For additional information contact the author at the following:
Stanley E. Manahan
The PowerPoint presentations for a lecture on "Four Decades of Environmental Chemistry and Global Climate Change" can be downloaded from the file ACSDnver2011.pptx at the bottom of this page and the text to accompany that lecture may be found in the e-book Environmental Chemistry of Global Climate Change, which can be downloaded from the file EnvChmClimateWebsite.epub below.
The newly released e-books listed below are now available on Kindle and Barnes & Noble EPub:
Energy: Environmental Toxicological Chemistry for a Sustainable Energy Future, 2012 ($3.99)
Environmental Science: Sustainability in the Anthropocene, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)
Environmental Geology and Geochemistry: A Brief Introduction, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)
Green Chemistry and Sustainable Science and Technology: A Brief Introduction, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)
Environmental Chemistry of Global Climate Change, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)
Environmental Chemistry of the Anthropocene: A World Made by Humans, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)
A Course in Environmental/Toxicological Chemistry
chemistry is that branch of chemical science that deals with the behavior of
pollutants and other chemicals in the environment. Toxicological chemistry relates the toxic and biochemical effects
of chemicals, especially xenobiotic substances that are foreign to organisms,
to the chemical nature of the substances. The toxic effects of chemical species
in the environment are obviously of great concern, leading to a very
close relationship between environmental chemistry and toxicological chemistry. The course described here links environmental chemistry and toxicological chemistry.
Unit 1, “Environmental Chemistry and the Five Spheres of the Environment,” (see EnTxCh-1.ppt, at the bottom of this page, below) defines environmental chemistry and the newly emerging area of green chemistry (basically the practice of sustainable chemical science). An approach is outlined in which the environment is viewed as consisting of five mutually interacting spheres: (1) Hydrosphere, (2) atmosphere, (3) geosphere, (4) biosphere, and (5) anthrosphere (that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. Biogeochemical cycles are also discussed with the example of the carbon cycle.
Unit 2, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Biosphere,” (see EnTxCh-2.ppt, below) discusses the biosphere and its relationship to the environment as a whole. Aspects of biochemistry including biochemicals, enzymes, and metabolic processes are covered. Toxicological chemistry, that branch of chemistry that relates the chemical nature of substances to their toxic effects, is defined and explained to provide an understanding of this topic for the remainder of the course.
Unit 3, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Hydrosphere,” (see EnTxCh-3.ppt, below) discusses the aquatic environment. Among the topics included are the importance of microorganisms in determining the environmental and toxicological chemistry of water in the environment and the hydrosphere as a medium for the transport of pollutants.
Unit 4, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Atmosphere,” (see EnTxCh-4.ppt, below) covers atmospheric chemistry and the effects of air pollutants. The critical role of photochemistry in determining pollutant species in the atmosphere is discussed along with the processes by which relatively innocuous nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons lead to the formation of ozone and other noxious constituents of photochemical smog. Also discussed are the nature of and threats to the protective stratospheric ozone layer as well as the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other infrared-absorbing gases in global climate change.
Unit 5, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Geosphere,” (see EnTxCh-5.ppt, below) explains the geology and geochemistry of the solid earth and its relationship to the other environmental spheres. The importance of the geosphere as a source of natural capital, such as mineral resources, is discussed. The nature and destructive effects of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes are covered in this unit. The second half of the unit is dedicated to a discussion of the importance of soil and its key role in food and biomass energy.
Unit 6, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Anthrosphere,” (see EnTxCh-6.ppt, below) explains how the anthrosphere has become an important sphere of the environment with immense influence on the other spheres and the environment as a whole. The unit also defines and explains industrial ecology, a relatively new discipline that treats industrial systems in a manner analogous to natural ecosystems.
Unit 7, “Feeding the Anthrosphere: Sustainable Feedstocks and Fuels,” (see EnTxCh-7.ppt, below) covers the demands that the anthrosphere places on Earth’s natural capital in meeting humankind’s appetite for materials and energy. Included among the topics covered are the importance of abundant elemental hydrogen from sustainable sources as a raw material, biomass feedstocks, and biorefineries for processing biomass feedstocks.