Madiha Afzal is a Non-Resident Fellow at the Brookings Institution, a consultant athe World Bank, and an Adjunct Assistant Professor of Global Policy at Johns Hopkins SAIS. Previously, she was Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, College Park. She is also a Research Fellow at the Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland, the Center for Economic Research in Pakistan, and the Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives (IDEAS) in Pakistan. 

She is the author of Pakistan Under Siege: Extremism, Society, and the State (Brookings Press (US); Penguin Random House India (South Asia and Afghanistan), 2018). Her work examines the roots of intolerance, extremism, and anti-Americanism in Pakistan; the links between education and radicalization in Pakistan; and elections, voter behavior and legislator performance in Pakistan. Dr. Afzal has published in Public Choice, and is the author of a USIP special report on Education and Attitudes in PakistanDr. Afzal writes regularly for Pakistani and international publications, including Dawn, The Express Tribune, The Cairo Review, Brookings blogs, Foreign Policy, Newsweek, the Friday Times, etcShe has been interviewed by BBC World News, BBC radio, VOA, CNN.com, NPR, and various other outlets. For her writing on education in Pakistan, she was named to Lo Spazio della Politica's list of Top 100 Global Thinkers of 2013Dr. Afzal has also been a consultant for the World Bank and DfiD, and a Visiting Research Fellow with IFPRI's Pakistan Strategy Support Program. 

She received her PhD in Economics from Yale University in 2008, specializing in Development Economics and Political Economy. Her dissertation examined voter rationality and legislator behavior in Pakistan and India. She received her Bachelor's degree in Economics (with minors in Computer Science and Mathematics) from the Lahore University of Management Sciences in 2002, where she was ranked first in her graduating class. She grew up in Lahore, Pakistan; Boston, Massachusetts; and Montreal, Canada.