The Malaysia's Royal

The Sultans of Selangor

The Sultans of Selangor ~ are descended from a Bugis dynasty that claim descent from the rulers of Luwu in the the southern part of Celebes (today known as Sulawesi). Nobles from this bloodline were involved in the dispute over the Johor-Riau Sultanate in the early 18th century, eventually placing their full support in the cause of Sultan Abdul Jalil of the Bendahara dynasty against the claimant to the Malaccan lineage, Raja Kechil. For this reason, the Bendahara rulers of Johor-Riau established close relations with the Bugis nobles, providing them with titles and control over many areas within the empire, including Selangor. Daeng Chelak's prince, Raja Lumu arrived in Selangor and founded a new government at Kuala Selangor in 1766. He was installed by the Sultan of Perak as Sultan Salehuddin Shah and became the first Sultan of Selangor.

List of Sultans of Selangor

  • Sultan Salahuddin Shah (Raja Lumu; 1745-1778)
  • Sultan Ibrahim Shah (Raja Ibrahim; 1778-1826)
  • Sultan Muhammad Shah (Raja Muhammad; 1826-1857)
  • Sultan Sir Abdul Samad (Raja Abdul Samad; 1857-1896)
  • Sultan Sir Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah (Tengku Sulaiman Shah; 1896-1937)
  • Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Alam Shah; 1937-1942, 1945-1960)
  • Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah (Tengku Musaeddin; during Japanese occupation 1942-1945)
  • Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Abdul Aziz Shah; 1960-2001)
  • Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj (Tengku Idris Shah; 2001-current)


The Sultans of Perak

Sultan of Perak  ~ is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states.When the Sultanate of Malacca empire fell to Portugal in 1511, Sultan Mahmud Syah I retreated to Kampar, Sumatra and died there in 1528. He left behind two princes named Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II and Sultan Muzaffar Syah. The former later went to establish the Sultanate of Johor. Meanwhile Muzaffar Syah was invited to rule Perak and hence, he became the first sultan of Perak. The current sultan of Perak is the descendant of the last Sultan of Malacca.

List of Sultans of Perak

  1. Sultan Muzaffar Shah I Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah of Melaka (1528 - 1549)
  2. Sultan Mansur Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah (1549 - 1577)
  3. Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mansur Shah (1577 - 1584)
  4. Sultan Tajul Ariffin Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mansur Shah (1584 - 1594)
  5. Sultan Alauddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Raja Kecil Lasa Inu (1594 - 1603)
  6. Sultan Mukaddam Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Shah (1609 - 1619)
  7. Sultan Mansur Shah II Ibni Almarhum Raja Kecil Lasa Inu (1619 - 1627)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Shah (1627 - 1630)
  9. Sultan Sallehuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Shah (1630 - 1636)
  10. Sultan Muzaffar Shah II Ibni Almarhum Raja Mahmud of Siak (1636 - 1654)
  11. Sultan Mahmud Iskandar Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1654 - 1720)
  12. Sultan Alauddin Mughayat Shah Ibni Almarhum Yang Dipertuan Muda Mansur Shah (1720 - 1728)
  13. Sultan Muzaffar Shah III Ibni Almarhum Sultan Khalifah Sharif Abu Bakar Shah (1728 - 1752) {*Ruled Upper Perak}
  14. Sultan Muhammad Shah Ibni Almarhum Yang Dipertuan Muda Mansur Shah (1744 - 1750) {*Ruled Lower Perak}
  15. Sultan Iskandar Zulkarnain Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah (1752 - 1765)
  16. Sultan Mahmud Shah II Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah (1765 - 1773)
  17. Sultan Alauddin Mansur Shah Iskandar Muda Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah (1773 - 1786)
  18. Sultan Ahmaddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Muhammad Shah (1786 - 1806)
  19. Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ahmaddin Shah (1806 - 1825)
  20. Sultan Abdullah Muazzam Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Malik Mansur Shah (1825 - 1830)
  21. Sultan Shahabuddin Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Inu (1830 - 1851)
  22. Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah I Ibni Almarhum Raja Kecil Bongsu Abdul Rahman (1851 - 1857)
  23. Sultan Jaafar Muazzam Shah Ibni Al Marhum Sultan Syed Alang Alauddin of Panglima Bukit Gantang (1857 - 1865)
  24. Sultan Ali Al-Mukammal Inayat Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Shahabuddin Shah (1865 - 1871)
  25. Sultan Ismail Muabiddin Riayat Shah Ibni Almarhum Syed Sheikh Al-Khairat, Siak (1871 - 1874)
  26. Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah II Ibni Almarhum Sultan Jaafar Muazzam Shah (1874 - 1876)
  27. Sultan Yusuf Sharifuddin Muzaffar Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Shah I (1886 - 1887)
  28. Sultan Idris Murshidul Azam Shah Ibni Almarhum Raja Bendahara Alang Iskandar (1887 - 1916)
  29. Sultan Abdul Jalil Nasiruddin Al-Mukhataram Karamatullah Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Rahmatullah Shah (1916 - 1918)
  30. Sultan Iskandar Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Idris Rahmatullah Shah (1918 - 1938)
  31. Sultan Abdul Aziz Al-Mutasim Billah Shah Ibni Almarhum Raja Muda Musa (1938 - 1948)
  32. Sultan Yusuf Izzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Jalil Radziallah Shah (1948 - 1963)
  33. Sultan Idris Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Shah Kadassallah (1963 - 1984)
  34. Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Yusuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullah (1984 - present)

The Sultans of Kedah

The Sultanate of Kedah  ~ was the earliest sultanate in the Malay Peninsula and arguably the earliest in Southeast Asia founded in year 1136. Kingdom (630-1136) was founded by Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron around 630 CE and the Hinduism dynasty ended with Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam.

In the early 11th century, inscriptions indicate that ties of friendship still existed between Chola and Kadaram of Srivijaya, however the commercial monopoly claimed by the Srivijayan Maharajas led to their friendship ended. The first Chola attack began in the year 1025, Rajendra's army sack Kadaram and the Srivijaya capital and took the Srivijaya king Sangrama Vijayottungavarman captive. The kingdom was restored to him only after he acknowledged Chola suzerainty. The aim of the Cholas was probably just to force the empire to open its shipping lanes as Srivijaya was some 1,500 miles remote and difficult to control. Recovered Tamil inscriptions from the region show that there was Chola military presence till at least year 1088 in the Malay archipelago.

Scholars like R.C. Majumdar think that the emperor despatched more than one expedition to humble the Srivijayas, with 13 towns in the archipelago sacked by the Cholas has come from Rajendra's own inscriptions with six located on the Malay peninsula, four on Sumatra, the other being the Nicobar islands. Paul Wheatley have been sceptical of Rajendra's claims about the number of towns his army sacked, but most agree that a raid did take place.

George Spencer pointed out that the campaign is plausible because it fits the Chola pattern of compulsive expansion in this period, fits the aim of Rajendra to exceed his father's accomplishments and fits the persistent Chola need to locate fresh sources of plunder or tribute. There is evidence to show that the king of Kambujadesa sent a chariot to the Chola, probably to appease him so that his strategic attention does not extend further than the Malay peninsula.

Denounced Hinduism

In the late 11th century, war infested Srivijaya sent ambassadors from Jambi and Palembang to China to seek peace solution against the Chola attack with newly emerging Jambi muslims sent two more ambassadors to China in 1082 and 1088. This suggests that the power frequently shifted between Jambi and Palembang. Right after the Chola military left Kadaram, the 9th Hindu Rajah of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa denounced the traditional Hinduism caste system and he converted to Islam introduced by Muslims from neighboring Aceh, he also changed his name to Sultan Mudzafar Shah. He ruled the northern region of Malay Peninsula from 1136 to 1179. According to the Kedah Annals, the first Raja of Kedah was Maharaja Derbar Raja, a fleeing king from Gameron of Persia.


Around 170 CE a group of native refugees of Hindu faith arrived at Kedah, joining them soon were peoples from nearby islands and from the northern Mon-Khmer region. Ancient Kedah covered the areas of Kuala Bahang, Kuala Bara, Kuala Pila and Merpah, and the inhabitants of Kedah appointed Tun Derma Dewa and Tun Perkasa as their village chiefs.

The king from Gemeron

In the year 630 CE, Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gemeron (now known as Bandar Abbas) in Persia was defeated in battle and escaped to Sri Lanka, and he was later blown off course by a storm to the remote shores of Kuala Sungai Qilah, Kedah. The inhabitants of Kedah found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, and they made him the king of Kedah. In the year 634 CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu faith, the capital was Langkasuka.


The Nobat musical instruments of Nagara and Nepiri were introduced to Kedah by Maharaja Derbar Raja. The instrument is also called semambu. The band is led by the king, and it consists of drums, a gong, a flute and a trumpet. Today, Nobat is a Royal orchestra, played only during royal ceremonies such as inaugurations, weddings, and funerals. The building which houses the instruments and where the ensemble rehearses is known as the Balai Nobat, literally the Office of Nobat.

List of Sultans of Kedah

This is a list of Sultans of Kedah. Dates of reign are given beside the names of each sultan.

  • Sultan Muzaffar Shah I (1160-1179)
  • Sultan Muazzam Shah (1179-1201)
  • Sultan Mohammed Shah (1201-1236)
  • Sultan Maazul Shah (1236-1280)
  • Sultan Mahmud Shah I (1280-1320)
  • Sultan Ibrahim Shah (1320-1373)
  • Sultan Sulaiman Shah I (1373-1422)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah (1422-1472)
  • Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin I (1472-1506)
  • Sultan Mahmud Shah II (1506-1546)
  • Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1546-1602)
  • Sultan Sulaiman Shah II (1602-1625)
  • Sultan Rijaluddin Shah (1625-1651)
  • Sultan Muhiyuddin Shah (1651-1661)
  • Sultan Ziauddin Al-Mukarram Shah (1661-1687)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed Shah II (1687-1698)
  • Sultan Abdullah I Al-Muazzam Shah (1698-1706)
  • Sultan Ahman Tajuddin Halim Shah I (1706-1709)
  • Sultan Abdullah II (1709-1723)
  • Sultan Atadullah Muhammed III (1723-1741)
  • Sultan Muhammed Jiwa Zainal Abidin II (1741-1778)
  • Sultan Abdullah Makarram Shah III (1778-1797)
  • Sultan Ziyauddin Mukarram Shah II (1797-1803)
  • Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin II Halim Shah (1803-1843)
  • Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah II (1843-1854)
  • Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin III Mukarram Shah (1854-1879)
  • Sultan Zainal Rashid Muadzam Shah III (1879-1881)
  • Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Shah (1881-1943)
  • Sultan Badli Shah (1943-1958)
  • Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah (1958-)

The Sultans of Johor

The Sultanate of Johor (or sometimes Johor-Riau or Johor-Riau-Lingga) was founded by Malaccan Sultan Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah in 1528. Johor was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511. At its height, the sultanate controlled modern-day Johor, Riau and parts of southeastern Sumatra. In 1946, it became part of the Malayan Union. Two years later, it joined the Federation of Malaya and subsequently, the Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

Fall of Malacca and Sultan Mahmud Shah

In 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese and Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese position.

Based at Pekan Tua, Sungai Telur, Johor, the Johor Sultanate was founded by Raja Ali Ibni Sultan Mahmud Melaka, known as Sultan Alauddin Kiayat Shah (1528–1564), with his Queen Tun Fatimah in 1528. Although Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah and his successor had to contend with attacks by the Portuguese in Malacca and by the Acehnese in Sumatra, they managed to maintain their hold on the Johor Sultanate.

Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship and it helped to convince the Portuguese to destroy the exiled sultan's forces. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra and died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah.

Muzaffar Shah continued on to establish Perak while Alauddin Riayat Shah became the first sultan of Johor.

Triangular war

The new sultan established a new capital by the Johor River and from there, continued to harass the Portuguese in the north. He consistently worked together with his brother in Perak and the sultan of Pahang to retake Malacca, which by this time was protected by the fort A Famosa.

On the northern part of Sumatra around the same period, Aceh was beginning to gain substantial influence over the Straits of Malacca. With the fall of Malacca to Christians' hands, Muslim traders often skipped Malacca in favor of Aceh. Therefore, Malacca and Aceh became direct competitors.

With the Portuguese and Johor frequently locking horns, Aceh launched multiple raids against both sides in order to tighten its grip on the straits. The rise of Aceh encouraged the Portuguese and Johor to sign a truce and divert their attention to Aceh. The truce, however, was short-lived and with Aceh severely weakened, Johor and the Portuguese had each other in their sights again.

Dutch Malacca

In the early 17th century, the Dutch reached Southeast Asia. The Dutch were no friend of the Portuguese and allied themselves with Johor (responsible was Pieter Willemsz. Verhoeff in 1608). Finally in 1641, the Dutch and Johor defeated the Portuguese. Malacca hence became a Dutch territory and remained so until the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 was signed.

Johor-Jambi war

During the triangular war, within the Johor empire, Jambi emerged as a regional economic and political power. Soon in 1666, it tried to break free from Johor and between 1666 and 1673, a civil war erupted between Johor and the Sumatran state. The war was disastrous for Johor as Johor's capital, Batu Sawar, was sacked by Jambi. After the sack, the capital of Johor was frequently moved to avoid the threat of attack from Jambi.

In their efforts to keep the sultanate together, the ruler's shifted their centre of power many times from Pekan Tua to Johor Lama (Kota Batu), Seluyut, Tanah Puteh, Batu Sawar and Makam Tauhid during the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III (1623–1677). Johor emerged as the most powerful authority along the Straits of Malacca during the reign of Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III. He aided the Dutch to defeat the Portuguese and as a result of his good relationship, Johor's trade along the Straits of Malacca was left undisturbed.

Throughout the decade, Jambi continued to exert extraordinary influence on Johor. In 1679 however, Laksamana Tun Abdul Jalil paid Bugis mercenaries to fight alongside Johor against Jambi. Soon afterward, Jambi was brought to its knees.

Bugis and Minangkabau infiltration

Sultan Mahmud Shah II of Johor died in 1699 without an heir. The problem was quickly solved when the viceroy Bendahara Abdul Jalil declared himself the new sultan and called himself Sultan Abdul Jalil IV. Many however felt that the declaration was illegal.

The Bugis, which played an important role in defeating Jambi two decades earlier, had a huge influence in Johor. Apart from the Malays, another influential faction in Johor at that time was the Minangkabau. Both the Bugis and the Minangkabau realized how the death of Sultan Mahmud II had provided them with the chance to exert power in Johor. The Minangkabau introduced a Minangkabau prince, Raja Kecil from Siak who claimed he was the posthumous son of Sultan Mahmud II. The prince met with the Bugis and promised the Bugis wealth and political power if they helped the prince to win the throne. However, Raja Kecil broke his promise and installed himself as the new sultan of Johor (Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah) without the knowledge of the Bugis. Sultan Abdul Jalil IV fled to Pahang where he was later killed by an assassin hired by Raja Kecil.

Dissatisfied with Raja Kecil's accession, the son of Sultan Abdul Jalil IV, Raja Sulaiman, asked Daeng Parani of the Bugis to aid him in his quest to reclaim the throne. In 1722, Raja Kecil was dethroned by Raja Sulaiman's supporters with Bugis assistance. Raja Sulaiman became the new Sultan of Johore, but he was a weak ruler and became a puppet of the Bugis. Daeng Parani's brother, Daeng Merewah, who was made Yam Tuan Muda (crown prince) was the man who actually controlled Johor.

Johor administration

The Johor Sultanate continued the system of administration previously practised in Malacca. The highest authority lay in the hands of the Yang di-Pertuan who was known as the Sultan. The Sultan was assisted by a body known as the Majlis Orang Kaya (Council of Rich Men) which was tasked with advising the Sultan. Among them were the treasurer, Temenggong, Laksamana, Shahbandar and Seri Biji Diraja. During the 18th century, the Treasurer of Johor lived in Pahang and the Temenggong Johor in Teluk Belanga, Singapore. Each one managed the administration of their individual areas based on the level of authority bestowed upon them by the Sultan of Johor. Johor's centre of administration was initially based on the mainland of Johor. It then shifted to Bintan Island and then to Lingga. When the Sultanate split up on 17 March 1824 after the London Treaty or Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824, the centre of administration was in Singapore. It then shifted to Tanjung Puteri, known today as Johor Bahru. Meanwhile, the Lingga-Riau administration was based at Lingga Island.

Singapore and the British

Sultans of Johor Reign
Alauddin Riayat Shah II 1528 - 1564
Muzaffar Shah II 1564 - 1570
Abdul Jalil Shah I 1570 - 1571
Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II 1571 - 1597
Alauddin Riayat Shah III 1597 - 1615
Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah 1615 - 1623
Abdul Jalil Shah III 1623 - 1677
Ibrahim Shah 1677 - 1685
Mahmud Shah II 1685 - 1699
Abdul Jalil IV (Bendahara Abdul Jalil) 1699 - 1720
Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah (Raja Kecil) 1718 - 1722
Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah 1722 - 1760
Abdul Jalil Muazzam Shah 1760 - 1761
Ahmad Riayat Shah 1761 - 1761
Mahmud Shah III 1761 - 1812
Abdul Rahman Muazzam Shah 1812 - 1819
Hussein Shah (Tengku Long) 1819 - 1835
Ali 1835 - 1877
Raja Temenggung Tun Ibrahim 1855 - 1862
Abu Bakar 1862 - 1895
Ibrahim 1895 - 1959
Ismail 1959 - 1981
Mahmud Iskandar Al-Haj 1981 - current

In 1818, Sir Stamford Raffles was appointed as the governor of Bencoolen on western Sumatra. However, he was convinced that the British needed to establish a new base in Southeast Asia in order to compete with the Dutch. Though many in the British East India Company opposed such an idea, Raffles managed to convince Lord Hastings of the Company, then Governor General of British India, to side with him. With the governor general's consent, he and his expedition set out to search for a new base.

Raffles' expedition arrived in Singapore on January 29, 1819. He discovered a small Malay settlement at the mouth of Singapore River headed by a Temenggung (governor) of Johor. Though the island was nominally ruled by the sultanate, the political situation there was extremely murky. The current sultan, Tengku Abdul Rahman, was under the influence of the Dutch and the Bugis. Hence, he would never agree to a British base in Singapore.

However, Tengku Abdul Rahman was ruler only because his older brother, Tengku Hussein or Tengku Long, had been away in Penang getting married when their father died in 1812. According to Malay tradition, a person has to be by the dying sultan's side in order to be considered as the new ruler. Predictably, the older brother was not happy with the development. Furthermore, the Temenggung preferred Tengku Hussein to the younger brother.

Upon learning of these Johor political tensions, Raffles made a deal with Tengku Hussein. Their agreement stated that the British would acknowledge Tengku Hussein as the legitimate ruler of Johor, and thus Tengku Hussein and the Temenggung would receive a yearly stipend from the British. In return, Tengku Hussein would allow Raffles to establish a trading post in Singapore. This treaty was ratified on February 6, 1819.

With the Temenggung's help, Raffles managed to smuggle Hussein, then living in exile on one of the Riau Islands, back into Singapore.

The Dutch were extremely displeased with Raffles' action. Tensions between the Dutch and British over Singapore persisted until 1824, when they signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty. Under the terms of that treaty, the Dutch officially withdrew their opposition to the British presence in Singapore. The treaty divided the Sultanate of Johor into modern Johor and the state of Riau-Lingga.

In the newly-formed Johor, although Tengku Hussein was the sultan, it was the Temenggung who wielded real authority. The Bugis, on the other hand, controlled Riau under the auspices of the Dutch.


In 1855, under a treaty between the British in Singapore and Sultan Ali of Johor, the control over the state was formally ceded to Temenggung Ibrahim, with the exception of Muar. Muar was later handed over to the Temenggung's control in 1877; this later contributed to the Jementah Civil War. Temenggung Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri in southern Johor as a major city. Bandar Tanjung Puteri would later be known as Johor Bahru.

Temenggung Ibrahim was succeeded by his son, Temenggung Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1866, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar introduced a constitution known as Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor and developed an efficient administration system. He also moved the official capital city of Johor to Johor Bahru and ordered the construction of Istana Besar, the official residence of the sultan in the city. Due to these achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title "Father of Modern Johor".

Johor also enjoyed economic prosperity. An increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor's initial economic base. The Kangchu system was put in place.

In 1914, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar's successor, was forced to accept a British Resident and effectively became a crown colony of the Britain. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British advisor to Johor.

World War II and Malaysia

The Second World War broke out in 1939 and Japan invaded British Malaya in December 1941. The British, who were responsible for Johor's defense, were swiftly defeated by the Japanese and retreated to Singapore to make a stand. Japan occupied Johor from 1942 to 1945. Singapore fell to the Japanese on February 15 1942.

With the end of the war, the British came back and in 1946, Johor became part of the Malayan Union. Opposition to the Union by Malay nationalists, led by Dato' Onn Jaafar, however forced its dissolution and in 1948, the state joined a new federation called Malaya. It achieved independence in 1957 along with the rest of the Malay Peninsula, and later in 1963, it was one of the fourteen states that formed Malaysia.

The Sultans of Terengganu

Sultan of Terengganu is the title of the constitutional head of Terengganu state in Malaysia. The current sultan, Mizan Zainal Abidin, is the seventeenth Sultan of Terengganu. He is the Head of the Religion of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities in the state.

List of sultans

  • 1725-1733: Zainal Abidin I
  • 1733-1793: Mansur Shah I
  • 1793-1808: Zainal Abidin II
  • 1808-1830: Ahmad Shah I
  • 1830-1831: Abdul Rahman
  • 1831 (jointly): Umar and Mansur Shah II
  • 1831-1837: Mansur Shah II
  • 1837-1839: Muhammad Shah I
  • 1839-1876: Umar
  • 1876: Mahmud Shah
  • 1876-1881: Ahmad Muadzam Shah II
  • 1881-1918: Zainal Abidin III
  • 1918-1920: Muhammad Shah II
  • 1920-1942: Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah
  • 1942-1945: Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah Ali
  • 1945-1979: Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
  • 1979-1998: Mahmud al-Muktafi Billah Shah
  • 1998-Now: Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin

The Sultans of Kelantan

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Al-Sultan Ismail Petra ibni Almarhum Al-Sultan Yahya Petra is the Sultan of Kelantan, Malaysia since March 30, 1980. His father is the previous sultan, Sultan Yahya Petra and his mother is Tengku Zainab. His wife is Duli Yang Maha Mulia Raja Perempuan Tengku Anis Binti Tengku Abdul Hamid.

Marriage and children

Together, the Sultan and Raja Perempuan have 4 children:

  • HRH Crown Prince Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra
  • HRH Tengku Muhammad Faiz Petra
  • HRH Tengku Muhammad Fakhry Petra
  • HRH Tengku Amalin A'Ishah Putri


Sultan Ismail Petra was born on November 11, 1949 in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. He was a son of Sultan Yahya Petra and Almarhum Raja Perempuan Zainab II

Sultan Ismail's early education was at Sultan Ismail College, Kota Bharu and later on through special teacher at the Kota Bharu palace.


The Sultans of Pahang

Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang

Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
Reign 29 March 1979 - 25 April 1984
Predecessor Yahya Petra of Kelantan
Successor Iskandar of Johor
Sultan of Pahang
Reign 7 May 1974 - Present
Predecessor Abu Bakar of Pahang
Spouse Tengku Ampuan Afzan (d. 1988)
Sultanah Kalsom
Tengku Abdullah
Father Sultan Ismail
Mother Sultanah Ungku Tun Aminah
Born October 24, 1930 (1930-10-24) (age 78)
Pekan, Pahang

In full, Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Mustain Billah ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah (born October 24, 1930 at Istana Mangga Tunggal, Pekan) was the seventh Yang di-Pertuan Agong (roughly equivalent to King) of Malaysia from March 29, 1979 to April 25, 1984, and fifth Sultan of modern Pahang.

Born Tengku Ahmad Shah, he was the only son of Sultan Sir Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassimu Billah Shah (reigned 1932-1974) by his official and royal consort, Tengku Ampuan Besar Fatimah binti Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Kadasallah Shah.

A student of the Malay College Kuala Kangsar, he received diplomas in public administration from Worcester College, Oxford and Exeter University. He succeeded his father as sultan in 1974.

His election as Yang di-Pertuan Agong in 1979 was marked with controversy as he was said to be at odds with the incoming prime minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. However, the rumours proved to be untrue and he proved to be a keen admirer of the prime minister.

A controversial, headstrong personality, he has often forced his chief ministers to resign over minor differences.

His favourite hobby was playing football, golf, polo, and equestrian.

Sultan Ahmad Shah is a keen sportsman and President of the Malaysian Football Association (FAM) and President of Asian Football Confederation (AFC) until 2002.

His official and royal consort, Tengku Ampuan Afzan binti Tengku Panglima Perang Muhammad, a member of the Terengganu royal family, served as his Raja Permaisuri Agong but died of cancer on her return to Pahang on June 29, 1988. Sultan Ahmad Shah's junior wife Kalsom binti Abdullah (nee Anita), was designated as the Sultanah of Pahang in 1991.


As the Yang di-Peruan Agong from 1979 to 1984, Sultan Iskandar was automatically designated under constitutional provisions as the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces, holding the rank of the Field Marshal of the Royal Malaysian Air Force, Admiral of the Royal Malaysian Navy and Field Marshal of the Army.

The Raja Of Perlis


Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia
Reign 13 December 2001 - 12 December 2006
Predecessor Salahuddin of Selangor
Successor Mizan Zainal Abidin of Terengganu
Raja of Perlis
Reign 17 April 2000 - Present
Predecessor Tuanku Syed Putra
Spouse Tengku Fauziah binti Almarhum Tengku Abdul Rashid
Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra
Sharifah Fazira
Father Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail
Mother Tengku Budriah binti Almarhum Tengku Ismail
Born 17 May 1943 (1943-05-17) (age 65)
Arau, Perlis

Duli Yang Maha Mulia Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail is the second of ten children of HRH Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail and Tengku Budriah binti Almarhum Tengku Ismail. He was born in Arau, Perlis on 17 May 1943. He served as the 12th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 13 December 2001 to 12 December 2006. He is the current Raja of Perlis, serving since 17 April 2000.


Early life and education

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin studied at the Arau Malay School until standard two, then from 5 January 1950 he continued his primary education at Wellesley Primary School in Penang followed by Westland Primary School until the end of 1955. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin began his secondary education at Penang Free School on 9 January 1956 and later left for England to study at Wellingborough School for four years until 1963. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin also underwent training as a Cadet Officer at the Royal Military Academy in Sandhurst, England from January 1964 until December 1965.

Career before becoming Raja

Upon his return from England, Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin served with the Ministry of Defence Malaysia. The first post held by Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was as Second Lieutenant in the 2nd Regiment of the Malaysian Reconnaissance Corps (12 December 1965). In 1966, he was transferred to Sabah and then to Sarawak in 1967. He then served in Pahang for several years until he resigned on 31 December 1969 to return to Perlis. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant in December 1967.

In 1970, Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin served in the armed forces again, as Captain of the Local Territorial Army from 16 November 1970 until 1 October 1972. He was later promoted to the rank of Major on 1 October 1972. Presently, he is the Commanding Officer of Regiment 504 of the Army Reserve Unit with the rank of Colonel.

Raja of Perlis

In October 1960, he was appointed the Raja Muda (Crown Prince) of Perlis while still a student. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail was installed as the twelfth ruler of Perlis on 17 April 2000, the day after his father, Tuanku Syed Putra ibni Almarhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, who had been Raja since 1945, and at that time the world's longest reigning monarch, died.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was elected the 12th Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia on 13 December 2001. This was earlier than expected because the Sultan of Selangor and the previous 11th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj, died on November 21, 2001 while his term should have ended in 2004. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin's term ended on December 12, 2006.

Personal life

On 15 February 1967 he married Tengku Fauziah binti Almarhum Tengku Abdul Rashid D.K., S.S.P.J., S.P.M.P., daughter of Tengku Abdul Rashid ibni Almarhum Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah of Terengganu, by his wife Tengku Kembang Puteri binti Almarhum Sultan Ibrahim Petra of Kelantan, who became the Raja Puan Muda of Perlis. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was appointed for the first time as the Regent of Perlis when HRH the Raja of Perlis and HRH the Raja Perempuan of Perlis travelled to the United States and Europe from 23 June 1967 until 24 October 1967. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin has one son, Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra who was born on 30 December 1967 and a daughter Sharifah Fazira, born on 5 June 1973.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin has travelled to many countries including United Kingdom, France, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Egypt, Spain, Libya, Holland, Belgium, Thailand and Saudi Arabia.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin interacts frequently with his people through various fields, among which are:

i) Chairman of the Rayuan Binaan Wisma Pahlawan Negeri Perlis and Chairman of the Exhibition Committee of the Malaysian Royal Armed Forces in Perlis on 1 April 1971.
ii) Chairman of the Association of Malaysian Ex-Servicemen, Perlis branch for five years.
iii) Chairman of the Rayuan Derma Hari Pahlawan Negeri Perlis since 1972.
iv) Patron of 4B Youth Movement of Perlis.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin is also active in sports. Among his favourite sports are golf, tennis, football and is a fan of Tottenham Hotspur football club. He has been the Chairman of Putra Golf Club, Perlis since May 1971, and the patron of the Association of Football Referees of Perlis since 1967. He was also the Chairman of the Football Association of Perlis for 18 years.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin is renowned for his dedication towards his people and takes great interest in education. With the establishment of the Tuanku Syed Putra Foundation in 1986, many Perlis students have been able to further their studies locally and abroad. Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin is the Chairman of this Foundation.

Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin became directly involved in religious affairs when he was appointed President of the Islamic Council of Perlis by the late Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra, the then ruler of Perlis, Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin is especially concerned that the religious affairs of the state are based on the ‘Ahlis Sunnah Waljamaah’ doctrine. In this regard, Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin is constantly in touch with the religious leaders of Perlis.