Carolina, to eight proprietors. Proprietors are like governors except they had ownership of the land and they gave parcels of it out--larger pieces to wealthier men, but small ones to anyone who agreed to come and clear it for farming.
Carolina attracted British settlers, French Protestants and Americans from northern Colonies as well. In 1712, the northern two thirds of the region was divided into two colonies, North Carolina and South Carolina. North Carolina developed as a colony of small farms and active fur trading activity. In South Carolina, wealthy landowners established rice and indigo plantations. The plantations required many laborers and landowners filled this need by bringing many blacks to the colony as slaves. Charleston SC became a rich seaport.
The southern third of Carolina was mostly unsettled until James Oglethorpe of England founded Georgia in 1733. He'd hoped Georgia would become a colony of small farms but by 1750, Georgia law had been changed to allow settlers to bring in slaves and so plantations soon developed.David Shelton Mansion, refurbished most recently by a Maddox.
This section of the Maddox Family Website contains stories based on
from readers whose ancestors lived in the South. Many of these stories,
submitted by Dorothy Maddox Bishop, reflect the live and times of
during both good times and economic depression. It is a part
of the saga of America, and it is how your ancestors lived.
The Civil War - disaster for the SouthThe South fought valiantly to defend its cause--first gaining the upper hand in a series of impressive victories. But the north had more manpower and much more industry. So eventually the North turned the tide and on April 9, 1865, Confederate commander Robert E Lee surrendered at Appomattox, Virginia. The battles were all over the South, primarily, so the South bore the brunt of the destruction. Confederate soldiers served proudly and their descendants honor them today as all descendants honor those who defended their homes. General Lee and Confederate President Jefferson Davis as well as several generals have been considered Southern heroes, no matter the outcome. The Confederate Battle Flag is held in high honor by many whites in the southern states. Yet the South paid a terrible price in both lives and property damage. Life for Southerners of the period was never the same again. (Pictured at right, a painting of (Confederate General) Picketts's Charge, Battle of Gettysburg, one of the bloodiest battles and a turning point in the war in favor of the North.) Sherman's March to the Sea" when his army trekked after sacking Atlanta, across Georgia, down to Savannah on the coast, up through South Carolina, and then northward into North Carolina. Thousands of rebel soldiers who did return home, found them utterly destroyed. Times were hard and stayed that way for a very long time. Pictured here: an early photo of the destruction at Richmond, named the Confederate capital, after Union soldiers destroyed the city. This link to "the Civil War" on Wikipedia will be a more liberal view of the War, not necessarily the way many white, older Southerners may still view it. Reconstruction. The war and the years following it were times of poverty for so many Southerners whose towns and plantations were destroyed. If they weren't destroyed, their economies were, and so times were hard. And it was also a time of great bitterness and division between the two sides. Northerners came down to change things, some carrying carpetbag luggage. (That's where the word 'carpetbaggers' originated--meaning outsiders arriving and up to no good.) The last federal troops left the South in 1877. Reconstruction as a political and economic policy from Washington was only partly successful. It brought some rights for the former slaves and set up public schools, but the old social order returned to the South--an order of white supremacy which would haunt the nation and take a century to overcome. Ku Klux Klan emerged originally to scare blacks from voting and preventing change of the established Southern ways favoring the European white culture. Some Southerners still maintain today the Klansmen's role behind their white sheets of anonymity was only political and relatively harmless. But there has been enough evidence to show that the Klan was, in fact, a terrorist organization responsible for widespread murder and violence against Negroes and it was rarely prosecuted. It was common belief, though not documented, that the Klan killed thousands of blacks and abolitionists over the decades. And the local white establishment looked the other way so there was no justice to punish the wrong-doers.
True or not, many freed blacks migrated from the South to northern cities during these difficult years. The Klan's influence has largely diminished today and the remnants of it do not hold much respect as attitudes have changed. Much more equality for the large black population came in the late 20th century. This came after confrontational marches by blacks, enforced voting rights, and additional federal laws were passed. Sometimes it took Federal troops and threats to enforce the laws before real justice came. In short, the white Southerners did not give up their privileges willingly. (Pictured here: drawing of two Klansmen seized by officials.)Atlanta, Georgia and other emerging cities have become affluent and modern, rising above the destruction left by the armies of the North so long ago. There remain somewhat sleepy communities in the southern states, surrounded by poor farmers, both black and white. Many Southerners are still sensitive about the divisions and economic imbalances and many still consider northern Yankees outsiders. Even so, they have struggled to modernize and are achieving more success each decade. Southern leaders today work hard to attract new industry to continue the modernization. The physical differences in regions of the US are not nearly so noticeable today as they were just a generation ago.
While most of the wounds have healed, Southerners have held some of their traditions dear--a more relaxed and genteel way of life and what Southerners call 'Southern hospitality'. Life is a little less frantic than other places in America and Southerners are very comfortable with that. There remains a strong regional pride and conservatism. It is uniqu