complex mix of sugars but it is mainly glucose (roughly 30%, by weight) and fructose (40%) in invert form. The bees supply the invertase, which is the enzyme that inverts the fructose. Honeys makeup is not consistent, it varies by source, season, region and producer. It is about 75% fermentable sugar, the remainder is water, proteins, some minerals, etc. There are hundreds of different honeys throughout the world, most of them are named for the flower from which they originate. The flowers that produce some of the most popular honeys are clover, orange blossom, and sage. A few other honeys, some of which are available in limited quantities, are from the following blossoms: alfalfa, buckwheat, dandelion, heather, linden, raspberry, spearmint and thyme.

Honey comes in three basic forms: comb honey, with the liquid still in the chewy comb, both of which are edible; chunk-style honey which is honey with pieces of honeycomb included in the jar, and regular liquid honey that has been extracted from the comb, much of which has been pasteurized to help prevent crystallization. Store tightly sealed liquid honey in a cool, dry place up to a year; store comb and chunk honey for up to 6 months.

Honey, as well as being a nutritious food, is also being used on wounds etc.,-- for its antiseptic properties. There is much research being done at the present time in the search for foods with natural antibiotic properties.

26 What is jaggery?

Jaggery is a dark, course, unrefined sugar, sometimes referred to as "palm sugar:" It can be made either from the sap of various palm trees or from sugar-cane juice. It is primarily used in India, where many categorize sugar made from sugar-cane as jaggery and that processed from palm trees as "gur". It comes in several forms, the two most popular being, a soft, honey-butter texture and a solid cake-like form. The solid version, when crushed, is used to sprinkle on cereals etc., while the softer version is used to as a spread. Jaggery has a sweet, wine-like fragrance and flavour that lends distinction to whatever food it embellishes. It can be purchased in East Indian markets.

27 What is rock sugar?

Rock sugar is not as sweet as regular granulated sugar. It comes in the form of amber-coloured crystals, which are the result of sugar cooked until it begins to colour. It's used to sweeten certain Chinese teas and meat glazes.

28 Does temperature have any effect on how much sugar is used during fermentation?

The higher the temperature, the faster the fermentation process, and the faster the sugar will be used up and converted into acid.

29 Do sugars cause tooth decay?

[The following answer is from the IFIC, International Food Information Council Foundation, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 430, Washington, DC 20036. (reference in bibliography, Part 8)]

Tooth decay is the result of many factors, including heredity and the make-up and flow of saliva. Sugars and other carbohydrates such as starchy foods also play a part. Cavities occur when bacteria in dental plaque break down starches and sugars to form acids that destroy tooth enamel, dentine and /cementum. [85]

Sugar consumption is not directly related to periodontal disease. Animal studies do indicate the frequent eating of sugars may stimulate the energy metabolism of plaque bacteria, increase plaque volume and thereby indirectly increase risk to periodontal health. [92,93] But regular removal of plaque, which is necessary to periodontal health anyway, eliminates this indirect risk.

30 Do sugars cause weight gain?

[The following answer is from the IFIC, International Food Information Council Foundation, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 430, Washington, DC 20036. (reference in bibliography, Part 8)]

Because sugars taste pleasant and humans are born with a preference for a sweet taste, scientists have speculated that eating sugars may lead to overeating and thereby obesity. [30] Research however, shows sugars do not interfere with bodily controls for energy balance, nor do they stimulate appetite in normal healthy adults or children.

In review of the effects of sugars consumption on energy intake, Anderson concluded that sugars in amounts of 50 grams or more, given from 20-60 minutes before a meal, decrease the mealtime food intake in adults. [31] This indicates that adults maintain regulatory controls for energy intake when consuming sugars. Studies also indicate when children eat sucrose before meals, their mealtime intake decreases. [32-36]

31 Do sugars enhance physical performance?

[The following answer is from the IFIC, International Food Information Council Foundation, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 430, Washington, DC 20036. (reference in bibliography, Part 8)]

As carbohydrates, sugars are preferred as a metabolic fuel during high- intensity exercise. [15,16] Further, by consuming adequate amounts of carbohydrate before and immediately after exercise, athletes can maintain body stores of carbohydrate, or glycogen. The amount of muscle glycogen directly affects endurance capabilities, or the time an athlete may effectively perform during an event. [17, 18, 19]

Adequate carbohydrate consumption immediately after exercise enables multiple activities in a single day and renews carbohydrate stores on a daily basis. [26]

32 Do sugars cause diabetes mellitus?

[The following answer is from the IFIC, International Food Information Council Foundation, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 430, Washington, DC 20036. (reference in bibliography, Part 8)]

It has been clear for many years that sugars do not cause diabetes mellitus. The effect of sugars on the condition has been less well understood. Simple sugars were once thought to be more rapidly digested and absorbed than complex carbohydrates, and thus raise blood glucose levels to a greater extent.

It is now known however, that the absorption rates of sugars depend on the form in which they are consumed, including the food matrix (whether sugars are in free solution or contained within plant cells or emulsions or foamed structures of processed foods). [2] Once absorbed, the dietary source of sugars has little significance. Contrary to popular opinion, research also shows that refined sugars are no more likely than naturally-occurring sugars, or cooked starches to negatively affect blood glucose in both healthy subjects and people with diabetes. [43] In 1981, Jenkins et al. comprehensively classified foods according to their impact on blood glucose. [44] They showed many foods containing sugars, such as ice cream and candy, raised blood glucose levels less-or had a lower glycemic index (GI) - than foods such as white or whole grain bread.

In recent years, the American Diabetes Association revised its dietary recommendations to approve moderate amounts of sucrose in the diets of persons whose diabetes is well controlled. [57]

33 Do sugars cause hypoglycemia?

[The following answer is from the IFIC, International Food Information Council Foundation, 1100 Connecticut Avenue, N. W. Suite 430, Washington, DC 20036. (reference in bibliography, Part 8)]

Brand Miller et al. compared foods prepared with and without refined sugars and saw higher blood glucose and insulin responses only to dairy products to which sucrose had been added. [43] The concluded that the effect of adding sucrose to a food depends on the GI of the unsweetened food. In addition, they found no rebound hypoglycemia after eating foods containing refined sugars. On the basis of this study, which included a very large number of foods, Wolever and Brand Miller suggest that many foods containing simple sugars, whether refined or naturally occurring impact blood glucose less than most starchy foods in the western diet. [43]

34 How does the sugar content in fermented Kombucha Tea compare to fruit juices?

Kombucha Tea..........= 1.65g per 1 fluid ounce (fermented 15 days)
Grape juice...............= 4.83g per 1 fluid ounce
Grapefruit juice......= 1.83g per 1 fluid ounce
Apple juice (clear)...= 3.50g per 1 fluid ounce
NOTE:
Grape juice ...............= Welsh's Grape juice (from concentrate)  with no added sugar .
Grapefruit juice ......= 100% pure unsweetened (from concentrate)
Apple juice.................= 100% pure clear unsweetened.

35 What is the sugar content of Kombucha Tea compared to fresh fruits?

Kombucha Tea....=1.65g per 1 fluid ounce. (fermented 15 days)
 

Fruit

Sugar Content %
of fesh weight

Acid Content %
of fresh weight

Lime

1

5.0

Avocado

1

0.2

Lemon

2

5.0

Tomato

3

0.5

Cranberry

4

3.0

Red Currant

6

1.8

Grapefruit

6

2.0

Guava

7

0.4

Cantaloupe

7

0.2

Strawberry

7

1.6

Raspberry

7

1.6

Blackberry

8

1.5

Papaya

8

0.1

Apricot

9

1.7

Watermelon

9

0.2

Peach

9

0.4

Black Currant

10

3.2

Pear

10

0.1

Honeydew

10

0.2

Orange

11

1.2

Plum

11

0.6

Blueberry

11

0.3

Gooseberry

11

1.8

Passion Fruit

11

3.0

Prickly Pear

11

0.1

Mango

11

0.5

Pineapple

13

1.1

Pomegranate

13

1.2

Apple

13

0.8

Cherry

14

0.5

Kiwi

14

3.0

Persimmon

14

0.2

Fig

15

0.4

Grape

16

0.2

Banana

17

0.3

Litchi

17

0.3

 

 

 

 

36. Can I use Stevia as a substitute for sugar when fermenting Kombucha Tea?

No. The  herb Stevia cannot be used to ferment Kombucha Tea because is  non-fermentable. The yeasts feed on sugar, and without it fermentation cannot take place. 

 

 
 

 

 

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