The Song of The Universe

chapter one

 

 

Copyright © Malcolm McEwen 2006

All rights reserved

(to email: malcolm DOT mcewen AT gmail DOT com)   

The Author further asserts his Moral Rights in

accordance with the Copyright and Patent Act 1988

1: The ‘Point’ of Agreement 

I have in putting this first chapter together perhaps toiled more than I would have preferred. However the process of putting together an explanation of the origin of the universe that is compatible with all the scientific and religious arguments has proved more difficult than I first anticipated. I suspect that this has not been because these opposing ideas are truly in conflict but because each uses different terminology with such terminology having no direct translation into the other. Similarly minor details, which appear in one explanation, are invariable absent in another. These omissions and variations are due more to the effects of time, translation and historical and conceptual conflicts than to true differences in opinion. However reconciling these differences whilst maintaining the simplicity of text has proved difficult. 

That said the origin, creation and evolution of the universe is perhaps a subject that most of us avoid. After all it has been the cause of more tiresome and repetitive argument than nearly anything else. It is similarly pure conjecture for neither scientist nor scribe was present to witness the event and what evidence remains is scant. However whilst the event was not witnessed personally by anyone it was recorded and that record has been handed down, deduced and communicated by a variety of means to the mystics, scientists and scribes respectively. It is though the issue of greatest division and its resolution is the first step in realizing our true common ancestry. What both science and religion can and do agree on however, is what came first and, to some extent, what came last; it is the bit in between that the greatest disagreement is on.

For the first thing to appear, that which resulted in our universe was a state of oneness. In scientific terms this is described as a singularity, a relatively modern term of the cosmologists who define it as a point or region in which matter has an infinite density and a zero volume. Such a condition cannot be differentiated into components; it is complete in its nothingness. It was from this nothingness that our universe emerged; it did not though emerge as matter and energy but in a process of force differentiation; a process scientists call big bang.

In the Abrahamic faith of Christianity the origin of the universe is encapsulated by the statement of John (Yahya in the Qur’an), “In the beginning was the ‘word’ (logos) and the ‘word’ (logos) was with God”. The term ‘logos’ was, as with many of the original Hebrew words, difficult to translate into Greek and later English. It may equally have evolved over time, for language changes, words which mean one thing to one generation, mean something different to another, and so in the many translations Logos has generally come to mean ‘Word’. However Logos means more than just ‘Word’, it is the Word for all Words, for it is the essence of communication, the first sound, a noise, and like a pin dropping in a library it was a very loud noise indeed. 

For the mystics and the Prophet John, who himself was a mystic, Logos encapsulated everything that is in the Universe, the Logos was the source of all: whatever you see, you know, you believe; every experience, thought or emotion you have and will ever have has its origin in the Logos. We have lost, if we in the West ever had, an understanding of Logos but in the East, in the Hindu faith there is a concept that compares favourably with the true meaning of Logos; that concept being ‘Aum’. To the Hindus Aum or Om is the word God spoke in order to create the Universe, it is the first word of The Devine Song, the Bhagavad-Gita. So when John said “In the beginning was the ‘word’ (logos) and the ‘word’ (logos) was with God” he could easily have said “In the beginning was the ‘word’ and the ‘word’ was Aum”.

In English we have no such equivalent concept of Logos or Aum but with the advent of the term ‘singularity’ we come, at least in scientific terms, close to it. The same is true for the Arabic language of the Qu’ran that like English lacks an equivalent concept. However as a singularity is a point of infinite density and of zero volume it equates well with the Islamic concept of the Zero Point, this being the point from which God created or spoke the Universe into existence; for in the Islamic faith God need only say “BE” and it is (Surat 19:035).

The idea that the universe was spoken into existence is perhaps laughable to educated and worldly people yet it is one of the most universal beliefs on Earth; for not only does this concept form a central theme in the Abrahamic and Hindu faiths but in many aboriginal beliefs too. Similarly the most learned men of all, the great scientist of the last 100 years all tell us that it began with a loud noise; a BOOM! 

So now we have a point of Agreement: what John (Yahya) termed the Logos, the Hindus call Aum, the Aboriginals say was sung, the Muslims call the Zero Point, and the scientist say was a singularity that went bang was, in all cases a sound. Whether you call that sound a noise, as in big bang, or a word as in Logos or Aum is an insignificance for what ever sound it was it was the sound from which all else has sprung. It may be an ancient belief, one held by uneducated simple people but it is also a modern one, held by the learned and the great. For what John called the Logos, the Hindu’s Aum, Science a singularity and Islam the Zero Point, all are just words.

All of these concepts however also encapsulate the Idea of everything emerging from nothing: a state of infinite density, having no spatial and no temporal dimension, from which everything that exists today originated. This point, defies definition, it has no boundary and existed in a purely conceptual context, more akin to thought than the familiar material condition to which we are accustomed, in essence nothing more than a Word. To the Aboriginals that word is simply the first word in the song of existence; the song of the Devine One (the Bhagavad-Gita) to Hindus, Logos to John and bang to the scientists.

The idea that a single word that emanated from a single homogenous state, a singularity, was the seed of all that exists is in our technological and complicated world strangely difficult to grasp. It has an air of magic about it for just as a magician attempts to fool us into believing he can ‘say the magic word’ and pull a rabbit out of an empty hat so we appear to be being fooled into accepting that the universe we inhabit was somehow pulled, spoken or sung from out of an empty void. However the void was not empty, it simply existed in a condition of oneness, a state without time or space, without matter or energy: it was there and it was not. It is no wonder therefore that scientists and the mystics that preceded them have had such difficulty in communicating this idea to us. However pause for one moment and think of a word; don’t speak it just hear it. It this one exercise you have mimicked that original event.

 


Big Bang, the first noise

The big bang theory as the origin of the universe was first proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître (1927) with the later observations of Edwin Hubble adding substance to the theory. Lemaître was, like many educated and religious men before him, attempting to bring scientific and theological understanding together. It is unfortunate that his original ideas are often interpreted as an explanation of creation without God or at best as God who lit the fuse and either retired to a safe distance or disintegrated in the resulting explosion. The mystics have always maintained that at the heart of everything is a little piece of the Devine and in many scriptures this concept is maintained. In Hindu mythology God is described as the Cosmic Dancer and the creation the Dance. This dance exists only as long as the dancer remains active, it cannot be separated from the dancer. However in depictions of this concept all the creation is seen as dancing with God, all that is except Man who is depicted as dancing alone. This image is similarly reflected in Ten Sefriot of the Kabalah, perhaps the oldest and most important scientific diagram in our history, where the Sefriah for Man, Shekhinah, lies outside the rest of the universe, for the ten Sefriot is not only a map of God it is a map of the creation: the two are inseparable.

Whilst it was Georges Lemaître who first proposed the big bang theory it was Edwin Hubble who observed a shift in the spectrum of light, the so called red shift, coming from distant stars and concluded that the universe had and still was expanding from a common single point. Over the last 80 years cosmologist have put together a chronological account of how, from this single non-existent point, the singularity, the universe expanded to form the one we know today. This account is better known as Weinberg's first 3 minutes; since all the major events in the big bang occurred in less than three minutes, for it was in these early moments that the dimensions, the forces and the elementary particles upon which our universe depends came into existence. In Weinberg's first 3 minutes this early process of big bang is broke down into six discrete steps.

The first of Weinberg's steps is known as Before 1 Planck time and covers the period from zero to 10-43 seconds. This is actually a very short space of time, so short that written long hand this interval is a decimal point followed by 43 zeros and a one. It is regarded as the shortest measurable time frame and is named after the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947), a man regarded as the father of quantum physics and one of the most important scientific figures of the 20th Century. Science does not attempt to explain the condition before this point for it was a condition of which we know nothing; in fact a condition of nothing: no space, no time, no matter and no energy. However during this period Space and Time must have emerged since these dimensions needed to be in place for the proceeding events to take place.

The 2nd stage of Weinberg's steps was the Era of 1 Planck time, and it began at 10-43 seconds after the beginning of the expansion or if you prefer explosion (Boom!). This stage is characterized by the differentiation of Gravity from what was at that point a single unified force. This being the first event in a process, which saw the emergence of the four fundamental forces, a process known as spontaneous symmetry breaking. With Gravity differentiated out the remaining three laws emerged as a combined force. Thus with the emergence of Gravity, the Era of 1 Planck Time was passed.

The 3rd stage, at 10-36 seconds, was characterized by the separation of the Strong nuclear forces leaving the remaining two forces combined in a condition known as the Electro-Weak force. At this point the universe being a mere 10-16 meters in diameter was only the size of a proton. In this 3rd step the Strong nuclear forces emerged out of the combined force so that the universe now contained Gravity, the Strong nuclear force and the combined Electro-Weak force. However the universe was either too small or too hot for these final two forces to differentiate, so before the combined Electro-Week force separated out the universe underwent a process known as the initial inflationary period.

This period was characterized by an expansion from <10-16 meters to >2x10-1 meters (20 cm) in diameter. In actual terms expanding from the size of a proton to the size of an orange, still rather small but relatively speaking the universe expanded from the size of a grain of sand to the size of the solar system in an extremely short period of time. Whilst appearing small in comparison with today’s universe this expansion occurred at an unprecedented speed being at over 10,000 times the speed of light. Such an event would cause time to warp, objects, not that there were any but the space they would ultimately occupy would age differently. This rapidly and greatly expanded universe was now large and cool enough to accommodate the two final forces and at 10-32 seconds the Weak nuclear forces began to separated from the Electromagnetic completing the process by the time the universe was 10-12 seconds old.

The Universe had now completed four of the six steps in Weinberg's first 3 minutes and contained the spatial and temporal dimensions and the four fundamental forces but no matter, no substance. If we accept that the original state of the universe, the singularity, was more akin to thought than anything else and that thought still exists then it could be argued that the universe at this tender age was still composed of thought, only this thought had differentiated into the dimensions of space and time and the four fundamental laws of physics.  This is the generally accepted scientific route by which the early universe evolved from the dimensionless singularity to a point in which time, space and the four laws of physics were in existence. This though only accounts for the first trillionth, trillionth, billionth of a second of the early universe.

The universe continued to expand and as it did so it cooled, at 10-5 seconds it took the 5th step with the formation of quarks, the building blocks of atoms, and at 13 seconds the universe had cooled enough for these quarks to form atomic nuclei. It would be another 2 minutes before the universe was dominated by this nuclei completing the final step in Weinberg's first 3 minutes and this is how it would remain for a further 700,000 years. Only then, after it had expanded and cooled for 700,000 years, would it be in a condition where these nuclei would be capable of capturing electrons and to form the first atoms of Hydrogen and Helium. 

 I have in the above explanation added the appearance of time and space as an aspect in the process of Weinberg's first 3 minutes but in all other respects the explanation above is that as currently accepted by the majority of the scientific community. Below the first four of these steps are represented diagrammatically.


 

1a) Before 1 Planck Time (0-10-43 seconds) From the singularity emerge the dimensions of space and time

1b) Just Before 1 Planck Time. Space and Time weave together to form Space- Time

2) Era of 1 Planck Time (10-43 seconds) Into Space-time emerge Gravity and the unified nuclear & electromagnetic forces

3) Separation of the Strong nuclear force (10-43 -10-36 seconds). Early universe now contains Gravity, Strong nuclear and the combined Electro-weak forces.

4a) The initial inflationary period (10-36-10-32 seconds) Universe expands from 10-16 meters to >2x10-1 meters (20 cm). Equivalent to expanding from a grain of sand to the solar system.

4b) Separation of the weak nuclear and the electro-magnetic forces (10-32  -10-12 seconds). Early universe now contains Space-Time and the four separated forces.

 

Whilst this account of the early universe is a product of the 20th century there exists an earlier version, one that was conceptualized at least 1200 years earlier by mystics who inhabited the Neelam Valley of Kashmir.  This diagram is the Sri Chakra of Sharda and it is described as a depiction of Shakti, God, in creation. This Chakra consists of a central core (singularity) surrounded by three circles (Space, Time and the Universe) and four gates (Gravity, Strong Nuclear, Week Nuclear and the Electro-magnetic forces); it is further encapsulated inside 43 triangles. These 43 triangles refer though not to 1 Planck time (10-43 seconds) but to the future stage in the universe’s evolution: the stage we in our time are about to reach. 

 

The Sri Chakra of Sharda (circa 800AD) depicting Shakti in creation and showing the three circles of the creation (Space, Time and the Universe), the central core of the Singularity (God) and the four gates (the four laws of physics) surrounded by 43 triangles (the steps to completion)

 

2: Matter Light Life: The evolution of atomic nuclei

This early universe now contained all the requirements for atomic nuclei to form. Atomic nuclei are perhaps better known as Neutrons and Protons and are the two components that make up all the physical matter in the universe. They are extremely small being only 10-17 meters in diameter and weighing just 1.67 x 10-27 kg. Yet all the mass in our universe is as a result of the collective influence of the neutrons and protons. Whilst these neutrons and protons can be found on our Earth in 96 naturally occurring, and just over 20 manufactured forms as the elements of the periodic table, the over whelming majority of the neutrons and protons in our universe exist only as helium and hydrogen atoms. 

Whilst it subsequently took the early universe some 700,000 years to cool sufficiently for nuclei to capture electrons and form atoms all the nuclei formed within those first three minutes. So whilst the universe is now 13 billion years old all the building blocks for matter and life were in place very soon after the universe first appeared. The building blocks, whether in protons or neutrons, are known as quarks and each nuclei is composed from just three quarks and three gluons. There is a whole family of these quarks and other elementary ‘particles’ but despite their existence in our universe for all but the first two minutes we have only been aware of their existence for less than 80 years. Their extremely small size and the absence of appropriate analytical techniques to study them, has meant that we actually know very little about them at all. Quantum physics, the field of science to which the study of quarks belongs too, is still very much in its infancy and is too highly specialized a field to cover in any detail here.

What can be said is that much of what we do know is theoretical or has been deduced by indirect observation and measurements; for at this level of study scientist are working beyond the boundaries at which analytic instruments can make direct measurements and whilst they can see the consequence of experimentation they cannot see the cause. Therefore much of what we know has been formulated and deduced in the minds of the scientists, a technique not unfamiliar to the mystics.

 

Flavors, colour charge and integer spin.

With much of what we know theorized and many of the observations being made having no equivalent behaviour in the world of classical physics, then describing, qualifying and quantifying quarks has stretched the minds, imagination and vocabulary of those engaged in the field. As a consequence quarks are described in terms of flavor, colour charge and integer spin despite the fact that they have no flavor, are smaller than a photon of light, so not only invisible have no colour, and do not spin, orbit or rotate around anything. That said quarks have so far been identified as coming in six flavours (Up, Down, Strange, Charmed, Top and Bottom), three colours (Red, Green and Blue) and four kinds of spin (0, 1/2, 1/1 and 2/1).

As can be seen the six flavors bear no relation to the more common idea of flavor and the spin looks more like fractions. The flavors are however perhaps better visualized as spatial placement and the spin not as fractions but as degrees, for integer spin is easier to relate to if visualized as the degree a quark must be rotated through to return to its original position. Thus a quark with a 0 spin is always in the same direction, a quark with 1/2 spin must be rotated 180 degrees, a quark with 1/1 spin 360 degrees and a quark with 2/1 spin 720 degrees.  As you can see the quantum world is a very different one to the one we are more used too however the quarks found in neutrons and protons come in only two flavours, Up and Down, three colours and one kind of spin 2/1 (720 degrees). As for the gluons these, as the name implies ‘glue’ the three principle quarks together. The gluons in neutrons and protons come in colour pairs (red/blue, red/green and blue/green) and have an integer spin of 1/1.  

In a neutron there is one Up and two Down quarks whilst a proton has one Down and two Up quarks. In both these three quarks are coloured red, blue and green (thus giving a neutral colour charge) and each has three gluons. So the principle difference between a neutron and proton is the ratio of Up to Down quarks. It is these ‘flavors’ which generate the overall charge of a neutron and proton as Up quarks have a charge of + 2/3 and Down quarks a charge of – 1/3 so that a neutron has a net charge of 0 (+2/3, -1/3, -1/3) and a proton a net charge of 1 (+2/3, +2/3, -1/3). This perhaps all appears quite confusing however there is a way to draw and describe a nuclei that makes this much easier to understand. I call this diagram the quantum plumb

 

­

The quantum plumb diagram of atomic nuclei showing the three colour charges, the flavours as spatial placement, the gluons as bi-coloured rectangles and the integer spin visualised as the route a quark must move through to traverse the nuclei and return to it’s original position; represented here as two rotations, one inside the other. 

  

Whilst the above diagram is useful it is limited in that it is a two-dimensional representation whereas quarks actually occupy or may even generate the three-dimensional space that nuclei occupy. The diagram below is a representation of how the quarks ‘spin’ to generate/occupy three-dimensional space. 

 

A 3-dimensional representation of the quarks in a neutron or proton (atomic nuclei)

Mobius Strip example

Perhaps a better way to visualize these quarks is with the example of the mobius strip, this being a shape with only one side. A loop or a band with half a twist in it represents it well. The mobius strip is easy to construct from a strip of paper into which half a twist is performed before the two ends are joined together to form a loop. If a point is placed on one side and then the band rotated as if a belt then the point travels twice round; half on the outside going in (down), one full turn on the inside (down/up), and half a turn on the outside going out (up); thus going through 720 degrees in that revolution.  If each quark in a nucleus is visualized as a point on a mobius strip then the 2/1 spin is analogues with one rotation. Whilst each quark follows a path on its own mobius strip, so there are three interlocked mobius strips in a nucleus, we only ‘see’ each quark at a specific point and those points in specific places; hence why it is better to visualize the quark as having spatial placement.  Whilst each quark follows its own mobius path route because we only see them at specific points then all three quarks of a nucleus can be visualised as being three points on just one mobius strip.

 

The Mobius strip: a loop (shape) with only one side.

A Mobius strip representation of atomic nuclei with the theoretical position of the quarks on the respective paths. Each quark actually has its own mobius strip and the three are interlocked so as to form trefoil.

 

The colour charge of the three quarks represented by zones on the mobius strip.

Three coloured mobius strips joined to produce a  mobius trefoil. This is perhaps the most accurate representation of how the three quarks interact to produce atomic nuclei

 


In the above diagrams the gluons can be visualised as either the ‘half-twist’ in a single mobius strip or as the three twists of the mobius trefoil. They can similarly be visualised as the ‘twists’ that join the ends together and ‘flip’ the quark onto the reverse face, therefore having an action rather like the points on a railway track. However it is not necessary to include them, just to realize that they are there. 

This quantum mobius strip is similarly very small, so small that if it was any smaller then it wouldn’t be there. The actual thickness of this band is between 10 –16 meters and 10 –17 meters; less than 10-17 is however zero. Therefore whilst the outside diameter of the strip exists the inside diameter doesn’t. At zero space there is the absence of anything, not even a hole. So whilst this mobius strip is theoretically rubber band shaped it is also theoretically a solid; the centre is so small that it doesn’t actually exist, except in theory: in thought. So therefore whilst the above is a fair representation all the below diagrams are equally correct.

 

Four ways to describe the relationship between the inside and outside diameter of a mobius strip representation of the path of the integer spin of a 2/1 quark.

 

In a sense this state of affairs is bought about by the shape having or appearing to have area/volume, but by having only one side neither area or volume can actually be calculated. However when three mobius strips intertwine, as in a nucleus, then that nucleus has three virtual sides and so whilst the individual quarks only have length together they provide the three measurements required to calculate a collective volume. This is why at the quantum level things behave strangely; it is at the point where space is fragmented, where the polar co-ordinates of X, Y, & Z exist independently and in our macro universe space always occupies three-dimensions. Again this state of affairs is easier to communicate if one visualizes each quark as occupying only one polar co-ordinate, having a single spatial placement.  As such only the position of the nucleus formed by the three quarks can be determined in three-dimensional space, the position of a single quark, which occupies only one co-ordinate cannot. 

 

This raises the question; does space exist outside of the atomic nucleus? Answering that question is tricky but the likely answer is yes it does but as independent concepts or planes; 3 single dimensions that when interacting via the quarks in a nucleus create a three dimensional system and hence positional space.  This premise is supported by the fact that protons and neutrons are the only particles that we can actually determine the spatial positions of; for when ever one determines the position of an object, be it a single atom, a cup of coffee or a celestial body, what one is actually determining is the position of the neutrons and protons that the object is composed of. The electrons that also belong to and are as much a part of the object are not however possible to determine a position for. Much of what has been raised here, in particular the study of the mobius strip and trefoil actually belongs to a branch of mathematics known as topology. And this area is further explored in chapter four.

Before moving on to the next phase in the Universe’s evolution it is important to realize that this arrangement of the quarks in the atomic nuclei is highly dynamic. It is not a static arrangement but one akin to a dog chasing its tail, or perhaps more fittingly three dogs chasing each other’s tails. So whilst the nucleus appears to have a trefoil form that trefoil is not stationary but ‘rotating’ though the three polar co-ordinates. In doing so it generates a virtual centre and it is this virtual centre that inhabits the three polar co-ordinates and allows us to locate its position. The diagrams below are an attempt to demonstrate this dynamic nature whist the outer globe in the adjacent diagrams is representative of the size of a nucleus compared to the quarks that make it up; a nucleus being ten times the estimated size of a single quark. 

 

The mobius trefoil of an atomic nucleus showing each quark as occupying a spatial plane and generating a position in the form of a shared centre represented by the grey dot.

The trefoil ‘rotating’ about the virtual centre of the nucleus

The trefoil appearing as a solid object due to the dynamics of the rotation

The trefoil as the quantum plumb and the iris or ‘great eye’ within everything. These are the original diagrams from the lights at Pushkar.

 

 


The Quantum Universe, from darkness to light

Three minutes after the emergence of gravity from the singularity the universe was chiefly composed of atomic nuclei and other quantum particles (electrons, photons, etc). It was however very much smaller and very much hotter than it is today. Precisely how it subsequently evolved following this period is poorly understood but unlike the rapidity of the previous events this evolution would take 700,000 years. During this extended period, photons, as in light, were bound and not, as they are today freely emitted nor were these elementary nuclei capable of capturing electrons and forming atoms. The universe at this time was akin to single dark body of quantum particles, an opaque quantum sea that would exist for 700,000 years before it had expanded and cooled sufficiently (below 3000K) for nuclei to be able to capture electrons and form atoms. Only then would the universe become transparent and light become unbound.

During this period the universe continued to expand and cool with atomic nuclei travelling apart at velocities at or approaching the speed of light. Not until they dropped to below ½ this velocity would the light from one be visible to another. When, after 700,000 years, the universe had slowed and cooled sufficiently the atomic nuclei would capture electrons and photons would become unbound. At this point the universe would have experienced the electromagnetic equivalent of a sonic boom as atoms formed and photons were unleashed; a blinding flash of light would have rocketed across the universe in a process reminiscent of the biblical concept of “let there be light”. From relative darkness the universe would have been flung into a kaleidoscope of light and colour as the electromagnetic spectrum emerged out of the darkness. At the same time neutrons and protons would have begun to capture electrons and the first atoms of hydrogen and helium would evolve, collide and coalesce to form the seeds that would ultimately become the first stars, the early factories that would crush the hydrogen and helium atoms into denser and denser particles and generate the elements and matter that would go to form the universe of today.

To represent this period accurately in a single diagram would result in a kaleidoscopic image of random colours and shapes that whilst artistically appealing would reveal very little from a scientific or communicative perspective. Such a representation would be more akin to Jackson Pollock meets Picasso than a representation of how this universe went from a dark opaque sea of indiscernible quantum particles to the primordial stars bathed in and emitting light; the beginnings of material order.

At this stage the Universe as the fabric of Space Time has appeared or been spoken out of a singularity of nothingness. Into the resulting product the four primary and fundamental forces of Gravity, the Strong nuclear, the Weak nuclear and the Electro-Magnetic have differentiated out and then these forces have organized into the quarks and atomic nuclei necessary for matter, to form a dark, expanding and cooling quantum sea. From an initial process that took just 3 minutes the universe then expanded and cooled in darkness for 700,000 years before becoming illuminated and organized.

At the end of this second expansion period the nuclei begin to capture electrons, organize into atoms and emit light. Then under the forces of gravity those early atoms of helium and hydrogen begin to coalesce into larger bodies and then stars. These early stars then acted as the elemental factories that begin to crush, deform and organize the hydrogen and helium atoms into the heavier elements necessary for the next stage, the formation of life.

 

The quantum sea: a mass of sub atomic particles without form or light

Nuclei begin to capture electrons and photons (light) begins to be emitted

The quantum flash: universe begins to emit light in electromagnetic equivalent of a sonic boom

Atoms begin to pair up and coalesce to form the seeds of stars

The universe begins to differentiate into stars and space creating the familiar electromagnetic spectrum of visible light

The elementary stars begin to organise and manufacture the elements that will ultimately form the periodic table.

        


This point in the evolution of the universe, and the stages that have led to it can now be shown on a single diagram.  A diagram that is composed of the earlier Sri Chakra that depicts the first 3 minutes and the later diagram above depicting the emergence of the visible electromagnetic spectrum.

 

From Big Bang to the point of the emergence of life:

The first 700,000 years of our Universe

 

The above diagram is essentially constructed using the modern scientific account of the evolution of the universe. However just as the Sri Chakra is proposed as evidence of a much earlier understanding of the first three minutes so it is proposed that there similarly exists an ancient diagram of this, the first 700,000 years; and just as the Sri Chakra it is a depiction of God in creation so is this older and more detailed diagram. For this is the diagram of Abraham, a diagram that is perhaps 5000 years old and one that is better known as the Ten Sefriot of the Kabalah.