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This website contains information and PowerPoint presentations for two university-level courses:  (1) A course in environmental/toxicological chemistry and (2) a course in fundamentals of green chemistry including sustainable science and technology. Additional materials pertaining to environmental chemistry, sustainability science and technology, and related areas are available on the following websites:  

https://sites.google.com/site/manahans1/ 

https://sites.google.com/site/environmentalchemistry1/ 

https://sites.google.com/site/manahanse/

For additional information contact the author at the following:

Stanley E. Manahan
manahans@missouri.edu

The PowerPoint presentations for a lecture on "Four Decades of Environmental Chemistry and Global Climate Change" can be downloaded from the file ACSDnver2011.pptx at the bottom of this page and the text to accompany that lecture may be found in the e-book Environmental Chemistry of Global Climate Change, which can be downloaded from the file EnvChmClimateWebsite.epub below. 

The newly released e-books listed below are now available on Kindle and Barnes & Noble EPub:

Energy:  Environmental Toxicological Chemistry for a Sustainable Energy Future, 2012 ($3.99)

Environmental Science:  Sustainability in the Anthropocene, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)

Environmental Geology and Geochemistry: A Brief Introduction, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)

Green Chemistry and Sustainable Science and Technology: A Brief Introduction, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)

Environmental Chemistry of Global Climate Change, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)

Environmental Chemistry of the Anthropocene: A World Made by Humans, Stanley E. Manahan, 2011 ($2.99)

A Course in Environmental/Toxicological Chemistry

Environmental chemistry is that branch of chemical science that deals with the behavior of pollutants and other chemicals in the environment. Toxicological chemistry relates the toxic and biochemical effects of chemicals, especially xenobiotic substances that are foreign to organisms, to the chemical nature of the substances. The toxic effects of chemical species in the environment are obviously of great concern, leading to a very close relationship between environmental chemistry and toxicological chemistry. The course described here links environmental chemistry and toxicological chemistry.

Unit 1, “Environmental Chemistry and the Five Spheres of the Environment,” (see EnTxCh-1.ppt, at the bottom of this page, below) defines environmental chemistry and the newly emerging area of green chemistry (basically the practice of sustainable chemical science). An approach is outlined in which the environment is viewed as consisting of five mutually interacting spheres:  (1) Hydrosphere, (2) atmosphere, (3) geosphere, (4) biosphere, and (5) anthrosphere (that part of the environment constructed and operated by humans. Biogeochemical cycles are also discussed with the example of the carbon cycle.

Unit 2, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Biosphere,” (see EnTxCh-2.ppt, below) discusses the biosphere and its relationship to the environment as a whole. Aspects of biochemistry including biochemicals, enzymes, and metabolic processes are covered. Toxicological chemistry, that branch of chemistry that relates the chemical nature of substances to their toxic effects, is defined and explained to provide an understanding of this topic for the remainder of the course.

Unit 3, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Hydrosphere,” (see EnTxCh-3.ppt, below) discusses the aquatic environment. Among the topics included are the importance of microorganisms in determining the environmental and toxicological chemistry of water in the environment and the hydrosphere as a medium for the transport of pollutants.

Unit 4, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Atmosphere,” (see EnTxCh-4.ppt, below) covers atmospheric chemistry and the effects of air pollutants. The critical role of photochemistry in determining pollutant species in the atmosphere is discussed along with the processes by which relatively innocuous nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons lead to the formation of ozone and other noxious constituents of photochemical smog. Also discussed are the nature of and threats to the protective stratospheric ozone layer as well as the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other infrared-absorbing gases in global climate change.

Unit 5, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Geosphere,” (see EnTxCh-5.ppt, below) explains the geology and geochemistry of the solid earth and its relationship to the other environmental spheres. The importance of the geosphere as a source of natural capital, such as mineral resources, is discussed. The nature and destructive effects of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes are covered in this unit. The second half of the unit is dedicated to a discussion of the importance of soil and its key role in food and biomass energy.

Unit 6, “Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry of the Anthrosphere,” (see EnTxCh-6.ppt, below) explains how the anthrosphere has become an important sphere of the environment with immense influence on the other spheres and the environment as a whole. The unit also defines and explains industrial ecology, a relatively new discipline that treats industrial systems in a manner analogous to natural ecosystems.

Unit 7, “Feeding the Anthrosphere:  Sustainable Feedstocks and Fuels,” (see EnTxCh-7.ppt, below) covers the demands that the anthrosphere places on Earth’s natural capital in meeting humankinds appetite for materials and energy. Included among the topics covered are the importance of abundant elemental hydrogen from sustainable sources as a raw material, biomass feedstocks, and biorefineries for processing biomass feedstocks.

Unit 8, “Fundamentals of Chemistry,” is a concise basic coverage of the principles of chemistry that may be useful to those with limited knowledge of chemistry. The full text of this chapter is given in a pdf format below, see EnvTxChmChap8.pdf.

Unit 9, “Organic Chemistry,” is a concise basic survey of organic chemistry needed to understand the material in the course. The full text of this chapter is given in a pdf format below, see EnvTxChmChap9.pdf.


A Course in Fundamentals of Green Chemistry Including Sustainable Science and Technology

Since about the 1990s, “green” has come into widespread use as a term to describe practices and disciplines that deal with sustainability and the maintenance of environmental quality. One area that has been particularly active is in chemistry, with green chemistry the subject of large numbers of symposia, international meetings, books, and journal papers. In addition, green chemistry institutes and academic programs have been established in various countries.

This website contains downloadable PowerPoint presentations for a very basic course on green chemistry based upon the book Green Chemistry and the Ten Commandments of Sustainability, Third Edition, Stanley Manahan (ChemChar Research and Amazon, 2011). In addition to covering green chemistry, the course covers sustainable science and technology in general. In so doing, it views Earth and its environment as consisting of five highly interactive spheres:  (1) The hydrosphere, (2) the atmosphere, (3) the geosphere, (4) the biosphere, (5) and the anthrosphere. It is particularly important to consider the anthrosphere, that part of Earth’s environment made and operated by humans, because of its overwhelming importance in determining Earth’s environment.

Unit 1, “Sustainability and the Environment,” (see GrnChmCh1Slides.ppt, below) consists of an introduction to environmental science and the concept of sustainability. It introduces and defines the five environmental spheres. Green science and green technology are introduced and explained. In recognition of the overwhelming importance of energy in sustainability, this Unit includes a section entitled “Sustainable Energy:  Away from the Sun and Back Again” that explains how humankind relied on solar energy, such as photosynthetically produced food and wood, for most of its time on Earth, then entered an approximately two-century era in which fossil fuels became dominant energy sources, but now must return to the sun directly and indirectly for basic energy supply.

Unit 2, “The Key Role of Chemistry and Making Chemistry Green” (see GrnChmCh2Slides.ppt, below) outlines the importance and role of chemistry in sustainability. Environmental chemistry is introduced as a key discipline in sustainability. Green chemistry is defined and the twelve principles of green chemistry are listed and explained. The Unit provides a brief introduction to the most basic aspects of chemistry to aid in understanding chemical concepts in later Units.

Units 3 through 7 (see GrnChmCh3-7Slides.ppt, below) cover the fundamentals of chemistry from a green chemistry perspective. Unit 6 is a basic coverage of organic chemistry and Unit 7 deals with biochemistry as it relates to green chemistry. 

Units 8 through 13 are organized according to the five spheres of the environment. Unit 8, “The Five Environmental Spheres and Biogeochemical Cycles,” (see GrnChmCh8Slides.ppt, below) defines and explains each of these spheres and how they relate and interact through biogeochemical cycles of matter. Unit 9, “Water, the Ultimate Green Substance,” (see GrnChmCh9Slides.ppt, below) covers the hydrosphere. It also emphasizes the unique properties of water as related to the structure of the water molecule and explains the important role of water in green technology. Unit 10, “The Atmosphere:  Blue Skies for a Green Environment,” (see GrnChmCh10Slides.ppt, below) deals with air and the atmosphere, the natural capital provided by the atmosphere, the protective role of the atmosphere, and threats to the atmosphere and climate from activities in the anthrosphere, including the combustion of carbonaceous fuels. Unit 11, “The Geosphere and a Green Earth,” (see GrnChmCh11Slides.ppt, below) covers a number of topics related to the geosphere including aspects of geology, natural hazards of the geosphere (volcanoes, earthquakes), natural capital of the geosphere (minerals), and the geosphere as a repository of wastes. Important sections of this unit discuss soil, how its productive capacity may be lost through erosion and desertification, and how green technology may prevent these harmful effects. Unit 12, “The Biosphere and the Role of Green Chemistry in Feeding a Hungry World,” (see GrnChmCh12Slides.ppt, below) begins with a basic coverage of biology as it relates to sustainability and among other topics discusses the production of food and fiber by the biosphere (agriculture). It also contains a discussion of agricultural applications of genetically modified organisms as well as a section on how the anthrosphere may be operated in a way that supports and benefits the biosphere. Unit 13, “The Anthrosphere, Industrial Ecology, and Green Chemistry,” (see GrnChmCh13Slides.ppt, below) begins with a discussion of the emerging area of industrial ecology, which treats industrial systems in a manner analogous to natural ecosystems including industrial metabolism through which materials are processed to produce manufactured products. Life cycles of materials are discussed with respect to sustainability. The role of green chemistry in sustainable manufacturing is explained in this unit.

As the title implies, Unit 14, “Feeding the Anthrosphere:  Utilizing Renewable and Biological Materials,” (see GrnChmCh14Slides.ppt, below) discusses how feedstocks for manufacturing may be produced sustainably. Emphasis is placed upon biological sources of feedstocks produced through photosynthesis. Biorefineries and their role in biomass utilization are explained.

Unit 15, “Sustainable Energy:  The Essential Basis of Green Systems,” (see GrnChmCh15Slides.ppt, below) explains the key importance of sustainable energy in sustainability and how most environmental and sustainability problems can be solved if abundant sources of energy are available and if they can be used without doing unacceptable harm to the environment. Part of the unit pertains to green technology for efficient energy conversion and utilization. Renewable sources of energy including solar electric, wind, moving water, and biomass are discussed in this unit.

Unit 16, “Terrorism, Toxicity, and Vulnerability:  Green Chemistry and Technology in Defense of Human Welfare,” (see GrnChmCh16Slides.ppt, below) discusses the role of green chemistry, science, and technology in dealing with terrorist threats. A major part of the unit deals with toxic substances and toxicology as they relate to terrorist threats. The unit also covers potential biohazards in terrorism and protecting water, food, and air.

Unit 17, “The Ten Commandments of Sustainability and Sensible Measures,” (see  pdf file GrnChmCh17.ppt, below) presents ten important rules for the achievement of sustainability upon which part of the book title is based. It concludes with a section on “sensible measures” that might be taken to enhance sustainability. Designed to provoke thought, these suggestions range from small measures to grandiose schemes.


 

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